Osteoarthritis (OA), an increasingly prevalent public health problem, affects the physical functioning and quality of life of millions of adults in the United States. A disease that causes progressive damage to joint cartilage, OA produces pain, joint inflammation, and stiffness with eventual restriction of movement. The prevalence of clinical OA has continued to increase over the past decade, with estimates approaching 27 million adults in the United States alone.1 OA affects individuals worldwide. Many studies report a higher incidence in women and increasing prevalence with age.1
Figure. Participants...Image Tools
Given the intense symptom burden of OA and the resulting possibility of disability, costs related to this illness are immense. OA affects physical and social functioning, well-being, productivity, and self-image, all of which significantly impact quality of life. Current conventional pharmacologic treatment, often successful in relieving pain, has serious adverse effects in the gastrointestinal and cardiovascular systems, especially with long-term use. Hence, OA patients continue to search for alternative treatments while a cure remains elusive.
This paper provides an overview of complementary and alternative medicine (CAM) therapies used to prevent, control, and manage OA, as well as evidence for their efficacy and safety.
CAM is most often defined as a group of diverse medical and health care treatments, products, and practices not considered part of conventional Western medicine. Many of these therapies arise from alternative medical systems, such as traditional Chinese medicine and Ayurveda, which have long histories of use across the world. As technology has enhanced our global connections over the past three decades, therapies from alternative systems have become increasingly available in the West and now present challenges to conventional care and increase the possibilities for symptom management.
The world of CAM is vast (estimates count thousands of therapies and products from many systems of care; see http://nccam.nih.gov/health/whatiscam), and the collection of research evidence supporting the effectiveness and safety of CAM therapies for the management of OA is in its infancy. The National Center for Complementary and Alternative Medicine (NCCAM) has categorized CAM therapies as mind–body therapies, natural products, manipulative and body-based approaches, and other practices, including energy therapies.
CAM therapies are considered complementary when combined with conventional treatment methods and alternative when used in place of conventional treatment. Alternative medical systems are whole systems of care that exist outside of conventional Western medicine. Worldwide, integrative medicine—which combines conventional and evidence-based CAM therapies—continues to grow. Patients are very much involved in the changing health care arena as they seek relief from the symptoms of chronic illnesses.
PREVALENCE OF CAM USE
Current estimates of CAM use in the United States, based on the 2002 and 2007 National Health Interview Survey (NHIS) data, range from 34% to 76%, depending on the therapies included in the definition of CAM and the population studied.2-5 The number of participants who'd used at least one CAM therapy in the year preceding the NHIS interview increased from 2002 to 2007, with use higher among individuals affected by cancer in both years. The number of participants who used CAM ranged from 35% to 39% in 2002 and increased to 37% to 44% in 2007 in the noncancer and cancer populations, respectively, demonstrating a continuing increase in CAM use over time.4, 6 Higher rates of CAM use for a variety of conditions were reported in 2007 for acupuncture, massage therapy, meditation, and yoga, among others.2 The greatest numbers of CAM users were among middle-aged, well-educated white women, and people experiencing chronic illness and bothersome symptoms.4, 6, 7
Among people with arthritis, data revealed, the proportion of respondents who'd used CAM was significantly higher than among those without it (41% and 34.6%, respectively).5 In this population, herbs, supplements, and vitamins (24%) and mind–body therapies (21%) were most often used for treatment purposes, followed by chiropractic (9.4%) and massage (almost 5%).5 Limitations of these data include the datedness of the information and the inclusion of multiple types of rheumatic diseases, preventing a determination of CAM use specifically for OA. Other estimates of use range from 59% to 90% but are often limited by sample location and differences in the definition of CAM.8-10
Among people with OA, differences in patterns of use have also been reported by ethnicity.11, 12 Among the 80% of CAM users noted by Katz and Lee, most used dietary practices (71.5%), mind–body therapies (42%), topical products (38%), herbs and supplements (32.9%), and manipulative and body-based methods (21.4%).12 African Americans were most likely to use CAM overall, specifically prayer and topical products, and Asian Americans used alternative medical systems, supplements, and manipulation. Greater use of herbs, magnets, and copper has been reported by Hispanics, and the use of supplements is more prevalent among non-Hispanics.11 Further study is needed to illuminate CAM usage patterns. In addition, information is needed on which CAM therapies are used specifically for arthritis symptom management, as well as the benefits and risks of use.
