Objective: To determine whether earlier initiation of antiretroviral therapy (ART) is associated with better economic outcomes.
Design: Prospective cohort study of HIV-positive patients on ART in rural Uganda.
Methods: Patients initiating ART at a regional referral clinic in Uganda were enrolled in the Uganda AIDS Rural Treatment Outcomes study starting in 2005. Data on labor force participation and asset ownership were collected on a yearly basis, and CD4+ cell counts were collected at pre-ART baseline. We fitted multivariable regression models to assess whether economic outcomes at baseline and in the 6 years following ART initiation varied by baseline CD4+ cell count.
Results: Five hundred and five individuals, followed up to 6 years, formed the estimation sample. Participants initiating ART at CD4+ cell count at least 200 cells/μl were 13 percentage points more likely to be working at baseline (P < 0.01, 95% confidence interval 0.06–0.21) than those initiating below this threshold. Those in the latter group achieved similar labor force participation rates within 1 year of initiating ART (P < 0.01 on the time indicators). Both groups had similar asset scores at baseline and demonstrated similar increases in asset scores over the 6 years of follow-up.
Conclusion: ART helps participants initiating therapy at CD4+ cell count below 200 cells/μl rejoin the labor force, though the findings for participants initiating with higher CD4+ cell counts suggests that pretreatment declines in labor supply may be prevented altogether with earlier therapy. Baseline similarities in asset scores for those with early and advanced disease suggest that mechanisms other than morbidity may help drive the relationship between HIV infection and economic outcomes.
aDepartment of Medicine
bCenter for Global Health, Massachusetts General Hospital, Boston, Massachusetts
cDepartment of Health Policy and Management, Gillings School of Global Public Health, University of North Carolina, Chapel Hill, North Carolina, USA
dMédecins Sans Frontières Epicentre
eMbarara University of Science and Technology, Mbarara, Uganda
fUniversity of California, San Francisco School of Medicine, San Francisco, California
gRagon Institute of MGH, MIT, and Harvard University
hDepartment of Global Health and Population, Harvard School of Public Health
iDepartment of Psychiatry, Massachusetts General Hospital
jRobert Wood Johnson Health and Society Scholars Program, Harvard University, Boston, Massachusetts, USA.
Correspondence to Atheendar S. Venkataramani, Massachusetts General Hospital, Department of Medicine, Center for Global Health, 100 Cambridge St, 15th Floor, Boston, MA 02114, USA. E-mail: email@example.com
Received 28 October, 2013
Revised 18 December, 2013
Accepted 18 December, 2013
Supplemental digital content is available for this article. Direct URL citations appear in the printed text and are provided in the HTML and PDF versions of this article on the journal's Website (http://www.AIDSonline.com).