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AJN, American Journal of Nursing:
doi: 10.1097/01.NAJ.0000427877.80053.13
Feature Articles

CE Test 2.3 Hours: Update on Cardiovascular Disease Prevention in Women

Contrada, Emily

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Continued Education
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* To take the test online, go to our secure Web site at

* To use the form provided in this issue, record your answers in the test answer section of the CE enrollment form below. Each question has only one correct answer. You may make copies of the form.

* Complete the registration information and course evaluation. Mail the completed enrollment form and registration fee to:Lippincott Williams and Wilkins, CE Group, 74 Brick Blvd., Bldg. 4, Suite 206, Brick, NJ 08723. You will receive your certificate in four to six weeks. For faster service, include a fax number and we will fax your certificate within two business days of receiving your enrollment form. You will receive your CE certificate of earned contact hours and an answer key to review your results. There is no minimum passing grade.

* Registration deadline is March 31, 2015.

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* Send in together two or more tests from any nursing journal published by Lippincott, Williams and Wilkins (LWW), and deduct $0.95 from the price of each test.

* We also offer CE accounts for hospitals and other health care facilities online at Call 1-800-787-8985 for details.

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LWW, publisher of AJN, will award the number of contact hours indicated for each continuing nursing education activity. LWW is accredited as a provider of continuing nursing education by the Commission on Accreditation of the American Nurses Credentialing Center (ANCC).

These activities are also provider approved by the California Board of Registered Nursing, Provider Number CEP 11749 for the number of contact hours indicated. LWW is also an approved provider of continuing nursing education by the District of Columbia and Florida #501223. Your certificate is valid in all states.

The ANCC's accreditation status of the LWW Department of Continuing Education refers to its continuing nursing educational activities only and does not imply Commission on Accreditation approval or endorsement of any commercial product.

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To report on the highlights of the updated American Heart Association (AHA) guidelines for preventing cardiovascular disease (CVD) in women and to discuss the new AHA construct of “cardiovascular health.”

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After reading this article and taking this test, you will be able to

* outline important sex-specific differences related to CVD.

* list goals, definitions, and major changes relevant to women presented in the AHA's revised guidelines for preventing CVD.

* discuss the AHA's specific recommendations for preventing and managing CVD in women.

1. The proportion of American women who have some form of cardiovascular disease (CVD) is currently more than 1 in

a. 3.

b. 4.

c. 5.

d. 6.

2. A cross-sectional survey of 2,300 women in the United States found that a little more than half of the respondents knew that CVD is

a. an illness women can prevent.

b. an illness that can have different manifestations in women.

c. the leading cause of death among women.

d. a term that also encompasses deep vein thrombosis and pulmonary embolism.

3. A typical initial symptom of coronary artery disease in women is

a. chest pain.

b. nausea.

c. joint pain.

d. insomnia.

4. Angiography shows that plaque in women tends to be

a. highly calcified.

b. clumped together.

c. readily dissolved.

d. distributed diffusely.

5. Compared with men, women

a. often have lower low-density lipoprotein (LDL) cholesterol levels when young.

b. develop hypertension at younger ages.

c. have lower LDL cholesterol levels at advanced ages.

d. have lower triglyceride levels at middle and older ages.

6. The American Heart Association (AHA) 2020 Impact Goal is to improve the cardiovascular health of all Americans by

a. 10%.

b. 20%.

c. 30%.

d. 40%.

7. The AHA defines cardiovascular health in part in terms of ideal health behaviors, an example of which is

a. a left ventricular ejection fraction of 55% to 70%.

b. an untreated total cholesterol level of less than 200 mg/dL.

c. a body mass index of less than 25 kg/m2.

d. an untreated blood pressure below 120/80 mmHg.

8. While the previous AHA guidelines defined high risk as having a greater than 20% 10-year risk of coronary artery disease, the current update defines high risk as having a

a. 5% or greater 10-year risk of coronary artery disease.

b. 10% or greater 5-year risk of coronary artery disease.

c. 5% or greater 10-year risk of any CVD.

d. 10% or greater 10-year risk of any CVD.

9. Evaluating a woman's risk of CVD includes screening for which of the following when there's a history of CVD?

a. depression

b. renal disease

c. emphysema

d. diabetes

10. Which of these is one of the World Health Organization's proposed criteria for evaluating the international applicability of guidelines?

a. customizability

b. population benefits

c. widespread dissemination

d. ease of implementation

11. The AHA's classification of interventions categorizes one for which there is some evidence or opinion favoring usefulness and efficacy as Class

a. I.

b. IIa.

c. IIb.

d. III.

12. One of the AHA's Class I recommendations for physical activity is performing at least

a. 45 minutes per week of vigorous exercise.

b. 60 minutes per week of vigorous exercise.

c. 120 minutes per week of moderate exercise.

d. 150 minutes per week of moderate exercise.

13. The AHA advises women to maintain which of the following?

a. LDL cholesterol levels below 120 mg/dL

b. high-density lipoprotein (HDL) cholesterol levels above 50 mg/dL

c. triglyceride levels below 175 mg/dL

d. non-HDL cholesterol levels below 145 mg/dL

14. According to the AHA, women at high risk for CVD may benefit from

a. niacin therapy.

b. antioxidant supplements.

c. folic acid therapy.

d. postmenopausal hormone therapy.

15. A Class I recommendation from the AHA is that, unless contraindicated, women with coronary artery disease should use which of the following to prevent stroke and thromboembolism?

a. heparin therapy

b. aspirin therapy

c. fibrate therapy

d. β-blocker therapy

16. A Class I recommendation from the AHA is that, unless contraindicated, women with left ventricular failure should use long-term

a. heparin therapy.

b. aldosterone blockade.

c. angiotensin receptor blockade.

d. β-blocker therapy.

17. According to AHA recommendations, dabigatran is indicated for patients

a. who are at high risk for a cardiovascular event and have diabetes.

b. who are at high risk for a cardiovascular event and are intolerant of aspirin.

c. following a myocardial infarction with normal left ventricular function.

d. with paroxysmal or permanent atrial fibrillation and risk factors for stroke or embolism.

18. According to AHA recommendations, which drug has a Class IIb, Level C, rank of evidence for use in patients with coronary or vascular disease and normal left ventricular function?

a. aldosterone antagonist

b. β-blocker

c. angiotensin-converting enzyme

d. angiotensin receptor blocker

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