Current data, however, do provide insight into patterns of CAM use among individuals with OA and highlight the need for updated population-specific studies that use clear and consistent CAM definitions. It is evident that people with OA are using CAM therapies to manage symptoms such as pain and related problems, minimize adverse effects of pharmacologic treatment, and prevent disabilities arising from OA that affect functioning and quality of life.13 It is also important to recognize that skepticism about conventional medical care may prompt people to seek CAM therapy, especially younger people with OA.8
I conducted an extensive literature review in late 2010 and early 2011 to obtain research studies on CAM therapies and OA. The databases and resources I searched include the Cumulative Index to Nursing and Allied Health Literature (CINAHL), PubMed, MEDLINE, Ovid SP, Biological Abstracts, the National Guideline Clearinghouse, Health Reference Center Academic, and the Cochrane Collaboration's systematic reviews, as well as the Web sites of ClinicalTrials.gov, the Agency for Healthcare Research and Quality, http://online.statref.com [the American College of Physicians’ Information and Education Resource], the Mayo Clinic, MD Consult, the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, the NCCAM, and Natural Standard.
Keywords used in the search included but were not limited to osteoarthritis, arthritis (knee, hip, hand), traditional Chinese medicine, Ayurveda, yoga, qigong, t'ai chi, herbal and dietary supplements, mind–body, relaxation, guided imagery, herbal therapy, acupuncture, pain management, massage, energy therapies (therapeutic touch, healing touch, Reiki), alternative medicine and therapies, complementary medicine and therapies, CAM, hypnosis, and vitamins. I restricted the search to articles published in a 10-year period and then removed that restriction for studies on energy therapies when that search yielded few studies. I also limited the search to articles published in English and excluded studies that examined only patients with rheumatoid arthritis (RA).
Yoga, an ancient practice originating in Central Asia that is used in Ayurvedic medicine, is a feasible intervention for people with OA, although studies are limited and focus primarily on those with knee involvement.14 Yoga consists of a series of postures (asanas), breathing exercises (pranayama), and meditative practices that vary according to yoga lineage. Hatha yoga includes varying intensities of physical movement, while yoga nidra is still and meditative. Yoga incorporates a spiritual component through meditation coordinated with movements, breathing, and stillness.
Although yoga has existed for thousands of years, research on its use in medicine is relatively recent and sparse. Haaz and Bartlett found 10 yoga studies published in the past 30 years, six in individuals with RA and four in those with OA or both OA and RA.15 Using a scoring system for study quality based on U.S. Department of Health and Human Services’ recommendations,16 Haaz and Bartlett found that scores for the four OA studies varied from 3 to 5. The range of scores possible was 0 to 8, from low to high quality, for four categories (study design, sample size, intervention, and analysis). Recent work by Ulger and Yagli noted that yoga had a positive effect on gait and balance among women with OA and low-back pain, although they acknowledged that their small sample size (N = 27) limits generalizability.14 Pilot research (N = 7) in treating symptoms of knee OA indicated that an eight-week program of Iyengar yoga, a style of hatha yoga developed by B.K.S. Iyengar that uses supportive props such as blankets and belts, resulted in significant reductions in pain and stiffness and increased physical functioning as measured by the Western Ontario and McMaster Universities Osteoarthritis Index.17 The authors further noted that yoga was feasible for older patients (older than 50 years of age) with OA, the majority of whom were also obese. Bukowski and colleagues also noted functional changes and improvement in quality of life with both yoga and stretching and concluded that more study was needed.18 Raub, summarizing early research studies, stated that yoga may increase strength and flexibility in arthritis patients.19
Evidence for the use of yoga in OA is limited. There's a lack of studies specifically on OA, but those that have been conducted indicate that its feasibility and safety are good. Future studies should include patients of diverse ethnic groups and ages and use well-described yoga interventions that can be replicated in further studies, thereby increasing the generalizability of the results. Data from studies conducted abroad (which may be less accessible to some researchers because of their language of publication or a lack of information on the study participants) should be examined. However, studies do indicate that CAM practices that include physical movement and stretching, as yoga does, increase flexibility and muscle strength, thereby promoting joint support.20-22 In addition, yoga may decrease body fat and improve physical fitness, which are known to be preventive factors for OA.
