* To take the test online, go to our secure Web site at www.nursingcenter.com/ce/ajn.
* To use the form provided in this issue, record your answers in the test answer section of the CE enrollment form below. Each question has only one correct answer. You may make copies of the form.
* Complete the registration information and course evaluation. Mail the completed enrollment form and registration fee to: Lippincott Williams and Wilkins, CE Group, 74 Brick Blvd., Bldg. 4, Suite 206, Brick, NJ 08723. You will receive your certificate in four to six weeks. For faster service, include a fax number and we will fax your certificate within two business days of receiving your enrollment form. You will receive your CE certificate of earned contact hours and an answer key to review your results. There is no minimum passing grade.
* Registration deadline is November 30, 2014.
DISCOUNTS AND CUSTOMER SERVICE
* Send in together two or more tests from any nursing journal published by Lippincott, Williams and Wilkins (LWW), and deduct $0.95 from the price of each test.
* We also offer CE accounts for hospitals and other health care facilities online at www.nursingcenter.com. Call 1-800-787-8985 for details.
LWW, publisher of AJN, will award the number of contact hours indicated for each continuing nursing education activity. LWW is accredited as a provider of continuing nursing education by the Commission on Accreditation of the American Nurses Credentialing Center (ANCC).
These activities are also provider approved by the California Board of Registered Nursing, Provider Number CEP 11749 for the number of contact hours indicated. LWW is also an approved provider of continuing nursing education by the District of Columbia and Florida #FBN2454. Your certificate is valid in all states.
The ANCC's accreditation status of the LWW Department of Continuing Education refers to its continuing nursing educational activities only and does not imply Commission on Accreditation approval or endorsement of any commercial product.
CE TEST QUESTIONS
To provide registered professional nurses with information on the design, use, and potential risks of needleless connectors.
After reading this article and taking this test, you will be able to
* compare a variety of needleless connectors and identify potential risks associated with various models and practices.
* outline nursing interventions to reduce risks associated with the use of needleless connectors.
1. An antimicrobial agent used in some needleless connectors is
a. silver nanoparticles.
b. neuraminidase inhibitors.
c. copper alloy.
d. sodium bicarbonate.
2. An example of a negative fluid displacement needleless connector with a split septum is the
a. Baxter Healthcare Clearlink.
b. CareFusion SmartSite.
c. BD Medical Q-Syte.
d. Baxter Healthcare V-Link.
3. Which needleless connector is power injectable?
a. RyMed Technologies Invision-Plus Junior
b. Baxter Healthcare Interlink
c. RyMed Technologies Invision-Plus EPI
d. ICU Medical Clave
4. The type of needleless connector that allows blood to reflux into the catheter lumen during disconnection has
a. positive displacement.
b. limited displacement.
c. negative displacement.
d. neutral displacement.
5. Potential risk factors with needleless connector device designs include all of the following except
a. opaque housing that prevents visualization of residual blood.
b. flat connection surfaces that are very difficult to clean.
c. spaces within mechanical valves that are extremely difficult to clean.
d. flat connection surfaces that may make it difficult to attach the IV set.
6. Which statement about biofilm is not accurate?
a. It is a substance that protects and surrounds organisms.
b. Heparin increases the growth of biofilm.
c. Biofilm reaches a steady state in needleless connectors within 48 hours.
d. Needleless connectors containing silver may significantly reduce downstream biofilm.
7. Research by Rupp and colleagues revealed dramatically increased rates of catheter-related bloodstream infections associated with
a. using needles with needleless connectors.
b. changing IV sets every 72 hours.
c. new staff training on the unit.
d. product changes.
8. According to a survey report by Delahanty and Myers, how many nurses did not routinely clean needleless connectors before access?
a. 3% to 4%
b. 7% to 8%
c. 10% to 11%
d. 13% to 14%
9. As noted by the author, the most important goal for managing IV administration sets and needleless connectors is to
a. flush with 10 mL of 0.9% saline before drug administration.
b. reduce the amount of manipulation as much as possible.
c. use a sterile needleless connector each time a secondary set is attached.
d. attach a needleless connector to the IV catheter hub and then attach the IV set to the needleless connector.
10. To protect the male luer end of an intermittent IV set from contamination, one should
a. cover the end with the foil package from the alcohol pad.
b. leave it connected to the primary continuous set.
c. cover the end with the cap from the flush syringe.
d. leave the luer end uncovered.
11. The Infusion Nursing Standards of Practice recommend changing an intermittent IV administration set every
a. 24 hours.
b. 48 hours.
c. 72 hours.
d. 96 hours.
12. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention guidelines advise changing needleless connectors no more frequently than every
a. 24 hours.
b. 48 hours.
c. 72 hours.
d. 96 hours.
13. Data from a 2012 study by Wright showed reduced intraluminal contamination of peripherally inserted central catheters when staff used
a. needleless connectors with luer lock connections.
b. protection caps.
c. chlorhexidine for needleless connector cleansing.
d. split-septum needleless connectors.
14. In a study by Cesaro and colleagues, the rate of catheter lumen occlusion in catheters flushed and locked weekly with saline was
15. The Infusion Nursing Standards of Practice recommend locking all central venous catheters with
a. a heparin lock solution (10 units per mL).
b. 0.9% saline solution (10 mL).
c. a heparin lock solution (100 units per mL).
d. 0.9% saline solution (20 mL).
16. Scrubbing needleless connections with 70% isopropyl alcohol for how long before use greatly reduces, but does not eliminate, contamination?
a. 5 seconds
b. 10 seconds
c. 15 seconds
d. 20 seconds
17. As suggested by some studies, when should needleless connectors be changed when using them to draw blood samples?
a. before drawing blood
b. between blood tubes
c. after drawing blood
d. before and after drawing blood samples
© 2012 Lippincott Williams & Wilkins, Inc.