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doi: 10.1097/QAD.0b013e3282004929
Basic Science

Incident and prevalent herpes simplex virus type 2 infection increases risk of HIV acquisition among women in Uganda and Zimbabwe

Brown, Joelle Ma; Wald, Annad; Hubbard, Alanc; Rungruengthanakit, Kittipongg; Chipato, Tsungaih; Rugpao, Sungwalg; Mmiro, Francisf; Celentano, David Di; Salata, Robert Sj; Morrison, Charles Sk; Richardson, Barbra Ae; Padian, Nancy Sb

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Background: An association has been demonstrated between herpes simplex type 2 (HSV-2) and HIV infection among men, but prospective studies in women have yielded mixed results.

Objective: To estimate the effects of prevalent and incident HSV-2 infection on subsequent HIV acquisition among women in two African countries.

Design: Prospective cohort study.

Methods: HSV-2 and HIV serostatus were evaluated at enrollment and quarterly for 15–24 months among 4531 sexually active, HIV-uninfected women aged 18–35 years from Uganda and Zimbabwe. The association between prior HSV-2 infection and HIV acquisition was estimated using a marginal structural discrete survival model, adjusted for covariates.

Results: HSV-2 seroprevalence at enrollment was 52% in Uganda and 53% in Zimbabwe; seroincidence during follow-up was 9.6 and 8.8/100 person-years in Uganda and Zimbabwe, respectively. In Uganda, the hazard ratio (HR) for HIV was 2.8 [95% confidence interval (CI), 1.5–5.3] among women with seroprevalent HSV-2 and 4.6 (95% CI, 1.6–13.1) among women with seroincident HSV-2, adjusted for confounding. In Zimbabwe, the HR for HIV was 4.4 (95% CI, 2.7–7.2) among women with seroprevalent HSV-2, and 8.6 (95% CI, 4.3–17.1) among women with seroincident HSV-2, adjusted for confounding. The population attributable risk percent for HIV due to prevalent and incident HSV-2 infection was 42% in Uganda and 65% in Zimbabwe.

Conclusions: HSV-2 plays an important role in the acquisition of HIV among women. Efforts to implement known HSV-2 control measures, as well as identify additional measures to control HSV-2, are urgently needed to curb the spread of HIV.

© 2007 Lippincott Williams & Wilkins, Inc.


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