T'ai chi ch'uan, an ancient martial art originating in traditional Chinese medicine, has received increased attention recently to determine its effects on physical functioning and pain. T'ai chi is a movement practice that facilitates the balanced flow of energy and uses meditation and breathing for health promotion and management of symptoms. Among older women with OA (N = 82), t'ai chi increased endurance during knee flexion and extension and bone mineral density while also decreasing fear of falling.23 Significant improvements in pain related to knee OA, physical functioning, and gait following a six-week t'ai chi intervention in another study (N = 40) also suggests that it has beneficial effects for gait kinematics (such as stride length) among older adults.24
Evidence for the use of t'ai chi ch'uan in OA. That similar findings are reported in the literature suggest there is a moderate level of evidence supporting the use of t'ai chi to manage pain and improve functioning in individuals with knee OA.25-28 Further research is needed to determine the most effective t'ai chi protocols according to age, ethnicity, and sites of OA.
Therapeutic Touch, Reiki, and Healing Touch, three energy therapies, focus on balancing energy flow through a series of techniques applied above and directly to the body. Based on the premise that an energetic biofield surrounds and penetrates the physical body, energy therapies aim to remove blockages that are thought to cause disease and hinder healing. Therapeutic Touch was developed in the 1970s by Dolores Krieger and includes three levels of practice; Healing Touch, developed in the 1980s by Janet Mentgen, includes five levels of preparation and is endorsed by the American Holistic Nurses Association; and Reiki, a practice from Japan, was developed by Mikao Usui in 1922 and incorporates the use of symbols in the energy treatment.
My review of the literature on the effects of energy therapies on OA revealed a paucity of research studies. This may reflect a lack of funding support and methodologic difficulties such as the absence of instruments able to measure energy, questions concerning placebo effects, and the influence of the practitioner's presence and intention on the patient's reported results. However, there is significant, ongoing advancement in the science of energy healing by the members of, for example, the International Society for the Study of Subtle Energies and Energy Medicine. Early studies on the use of Therapeutic Touch for OA noted improved functional ability, decreased pain and distress, and improved mood.29-31 The study authors noted limitations including sample sizes and study designs and cited the need for further research.
Evidence for the use of Therapeutic Touch, Reiki, and Healing Touch in OA has not been established. Further research using rigorous scientific methods, instruments that measure energy, and larger sample sizes is needed.
Acupuncture, used for millennia in traditional Chinese medicine, has been the subject of intense research over the past two decades and is now a popular therapy across the globe. Using the process of systematic research reviews, Ernst reported that acupuncture overall has an encouraging risk–benefit ratio.32 Acupuncture protocols vary widely across studies, however, complicating the ability to make conclusions about its effectiveness. Few studies compare acupuncture with or evaluate its effectiveness in combination with physical therapy (PT), an often prescribed and effective nonpharmacologic intervention for OA. Thus, further study is recommended to determine and compare the effects of acupuncture used as an adjuvant to PT and medication regimens.33
As a CAM therapy with a long history of effective use in the East, acupuncture works by improving the flow of energy, known as qi, and removing energy blockages related to disease processes.34, 35 Thus, it differs from Western medicine in its theoretical view of OA pathology and in treatment methods. Maa and colleagues state that the mechanism of OA of the knee, for example, “is a slowdown of Qi, the consequence of ineffective interaction between the liver, spleen and kidney networks,” creating joint disease and dysfunction.34 Therefore acupuncture treatment, whether performed as needling, pressure, heat, or electrical stimulation, is guided by the ancient depictions of the meridians (energy channels) throughout the body and the assessment of blockages by the practitioner. Data do support the use of acupuncture in the multimodal treatment of patients with knee OA.34
