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Original Research: Loneliness and Quality of Life in Chronically Ill Rural Older Adults

Theeke, Laurie A. PhD, FNP-BC, GCNS-BC; Mallow, Jennifer PhD, FNP

AJN The American Journal of Nursing: September 2013 - Volume 113 - Issue 9 - p 28–37
doi: 10.1097/01.NAJ.0000434169.53750.14
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Background Loneliness is a contributing factor to various health problems in older adults, including complex chronic illness, functional decline, and increased risk of mortality.

Objectives A pilot study was conducted to learn more about the prevalence of loneliness in rural older adults with chronic illness and how it affects their quality of life. The purposes of the data analysis reported here were twofold: to describe loneliness, chronic illness diagnoses, chronic illness control measures, prescription medication use, and quality of life in a sample of rural older adults; and to examine the relationships among these elements.

Methods A convenience sample of 60 chronically ill older adults who were community dwelling and living in Appalachia was assessed during face-to-face interviews for loneliness and quality of life, using the University of California, Los Angeles (UCLA) Loneliness Scale (version 3) and the CASP-12 quality of life scale. Chronic illness diagnoses, chronic illness control measures, and medication use data were collected through review of participants’ electronic medical records.

Results Overall mean loneliness scores indicated significant loneliness. Participants with a mood disorder such as anxiety or depression had the highest mean loneliness scores, followed by those with lung disease and those with heart disease. Furthermore, participants with mood disorders, lung disease, or heart disease had significantly higher loneliness scores than those without these conditions. Loneliness was significantly related to total number of chronic illnesses and use of benzodiazepines. Use of benzodiazepines, diuretics, nitrates, and bronchodilators were each associated with a lower quality of life.

Conclusions Nurses should assess for loneliness as part of their comprehensive assessment of patients with chronic illness. Further research is needed to design and test interventions for loneliness.

Because rural older adults are at risk for poor health outcomes associated with loneliness, nurses' assessing and addressing loneliness in this and other high-risk populations is vital.Supplemental digital content is available in the text.

Laurie A. Theeke is an associate professor, as well as a Robert Wood Johnson Nurse Faculty Scholar and a Hildegard Peplau American Nurses Foundation Scholar, and Jennifer Mallow is an assistant professor, both in the Morgantown Department at the West Virginia University School of Nursing in Morgantown. This study was funded by unrestricted educational grants from the West Virginia University School of Nursing Research Fund and the Robert Wood Johnson Foundation Scholars Program. Contact author: Laurie A. Theeke, The authors and planners have disclosed no potential conflicts of interest, financial or otherwise.

© 2013 Lippincott Williams & Wilkins. All rights reserved.