• To take the test online, go to our secure Web site at http://www.nursingcenter.com/ce/ajn .
• To use the form provided in this issue, record your answers in the test answer section of the CE enrollment form below. Each question has only one correct answer. You may make copies of the form.
• Complete the registration information and course evaluation. Mail the completed enrollment form and registration fee to: Lippincott Professional Development, CE Group, 74 Brick Blvd., Bldg. 4, Suite 206, Brick, NJ 08723. You will receive your certificate in four to six weeks. For faster service, include a fax number and we will fax your certificate within two business days of receiving your enrollment form. You will receive your CE certificate of earned contact hours and an answer key to review your results. There is no minimum passing grade.
• Registration deadline is October 31, 2019.
DISCOUNTS AND CUSTOMER SERVICE
• Send in together two or more tests from any nursing journal published by Lippincott Professional Development (LPD), and deduct $0.95 from the price of each test.
• We also offer CE accounts for hospitals and other health care facilities online at www.nursingcenter.com. Call 1-800-787-8985 for details.
LPD will award the number of contact hours indicated for each continuing nursing education activity. LPD is accredited as a provider of continuing nursing education by the Commission on Accreditation of the American Nurses Credentialing Center.
These activities are also provider approved by the California Board of Registered Nursing, Provider Number CEP 11749 for the number of contact hours indicated. LPD is also an approved provider of continuing nursing education by the District of Columbia, Georgia, and Florida #50-1223.
Exploring How Nursing Schools Handle Student Errors and Near Misses
To present findings from a study that investigated nursing school policies and practices for reporting and tracking student errors and near misses.
After completing this continuing nursing education activity, you should be able to
• outline the purpose and methods of the authors’ study.
• identify findings from this study and their implications for nursing educators.
1. In 2000, the Institute of Medicine reported that up to how many people die each year because of preventable medical errors?
2. More recent estimates indicate that the number of people who die each year as a result of such errors is
a. about the same.
b. twice as great.
c. between about 2 and 4 times greater.
3. Research has shown that a culture of shame and blame surrounding errors
a. enhances the preventing of errors.
b. encourages accountability.
c. results in the hiding of errors.
4. In a recent survey of health care employees by the Agency for Healthcare Research and Quality (AHRQ), about what proportion indicated that staff did not feel free to question the decisions or actions of those with more authority?
5. The AHRQ defines error as an act “that leads to an undesirable outcome or significant potential for such an outcome.” It categorizes such acts as either acts of commission or acts of
6. The Institute for Safe Medication Practices defines a near miss as “an event, situation, or error that took place but
a. did not cause harm to the patient.”
b. was not in any way deliberate.”
c. was captured before reaching the patient.”
7. In terms of patient safety, the Rand Corporation considers the movement toward which of the following “the most profound change over the past 20 years”?
a. a fair and just culture
b. risk management protocols
c. professional accountability
8. After an error or a near miss, the focus should be on
a. who is to blame.
b. when it happened.
c. what went wrong.
9. Asked whether their school had a tool for reporting clinical errors and near misses, the majority of respondents in the authors’ study replied
c. that they didn't know.
10. Asked whether their school had a written policy for follow-up with students after an error or a near miss, half of the respondents replied
c. that they didn't know.
11. In most cases, the purpose of a tool for recording student errors or near misses was
b. disciplinary action.
c. documentation of events.
12. The majority of tools for recording student errors or near misses targeted
a. medication errors.
b. procedural errors.
c. Health Insurance Portability and Accountability Act violations.
13. Most of the reporting tool forms were designed to be completed by
c. both faculty and students.
14. Asked whether their school had a process or tools for tracking and noting trends in errors and near misses, the majority of respondents replied
c. that they didn't know.
15. Of the following titles of submitted tools and policies, which sounds the most growth oriented?
a. “event discovery report”
b. “violation of policy form”
c. “medication error teaching tool”
16. Which of the following was identified as a limitation of this study?
a. data analysis methods
b. dependence on self-reporting
c. use of a convenience sample
17. In conclusion, the authors noted that
a. more work is needed to ensure that the principles of a fair and just culture shape how schools respond to student errors.
b. the majority of the responding schools have specific tools and processes for addressing student errors.
c. a shift toward a fair and just culture might appear to condone student errors and near misses.