Rigorous randomized control trials (RCTs) of varying sample sizes have documented that acupuncture confers significant improvements in pain, functioning, and quality of life in patients with OA, although some findings have been difficult to interpret. Manheimer and colleagues, in their 2007 review of 11 RCTs on acupuncture in 2,821 patients with knee OA of a mean duration of five years or more, found no clinical differences between real and “sham” acupuncture, but did find clinical relevance when acupuncture was compared with usual care.36 These improvements were maintained at six months. The authors suggest there is a possible placebo effect requiring further study and that acupuncture has “a genuine biological effect, suggested by the small short-term improvements in pain and function compared with sham.” No serious adverse effects were reported, which has been supported by more extensive subsequent reviews.37 Manheimer and colleagues’ 2010 systematic review indicates that as a treatment for knee or hip OA, acupuncture, when compared with sham acupuncture, being on a waiting list for treatment, or usual treatment, may result in small improvements in pain and physical functioning at eight weeks and for up to 26 weeks after treatment, with minor and infrequent adverse effects such as bruising and bleeding at the needle insertion site.37
Witt and colleagues, in a study using a three-group design (N = 3,635) for a 15-week series of acupuncture treatments for hip and knee patients, reported significant effects and positive outcomes that lasted throughout the five-month study period.38 Earlier, Berman and colleagues described similar findings when “true” acupuncture was compared with sham acupuncture and patient education.39 In contrast, Tsang and colleagues found no significant differences in pain scores or analgesic use between groups receiving true and sham acupuncture following knee arthroplasty; all participants also had PT, and improved range of motion was reported.40 However, the sample size was small (N = 30). Previous studies have also reported small improvements in pain or a lack of significance when comparing study groups.41 I found one review on the safety of acupuncture, which noted that no adverse events were reported in 12 RCTs.42
Evidence for the use of acupuncture in OA is moderate for pain relief. Wide variability existed in study designs, sample sizes, treatment protocols, and the control groups used for comparison. Systematic reviews have documented reduction of pain, primarily among patients with knee involvement.32, 33, 43, 44 Further study is needed to evaluate the effects of acupuncture on outcomes in patients with OA at other sites, in combination with standard treatment for OA, and on pain management and function over time. More data are also needed to determine adequate dosing (how many treatments are needed and how often), the influence of provider contact, and the effects on physiologic processes.
Glucosamine and chondroitin sulfate are considered “components to the extracellular matrix of articular cartilage” and have been used for the prevention and management of OA for more than 40 years based on the premise that the disease is caused by a deficiency.45 It is hypothesized that glucosamine may repair cartilage by stimulating synthesis of chondrocytes. These products have been the focus of intense study over the past 15 years, with inconsistency still noted in results from RCTs, meta-analyses, and systematic reviews. Recent results from a comprehensive meta-analysis (10 RCTs; N = 3,803 patients with OA of the knee, hip, or both) concluded that glucosamine and chondroitin, used alone or in combination, did not decrease joint pain or influence joint-space narrowing over time.46 The authors stressed that their use should not be recommended to new patients.
Results from other meta-analyses and reviews indicate that the effects of glucosamine and chondroitin range from none to moderate. Lee and colleagues, who measured radiologic outcomes in six RCTs, reported positive effects of glucosamine or chondroitin on joint-space narrowing over two to three years of use.47 Vlad and colleagues found glucosamine hydrochloride ineffective but were unable to rule out the possibility of effects from glucosamine sulfate.48 In contrast, Vangsness and colleagues concluded that prior studies have provided support for some level of efficacy in managing symptoms of OA and altering disease progression, although the results were inconsistent.45 The multisite Glucosamine–Chondroitin Arthritis Intervention Trial showed a significant effect in individuals with severe OA. Follow-up study, however, has failed to confirm effects on joint-space narrowing.49 An earlier Cochrane review, one of the most comprehensive meta-analyses (N = 2,570), also reported 28% and 21% improvements in OA pain and functioning, respectively; however, the researchers wrote that when including only “the best designed studies,” benefits were no longer seen.50 With regard to use of chondroitin, Reichenbach and colleagues found that effects disappeared when studies with large sample sizes and strong designs were combined for analysis.51
Evidence for the use of glucosamine and chondroitin in OA is inconsistent. Long-term trials are needed. Systematic reviews and meta-analyses support a positive safety profile. Ongoing research, the Long-Term Evaluation of Glucosamine Sulphate Study, is in progress.
