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AJN, American Journal of Nursing:
doi: 10.1097/01.NAJ.0000434177.98599.7e
Feature Articles

CE Test 2.5 Hours: Care of Pregnant Women in the Criminal Justice System

Contrada, Emily

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Continued Education
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* Registration deadline is September 30, 2015.

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To broaden nurses’ knowledge of practices used in the transfer and treatment of pregnant inmates that can have a negative effect on maternal and fetal health or well-being.

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After reading this article and taking this test, you will be able to

* recognize the variety of health care issues specific to pregnant women in the criminal justice system and the need for advocacy.

* identify the legalities and standards affecting pregnant women in the criminal justice system.

1. Women account for what percentage of the incarcerated U.S. population?

a. 3%

b. 7%

c. 11%

d. 15%

2. Compared with a near fourfold increase in the number of men incarcerated in the United States between 1977 and 2004, the number of women serving sentences longer than 1 year grew almost

a. sixfold.

b. sevenfold.

c. eightfold.

d. ninefold.

3. A likely cause for the rise in female incarceration is federal and state laws related to

a. drugs.

b. immigration.

c. domestic abuse.

d. prostitution.

4. According to the Bureau of Justice Statistics, in 2004 what percentage of incarcerated pregnant women received any kind of pregnancy care?

a. 45%

b. 54%

c. 67%

d. 76%

5. Among incarcerated women, about what percentage is pregnant at the time of incarceration?

a. 2%

b. 6%

c. 10%

d. 14%

6. A study examining health care services available to pregnant women in state prisons nationwide determined that all of the 19 responding facilities specifically failed to meet pregnant women's needs for adequate nutrition and

a. rest.

b. education.

c. safety.

d. privacy.

7. The legal decision Nelson v. Correctional Medical Services indicated that, without regard to any security or flight risk, shackling a woman in labor

a. failed to uphold her rights to privacy and confidentiality.

b. increased her risk of medical complications.

c. maintained her safety during the childbirth process.

d. violated her Eighth Amendment rights.

8. International standards recommend the use of restraints for inmates who are at risk for all of the following except

a. escaping.

b. damaging property.

c. injuring themselves.

d. resisting medical care.

9. Which state recently passed the most wide-ranging antishackling law, restricting the use of restraints on incarcerated pregnant women at any moment during pregnancy?

a. California

b. Hawaii

c. Idaho

d. Rhode Island

10. In Virginia, restraints on pregnant women must be removed immediately

a. on admission to a medical facility.

b. at the request of medical staff.

c. during any physiologic distress.

d. when restraints become uncomfortable.

11. A 2009 New York State law prohibits the use of restraints on pregnant inmates during labor, childbirth, and recovery, unless they attempt to escape or

a. resist medical care.

b. refuse correctional officer presence.

c. refuse pharmacologic intervention.

d. exhibit threatening behavior.

12. State corrections departments oppose antishackling laws out of concern that they

a. put inmates at risk for injury.

b. encourage violence from inmates.

c. weaken the authority of corrections officers.

d. are ineffective in maintaining inmate control.

13. The position of the Association of State Correctional Administrators is that antishackling legislation prevents officers from using

a. professional judgment.

b. defensive skills.

c. correctional resources.

d. necessary force.

14. How many reports of a woman attempting escape during childbirth have been documented?

a. none

b. 5

c. 10

d. 15

15. When a woman is delivering a child while incarcerated, it is common practice to

a. ensure that a female corrections officer is nearby.

b. allow brief visits from close family or friends.

c. separate her from her newborn soon after birth.

d. provide no medical care until delivery is imminent.

16. Which of the following was the only state to earn the highest “grade,” an A-, for the conditions of incarcerated pregnant and parenting women and their children?

a. Vermont

b. Pennsylvania

c. North Carolina

d. New Mexico

17. A report by the National Association of Women Judges for the Rebecca Project for Human Rights asserts that the health care provided to women in federal prisons is

a. ineffective.

b. marginal.

c. inconsistent.

d. unacceptable.

18. Laws and policies enacted to meet the needs of incarcerated women are meaningful only if those who enforce them are

a. educated.

b. committed.

c. experienced.

d. supervised.

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