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AJN, American Journal of Nursing:
doi: 10.1097/01.NAJ.0000441793.00903.24
Feature Articles

CE Test 2.5 Hours: Original Research: Perceptions of Employment-Based Discrimination Among Newly Arrived Foreign-Educated Nurses

Contrada, Emily

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Continued Education
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TEST INSTRUCTIONS

* To take the test online, go to our secure Web site at www.nursingcenter.com/ce/ajn.

* To use the form provided in this issue, record your answers in the test answer section of the CE enrollment form below. Each question has only one correct answer. You may make copies of the form.

* Complete the registration information and course evaluation. Mail the completed enrollment form and registration fee to: Lippincott Williams and Wilkins, CE Group, 74 Brick Blvd., Bldg. 4, Suite 206, Brick, NJ 08723. You will receive your certificate in four to six weeks. For faster service, include a fax number and we will fax your certificate within two business days of receiving your enrollment form. You will receive your CE certificate of earned contact hours and an answer key to review your results. There is no minimum passing grade.

* Registration deadline is January 31, 2016.

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* Send in together two or more tests from any nursing journal published by Lippincott, Williams and Wilkins (LWW), and deduct $0.95 from the price of each test.

* We also offer CE accounts for hospitals and other health care facilities online at www.nursingcenter.com. Call 1-800-787-8985 for details.

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PROVIDER ACCREDITATION

LWW, publisher of AJN, will award the number of contact hours indicated for each continuing nursing education activity. LWW is accredited as a provider of continuing nursing education by the Commission on Accreditation of the American Nurses Credentialing Center (ANCC).

These activities are also provider approved by the California Board of Registered Nursing, Provider Number CEP 11749 for the number of contact hours indicated. LWW is also an approved provider of continuing nursing education by the District of Columbia and Florida #50-1223. Your certificate is valid in all states.

The ANCC's accreditation status of the LWW Department of Continuing Education refers to its continuing nursing educational activities only and does not imply Commission on Accreditation approval or endorsement of any commercial product.

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CE TEST QUESTIONS

GENERAL PURPOSE:

To present the details of a study done to determine whether foreign-educated nurses perceived that they were treated equitably in the U.S. workplace during the last period of high international recruitment from 2003 to 2007.

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LEARNING OBJECTIVES:

After reading this article and taking this test, you will be able to

* recognize the background information helpful in understanding the need for the authors’ study.

* identify the findings of this study and the implications for health care leaders.

1. Experts expect that if unemployment rates drop to 6.1% by 2015, regional nursing shortages will

a. approach resolution.

b. escalate rapidly.

c. begin to reappear.

d. exceed previous shortages.

2. Between 2004 and 2008, the percentage of foreign-educated nurses (FENs) in the U.S. nurse workforce grew by

a. 18%.

b. 29%.

c. 38%.

d. 45%.

3. In California and New York, FENs now account for at least what percentage of the employed workforce?

a. 20%

b. 30%

c. 40%

d. 50%

4. The authors estimate that approximately 13,000 nurses from which country may have signed contracts with U.S. recruiters and now await visas?

a. China

b. Colombia

c. Lebanon

d. India

5. The W visa would allow RNs an additional entrance track involving

a. a temporary guest worker program.

b. a permanent guest worker program.

c. an employment-based temporary visa.

d. an employment-based permanent visa.

6. In addition to fair and equitable treatment of FENs, health care leaders must ensure that recruitment is limited to countries that have

a. standards of care similar to those in the United States.

b. a favorable relationship with the United States.

c. accredited schools of nursing.

d. a nursing surplus.

7. About how many of the FENs actively recruited between 2003 and 2007 experienced 1 or more violations of the established standards of ethical conduct for FEN recruitment to the United States?

a. one-quarter

b. one-third

c. one-half

d. two-thirds

8. Which of the following groups of FENs experienced the fewest problems?

a. those from low-income countries

b. those who found work without a recruiter

c. those recruited by staffing agencies

d. those who had high fluency in English

9. According to the article, which of the following is among the 4 factors cited for a positive work environment for nurses?

a. competitive wages

b. adequate staffing

c. supportive administrators

d. ample health care coverage

10. According to a review of 19 quantitative and qualitative studies on African nurses working in the United Kingdom, many nurses reported negative experiences, including

a. racism.

b. verbal abuse.

c. inflexible schedules.

d. emotional abuse.

11. According to a survey of U.S. nurse executives by Davis and Kritek, the most critical skill for FENs is

a. knowledge.

b. clinical skills.

c. language.

d. critical thinking.

12. According to the 2008 National Sample Survey of Registered Nurses, of nurses who entered the profession between 2004 and 2008, what percentage of FENs reported satisfaction with their careers?

a. 50%

b. 60%

c. 70%

d. 80%

13. In the authors’ study, the majority of FENs from high-income countries were educated in

a. Canada.

b. Australia.

c. the Netherlands.

d. the United Kingdom.

14. About how many of the respondents reported that they had not received sufficient orientation to life in the United States from their employers, recruiters, or placement agencies?

a. one-fifth

b. one-quarter

c. one-third

d. one-half

15. About how many of the respondents reported insufficient clinical orientation to their new workplaces?

a. one-fifth

b. one-quarter

c. one-third

d. one-half

16. Compared with all other FENs, which group reported much higher levels of perceived discrimination in salary and benefits and were more likely to report perceived discrimination in shift or unit assignments?

a. those from low-income countries

b. those who found work without a recruiter

c. those recruited by staffing agencies

d. those who had high fluency in English

17. What percentage of the FENs in the authors’ study considered their wages, benefits, or shift or unit assignments to be inferior to those of their American colleagues?

a. 30%

b. 40%

c. 50%

d. 60%

18. The outcome measure for which the recruitment model and country-of-education status did not appear to matter was

a. time it took to find employment.

b. cultural assimilation into the community.

c. opportunities for promotion.

d. adequacy of orientation.

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