Pycnogenol (pine bark extract), a supplement studied in knee OA, has shown significant effects in decreasing pain and stiffness and improving functioning. Two studies (N = 35; N = 100) noted a significant reduction in nonsteroidal antiinflammatory drug use over a two-to-three-month period, thus reducing the severity of the unwanted adverse effects of those drugs.52, 53 Other natural products used for OA include devil's claw, cat's claw, avocado and soybean unsaponifiables (ASU), bromelain, ginger–turmeric, MSM (methylsulfonylmethane), DMSO (dimethyl sulfoxide), and SKI306X, a cocktail of plant extracts, mineral supplements, and antioxidants.54-56 Brien and colleagues concluded after reviewing six studies on MSM and DMSO (N = 681) that no definitive conclusions could be made, although some positive outcomes were reported.55 Improvement in pain was noted in two of the four DMSO studies, although questions about the studies’ methodology were raised. In contrast, the MSM studies provided “positive but not definitive evidence that MSM is superior to placebo in the treatment of mild to moderate OA of the knee.”
Ameye and Chee conducted a systematic review of the evidence on nutraceuticals and functional foods for the management of OA. They included 53 RCTs exploring the benefits of lipids, vitamins, minerals, plant extracts, and other supplements.54 Using a best-evidence synthesis, 18 of the functional ingredients studied demonstrated efficacy in at least one clinical trial. The authors concluded that nutrition may improve OA symptoms and recommended further study of its effects on disease prevention and progression.
Evidence for the use of pycnogenol in OA is good but moderate or lacking for other plant extracts. No evidence exists for most products, but there is good support for pycnogenol and ASU and moderate evidence for MSM and SKI306X.
BODY-BASED MANIPULATIVE THERAPIES
Massage has been a well-researched CAM therapy for stress relief and relaxation in both healthy and chronically ill individuals. Studies have focused predominantly on low-back pain and have reported efficacy, although massage's mechanisms of action are as yet unclear.57-59 Fewer studies have focused on patients with arthritis. Perlman and colleagues noted significant changes in pain, stiffness, and physical function following massage in people with knee OA.60 In another study, the use of essential oil with massage resulted in reduced pain and improved function in older adults with moderate-to-severe knee pain.61 No systematic reviews on massage therapy for knee OA were found, as was also reported by Jamtvedt and colleagues.62 A comprehensive meta-analysis published by Moyer and colleagues provided insight into physiological and psychosocial mechanisms of massage therapy and made interesting conclusions related to dosage and pain effects.59 Although the study wasn't specifically focused on OA, the authors’ conclusion that massage works by both physiological and psychological mechanisms may hold relevance for this population that has pain as its predominant symptom. They noted differences between the effects of single and multiple doses of massage. Single-dose massage resulted in decreased anxiety, blood pressure, and heart rate as compared with the control group. However, results were inconsistent regarding the effects on the parasympathetic nervous system and pain assessment. Multiple-dose massage, while also lowering blood pressure, heart rate, and anxiety, also decreased depression and pain on assessment. Several researchers have investigated the safety of massage and indicated that there is a need to understand the effects of various approaches and protocols and therapist training.59, 63
Evidence for the use of massage therapy in OA is moderate for low-back pain and inconclusive for pain in the knee and at other sites. Research using strong methodology in the OA population is warranted.
IMPLICATIONS AND CONCLUSIONS
Much variation exists in the evidence supporting the use of CAM therapies for OA. It's clear that symptom management should be multimodal and include nonpharmacologic therapies along with routine pharmacological treatment. Focusing on comorbid symptoms is also critical to improving function and overall quality of life. CAM therapies and other nonpharmacologic approaches play roles in managing pain and perhaps the insomnia, depression, and anxiety that can result.6, 59, 64-70 Effective therapies for these comorbid symptoms are essential for the holistic management of OA. Thus, one may conclude that further study is needed, as are clear and consistent definitions of the therapies considered to be complementary or alternative.
Consistency across studies is necessary for comparison and will ultimately provide clearer answers on whether a therapy's use is supported. Data are needed on appropriate dosing for the various CAM therapies and the resultant outcomes. In addition, it's essential that researchers use standardized treatments, even though this may contradict the essence of some holistic practices. Comparison of studies on yoga, for example, becomes complicated when different yoga practices and traditions are used, which limits the strength of findings. It's also essential to consider using new methodologies for CAM study such as Whole Systems Research, which addresses the complexities of CAM interventions, many of which come from whole systems of care such as traditional Chinese medicine. Because there might be synergistic effects with concomitantly used therapies within these systems, a mixed-methods research approach is needed. This should include qualitative as well as quantitative analyses to capture the effects of CAM therapies.71 Also evident in CAM studies, particularly in the extensive glucosamine trials, is a tendency toward not comparing like to like. Differences in product formulation, CAM practices, and provider services may affect study results. As data increase, it will become possible to include proven CAM therapies in the multimodal management of OA.
