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AJN, American Journal of Nursing:
doi: 10.1097/01.NAJ.0000427879.87676.17
Feature Articles

CE Test 2.1 Hours: Evaluation of a Hand Hygiene Campaign in Outpatient Health Care Clinics

Contrada, Emily

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Continued Education
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* To take the test online, go to our secure Web site at

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* Complete the registration information and course evaluation. Mail the completed enrollment form and registration fee to: Lippincott Williams and Wilkins, CE Group, 74 Brick Blvd., Bldg. 4, Suite 206, Brick, NJ 08723. You will receive your certificate in four to six weeks. For faster service, include a fax number and we will fax your certificate within two business days of receiving your enrollment form. You will receive your CE certificate of earned contact hours and an answer key to review your results. There is no minimum passing grade.

* Registration deadline is March 31, 2015.

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* Send in together two or more tests from any nursing journal published by Lippincott, Williams and Wilkins (LWW), and deduct $0.95 from the price of each test.

* We also offer CE accounts for hospitals and other health care facilities online at Call 1-800-787-8985 for details.

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These activities are also provider approved by the California Board of Registered Nursing, Provider Number CEP 11749 for the number of contact hours indicated. LWW is also an approved provider of continuing nursing education by the District of Columbia and Florida #501223. Your certificate is valid in all states.

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To present the details of a study done to improve hand hygiene in two outpatient health care clinics through the introduction of a gel sanitizer and an informational poster.

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After reading this article and taking this test, you will be able to

* summarize the background information helpful in understanding the need for the authors' study.

* outline the methods and the results of the authors' study.

1. When used appropriately, alcohol-based sanitizers have been shown to be more effective than soap and water for

a. removing debris from hands.

b. reducing skin irritation.

c. decreasing hand hygiene costs.

d. eliminating some bacteria.

2. A hospital-wide study by Pittet and colleagues found that the primary reason for improved adherence to hand hygiene guidelines was

a. a better understanding of clinical guidelines.

b. mandatory demonstrations of clinical competencies.

c. the increasing use of alcohol-based sanitizers.

d. the availability of data on increasing infection rates and outcomes.

3. Handwashing with soap and water is preferred to cleansing with an alcohol-based rub when infection with which of the following organisms is suspected?

a. Escherichia coli

b. Clostridium difficile

c. Pseudomonas aeruginosa

d. Staphylococcus aureus

4. After Mensah and colleagues presented a relevant seminar to health care workers in outpatient glaucoma clinics, hand hygiene adherence increased from 18% to

a. 28%.

b. 38%.

c. 48%.

d. 58%.

5. In a study conducted at outpatient dermatology clinics, Cohen and colleagues found that 69% of physicians' hands were contaminated with which of the following pathogens?

a. Escherichia coli

b. Clostridium difficile

c. Pseudomonas aeruginosa

d. Staphylococcus aureus

6. In the same study, Cohen and colleagues found physicians' adherence to hand hygiene to be about

a. 18%.

b. 26%.

c. 31%.

d. 44%.

7. In a related survey by Cohen and colleagues, physicians cited which of the following as among the main reasons for lack of such adherence?

a. persistent forgetfulness

b. adverse reactions to disinfectants

c. negligible need for scrupulous hygiene

d. inadequate time

8. In the authors' interventional study, the informational poster they introduced at both participating outpatient clinics encouraged the staff to

a. share what they learned about preventing infection.

b. petition the clinic administrator for more dispensers.

c. express their concerns about poor adherence.

d. take personal responsibility for infection control.

9. At baseline, the overall rates of hand hygiene attempts to opportunities in the oncology and gastrointestinal (GI) clinics were, respectively,

a. 6% and 16%.

b. 11% and 21%.

c. 17% and 27%.

d. 24% and 34%.

10. After the study intervention, the overall rates of hand hygiene attempts to opportunities in the oncology and GI clinics were, respectively,

a. 12% and 30%.

b. 20% and 38%.

c. 28% and 46%.

d. 36% and 54%.

11. Overall, 50% of all survey respondents agreed that the intervention increased their awareness about hand hygiene. What percentage agreed that it had actually improved their hand hygiene practices?

a. 18%

b. 27%

c. 34%

d. 45%

12. At the oncology clinic, once the intervention was introduced, what percentage of hand hygiene attempts involved the gel sanitizer?

a. 30%

b. 40%

c. 50%

d. 60%

13. When survey respondents from the GI clinic were asked what means of hand hygiene they most preferred, 80% selected

a. soap and water.

b. foam sanitizer.

c. gel sanitizer.

d. multiple products.

14. Asked to indicate the most suitable place to keep sanitizer “to make its use more effective,” 66% of all survey respondents preferred placement

a. at the sinks.

b. in the hallways.

c. on the nurses' station counters.

d. in the immediate vicinity of the patients.

15. In keeping with findings from other studies, this study's survey results support the idea that which of the following is a strong motivator for hand hygiene?

a. patient protection

b. long-term habit

c. self-protection

d. clinic policy

16. To improve adherence, the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention recommends all of the following except

a. monitoring product usage.

b. limiting hand hygiene products to gels.

c. providing a variety of hand hygiene products.

d. using direct observation to monitor hygiene performance.

© 2013 Lippincott Williams & Wilkins, Inc.