Patients with inefficient CD4+ T-cell recovery on virogically suppressive highly active antiretroviral therapy constitute a major clinical hurdle given the threat of HIV/AIDS disease progression. We show heightened circulating lipopolysaccharide associated with plasma enterobacterial DNA and highly activated Ki67+CD4+CD8+ in 24 immunologic-nonresponders (CD4+ T-cell ≤ 200; HIV-RNA ≤ 50) compared with 11 full responders (CD4+ T-cell ≥ 400; HIV-RNA ≤ 50). These data provide novel insight into INRs pathogenesis, since they correlate augmented systemic translocation of microbial bioproducts with T-cell hyperactivation.
aDepartment of Medicine, Surgery and Dentistry, Clinic of Infectious Diseases, ‘San Paolo’ Hospital, University of Milan, Milan, Italy
bDepartment of Public Health, Microbiology, Virology, University of Milan, Milan, Italy
cDepartment of Clinical Sciences, Chair of Infectious Diseases and Tropical Medicine, ‘Luigi Sacco’ Hospital, University of Milan, Milan, Italy
dDivision of Infectious Diseases, ‘San Gerardo’ Hospital, Monza, Italy.
Received 21 March, 2008
Revised 4 July, 2008
Accepted 17 July, 2008
Correspondence to Giulia Marchetti, MD, PhD, Department of Medicine, Surgery and Dentistry, Clinic of Infectious Diseases, ‘San Paolo’ Hospital, University of Milan, via A. di Rudinì, 8, 20142 Milan, Italy. Tel: +39 02 81843064; fax: +39 02 81843054; e-mail: firstname.lastname@example.org