1. Lawrence RC, et al. Estimates of the prevalence of arthritis and other rheumatic conditions in the United States. Part II Arthritis Rheum. 2008;58(1):26–35
2. Barnes PM, et al. Complementary and alternative medicine use among adults and children: United States, 2007 Natl Health Stat Report. 2008(12):1–23
3. Barnes PM, et al. Complementary and alternative medicine use among adults: United States, 2002 Adv Data. 2004(343):1–19
4. Fouladbakhsh J Use of complementary and alternative medicine (CAM) providers, practices and products among U.S. cancer surviors.Tromsø, Norway: International Society for Complementary Medicine Research; 2010.
5. Quandt SA, et al. Use of complementary and alternative medicine by persons with arthritis: results of the National Health Interview Survey Arthritis Rheum. 2005;53(5):748–55
6. Fouladbakhsh J, Stommel M. Comparative analysis of CAM use in the U.S. cancer and noncancer populations J Complement Integr Med. 2008;5(1)
7. Sleath B, et al. Use of conventional and nonconventional treatments for osteoarthritis in the family medicine setting South Med J. 2008;101(3):252–9
8. Callahan LF, et al. Use of complementary and alternative medicine among patients with arthritis Prev Chronic Dis. 2009;6(2):A44
9. Saydah SH, Eberhardt MS. Use of complementary and alternative medicine among adults with chronic diseases: United States 2002 J Altern Complement Med. 2006;12(8):805–12
10. Unsal A, Gozum S. Use of complementary and alternative medicine by patients with arthritis J Clin Nurs. 2010;19(7-8):1129–38
11. Herman CJ, et al. Ethnic differences in the use of complementary and alternative therapies among adults with osteoarthritis Prev Chronic Dis. 2006;3(3):A80
12. Katz P, Lee F. Racial/ethnic differences in the use of complementary and alternative medicine in patients with arthritis J Clin Rheumatol. 2007;13(1):3–11
13. Scher JU, Pillinger MH. Managing osteoarthritis: the treatment options J Musculoskelet Med. 2006;23(10):701–19
14. Ulger O, Yagli NV. Effects of yoga on balance and gait properties in women with musculoskeletal problems: a pilot study Complement Ther Clin Pract. 2011;17(1):13–5
15. Haaz S, Bartlett SJ. Yoga for arthritis: a scoping review Rheum Dis Clin North Am. 2011;37(1):33–46
16. West S, et al. Systems to rate the strength of scientific evidence. Rockville, MD: Agency for Healthcare Research and Quality; 2002 Apr. AHRQ publication no. 02-E016.Evidence report/technology assessment no. 47.
17. Kolasinski SL, et al. Iyengar yoga for treating symptoms of osteoarthritis of the knees: a pilot study J Altern Complement Med. 2005;11(4):689–93
18. Bukowski EL, et al. The effect of iyengar yoga and strengthening exercises for people living with osteoarthritis of the knee: a case series Int Q Community Health Educ. 2006;26(3):287–305
19. Raub JA. Psychophysiologic effects of Hatha Yoga on musculoskeletal and cardiopulmonary function: a literature review J Altern Complement Med. 2002;8(6):797–812
20. Racunica TL, et al. Effect of physical activity on articular knee joint structures in community-based adults Arthritis Rheum. 2007;57(7):1261–8
21. Nayak NN, Shankar K. Yoga: a therapeutic approach Phys Med Rehabil Clin N Am. 2004;15(4):783–98 vi.
22. Tran MD, et al. Effects of hatha yoga practice on the health-related aspects of physical fitness Prev Cardiol. 2001;4(4):165–70
23. Song R, et al. A randomized study of the effects of t'ai chi on muscle strength, bone mineral density, and fear of falling in women with osteoarthritis J Altern Complement Med. 2010;16(3):227–33
24. Shen CL, et al. Effects of Tai Chi on gait kinematics, physical function, and pain in elderly with knee osteoarthritis—a pilot study Am J Chin Med. 2008;36(2):219–32
25. Brismee JM, et al. Group and home-based tai chi in elderly subjects with knee osteoarthritis: a randomized controlled trial Clin Rehabil. 2007;21(2):99–111
26. Lee HJ, et al. Tai Chi Qigong for the quality of life of patients with knee osteoarthritis: a pilot, randomized, waiting list controlled trial Clin Rehabil. 2009;23(6):504–11
27. Tsai PF, et al. The effect of tai chi on knee osteoarthritis pain in cognitively impaired elders: pilot study Geriatr Nurs. 2009;30(2):132–9
28. Wang C, et al. Tai Chi is effective in treating knee osteoarthritis: a randomized controlled trial Arthritis Rheum. 2009;61(11):1545–53
29. Eckes Peck SD. The effectiveness of therapeutic touch for decreasing pain in elders with degenerative arthritis J Holist Nurs. 1997;15(2):176–98
30. Gordon A, et al. The effects of therapeutic touch on patients with osteoarthritis of the knee J Fam Pract. 1998;47(4):271–7
31. Peck SD. The efficacy of therapeutic touch for improving functional ability in elders with degenerative arthritis Nurs Sci Q. 1998;11(3):123–32
32. Ernst E. Complementary or alternative therapies for osteoarthritis Nat Clin Pract Rheumatol. 2006;2(2):74–80
33. Galantino ML, et al. Acupuncture as an adjuvant modality with physical therapy for patients with knee osteoarthritis Med Acupunct. 2009;21(3):157–66
34. Maa SH, et al. The effectiveness of acupuncture on pain and mobility in patients with osteoarthritis of the knee: a pilot study J Nurs Res. 2008;16(2):140–8
35. Hua B, O'Brien K. Osteoarthritis and Chinese medicine: an overview of theories and evidence The Journal of Chinese Medicine. 2010(94):1–14
36. Manheimer E, et al. Meta-analysis: acupuncture for osteoarthritis of the knee Ann Intern Med. 2007;146(12):868–77
37. Manheimer E, et al. Acupuncture for peripheral joint osteoarthritis Cochrane Database Syst Rev. 2010(1):CD001977
38. Witt CM, et al. Acupuncture in patients with osteoarthritis of the knee or hip: a randomized, controlled trial with an additional nonrandomized arm Arthritis Rheum. 2006;54(11):3485–93
39. Berman BM, et al. Effectiveness of acupuncture as adjunctive therapy in osteoarthritis of the knee: a randomized, controlled trial Ann Intern Med. 2004;141(12):901–10
40. Tsang RC, et al. Effects of acupuncture and sham acupuncture in addition to physiotherapy in patients undergoing bilateral total knee arthroplasty—a randomized controlled trial Clin Rehabil. 2007;21(8):719–28
41. Foster NE, et al. Acupuncture as an adjunct to exercise based physiotherapy for osteoarthritis of the knee: randomised controlled trial BMJ. 2007;335(7617):436
42. Yamashita H, et al. Safety of acupuncture for osteoarthritis of the knee—a review of randomised controlled trials, focusing on specific reactions to acupuncture Acupunct Med. 2006;24(Suppl):S49–S52
43. Ezzo J, et al. Acupuncture for osteoarthritis of the knee: a systematic review Arthritis Rheum. 2001;44(4):819–25
44. White A, et al. The effectiveness of acupuncture for osteoarthritis of the knee—a systematic review Acupunct Med. 2006;24(suppl):S40–S48
45. Vangsness CT Jr., et al. A review of evidence-based medicine for glucosamine and chondroitin sulfate use in knee osteoarthritis Arthroscopy. 2009;25(1):86–94
46. Wandel S, et al. Effects of glucosamine, chondroitin, or placebo in patients with osteoarthritis of hip or knee: network meta-analysis BMJ. 2010;341:c4675
47. Lee YH, et al. Effect of glucosamine or chondroitin sulfate on the osteoarthritis progression: a meta-analysis Rheumatol Int. 2010;30(3):357–63
48. Vlad SC, et al. Glucosamine for pain in osteoarthritis: why do trial results differ? Arthritis Rheum. 2007;56(7):2267–77
49. Sawitzke AD, et al. The effect of glucosamine and/or chondroitin sulfate on the progression of knee osteoarthritis: a report from the glucosamine/chondroitin arthritis intervention trial Arthritis Rheum. 2008;58(10):3183–91
50. Towheed TE, et al. Glucosamine therapy for treating osteoarthritis Cochrane Database Syst Rev. 2001(1):CD002946
51. Reichenbach S, et al. Meta-analysis: chondroitin for osteoarthritis of the knee or hip Ann Intern Med. 2007;146(8):580–90
52. Cisár P, et al. Effect of pine bark extract (Pycnogenol) on symptoms of knee osteoarthritis Phytother Res. 2008;22(8):1087–92
53. Farid R, et al. Pycnogenol supplementation reduces pain and stiffness and improves physical function in adults with knee osteoarthritis Nutr Res. 2007;27(11):692–7
54. Ameye LG, Chee WS. Osteoarthritis and nutrition. From nutraceuticals to functional foods: a systematic review of the scientific evidence Arthritis Res Ther. 2006;8(4):R127
55. Brien S, et al. Systematic review of the nutritional supplements dimethyl sulfoxide (DMSO) and methylsulfonylmethane (MSM) in the treatment of osteoarthritis Osteoarthritis Cartilage. 2008;16(11):1277–88
56. Frestedt JL, et al. A natural mineral supplement provides relief from knee osteoarthritis symptoms: a randomized controlled pilot trial Nutr J. 2008;7:9
57. Cherkin DC, et al. A review of the evidence for the effectiveness, safety, and cost of acupuncture, massage therapy, and spinal manipulation for back pain Ann Intern Med. 2003;138(11):898–906
58. Furlan AD, et al. Massage for low-back pain: a systematic review within the framework of the Cochrane Collaboration Back Review Group Spine (Phila Pa 1976). 2002;27(17):1896–910
59. Moyer CA, et al. A meta-analysis of massage therapy research Psychol Bull. 2004;130(1):3–18
60. Perlman AI, et al. Massage therapy for osteoarthritis of the knee: a randomized controlled trial Arch Intern Med. 2006;166(22):2533–8
61. Yip YB, Tam AC. An experimental study on the effectiveness of massage with aromatic ginger and orange essential oil for moderate-to-severe knee pain among the elderly in Hong Kong Complement Ther Med. 2008;16(3):131–8
62. Jamtvedt G, et al. Physical therapy interventions for patients with osteoarthritis of the knee: an overview of systematic reviews Phys Ther. 2008;88(1):123–36
63. Ernst E. The safety of massage therapy Rheumatology (Oxford). 2003;42(9):1101–6
64. Cherniack P. The use of alternative medicine for the treatment of insomnia in the elderly Psychogeriatrics. 2006;6(1):21–30
65. Fitzcharles MA, et al. Management of chronic arthritis pain in the elderly Drugs Aging. 2010;27(6):471–90
66. Fouladbakhsh J, et al. Effects of a standardized yoga intervention on mood and salivary cortisol levels of stage I-IIIa non-small cell lung cancer patients [abstract]. Second IAYT symposium on yoga therapy and research; 2008; Los Angeles: International Association of Yoga Therapists; 2008.
67. Fouladbakhsh JM, et al. Nondrug therapies for pain management among rural older adults Pain Manag Nurs. 2011;12(2):70–81
68. Pearson NJ, et al. Insomnia, trouble sleeping, and complementary and alternative medicine: analysis of the 2002 national health interview survey data Arch Intern Med. 2006;166(16):1775–82
69. Pellino TA, et al. Use of nonpharmacologic interventions for pain and anxiety after total hip and total knee arthroplasty Orthop Nurs. 2005;24(3):182–90
70. Sarris J, Byrne GJ. A systematic review of insomnia and complementary medicine Sleep Med Rev. 2011;15(2):99–106
71. Verhoef MJ, et al. Complementary and alternative medicine whole systems research: beyond identification of inadequacies of the RCT Complement Ther Med. 2005;13(3):206–12
© 2012 Lippincott Williams & Wilkins, Inc.