Epidemiology and Social
Herpes simplex virus 2 infection increases HIV acquisition in men and women: systematic review and meta-analysis of longitudinal studies
Freeman, Esther Ea; Weiss, Helen Aa; Glynn, Judith Ra; Cross, Pamela La; Whitworth, James Aa,b; Hayes, Richard Ja
From the aInfectious Disease Epidemiology Unit, London School of Hygiene and Tropical Medicine
bWellcome Trust, London, UK.
Received 9 March, 2005
Revised 13 June, 2005
Accepted 27 July, 2005
Correspondence to E. Freeman. Harvard Medical School, Francis Weld Peabody Society, 260 Longwood Ave., Boston MA 02115, USA. E-mail: firstname.lastname@example.org
Objective: To estimate the sex-specific effect of herpes simplex virus type 2 (HSV-2) on the acquisition of HIV infection.
Background: The increased number of longitudinal studies available since the last meta-analysis was published allows for the calculation of age- and sexual behaviour-adjusted relative risks (RR) separately for men and women.
Design: Systematic review and meta-analysis of longitudinal studies.
Methods: PubMed, Embase and relevant conference abstracts were systematically searched to identify longitudinal studies in which the relative timing of HSV-2 infection and HIV infection could be established. Where necessary, authors were contacted for separate estimates in men and women, adjusted for age and a measure of sexual behaviour. Summary adjusted RR were calculated using random-effects meta-analyses where appropriate. Studies on recent HSV-2 incidence as a risk factor for HIV acquisition were also collated.
Results: Of 19 eligible studies identified, 18 adjusted for age and at least one measure of sexual behaviour after author contact. Among these, HSV-2 seropositivity was a statistically significant risk factor for HIV acquisition in general population studies of men [summary adjusted RR, 2.7; 95% confidence interval (CI), 1.9–3.9] and women (RR, 3.1; 95% CI, 1.7–5.6), and among men who have sex with men (RR, 1.7; 95% CI, 1.2–2.4). The effect in high-risk women showed significant heterogeneity, with no overall evidence of an association.
Conclusions: Prevalent HSV-2 infection is associated with a three-fold increased risk of HIV acquisition among both men and women in the general population, suggesting that, in areas of high HSV-2 prevalence, a high proportion of HIV is attributable to HSV-2.
Sexually transmitted infections (STI), especially those causing genital ulcer disease, are associated with increased sexual transmission of HIV [1–4]. Recent studies have highlighted the synergy between HIV and herpes simplex virus type 2 (HSV-2), a major cause of genital ulcers [1,5]. Several randomized controlled trials are currently underway to assess the impact of HSV-2 therapy on HIV acquisition and transmission.
The epidemiology of HSV-2 differs between women and men, with a greater probability of transmission from male-to-female than female-to-male  and gender-specific differences in the frequency of herpes recurrences . It is, therefore, plausible that the effect of HSV-2 on HIV acquisition may also vary by gender, but there is little published evidence on this.
One previous meta-analysis assessed the effect of HSV-2 infection on HIV acquisition in studies published up until April 1999. Nine longitudinal studies were identified, only one of which was among women. The summary estimate of studies among men showed a positive association between prevalent HSV-2 and HIV acquisition, while the single study among women showed a non-significant negative association  but was unadjusted for confounders. Two more recent reviews did not present an updated meta-analysis for either sex [5,9].
The primary objective of this study is systematically to review studies of the gender-specific effect of HSV-2 on HIV acquisition, and to carry out meta-analyses of studies in general populations and in groups at high risk of STI and HIV, adjusted for age and sexual behaviour. The review is limited to longitudinal studies in order to separate the effect of HSV-2 on HIV acquisition from any effect of HIV infection on subsequent acquisition of HSV-2. A secondary objective of the paper is to assess the effect of recently acquired (incident) HSV-2 on HIV acquisition in these populations; a limitation of this secondary objective is that the time sequence of infections is not always as clear.
Inclusion and exclusion criteria
Types of studies
Cohort and nested case–control studies that assessed the relationship between HSV-2 and HIV infection were eligible for inclusion. Studies in which the relative timing of HSV-2 and HIV infection could not be established were excluded.
Exposure and outcome measures
Studies were eligible if HIV and HSV-2 status was measured in all study participants (not just those who were symptomatic) using appropriate serological tests. Appropriate testing for HSV-2 was considered to be an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) test or immunoblot test using HSV-2 type-specific glycoprotein G, or a Western blot [10,11]. Appropriate testing for HIV was an ELISA test, Western blot or particle agglutination test, confirmed with a second test.
Abstracts and papers in languages other than English were included and were translated by a fluent speaker of the relevant language.
Studies providing an estimate of the relative risk (RR) for HIV infection in HSV-2 seropositive compared with seronegative persons were included. Studies were also included if such an estimate could be calculated from the data. Additionally, authors were contacted whenever it appeared that appropriate data were collected but not presented. Where two publications related to the same study, only the more informative was used.
The PubMED and Embase databases were searched to the first week of June 2004.
For the PubMED search, the following thesaurus terms were first combined with the Boolean operator ‘or’: ‘herpesvirus 2,’ ‘herpes genitalis epidemiology,’ and ‘herpes simplex’ (epidemiology, aetiology, prevention and control, and transmission). Four variations of text words for HSV-2 were then added to broaden the search. In order to identify studies that did not specifically mention HSV-2 in their abstracts, but rather referred to general STI, the thesaurus terms on ‘sexually transmitted diseases’ (epidemiology, aetiology, prevention and control, and transmission) were also included. Then, the search was limited to abstracts also containing information on HIV by adding thesaurus terms ‘HIV seropositivity’ or ‘HIV infections/transmission’ or the text phrase ‘HIV seroconverters’ to the previous search with the Boolean operator ‘anD'. The search also required that the abstracts either contained thesaurus terms for ‘cohort studies’, ‘case–control studies’, or ‘prospective studies’, or contained the appropriate text word for this study type. Only journal articles or letters were eligible. A similar Embase search strategy was also undertaken.
In addition, abstracts from the XIV and the XV International AIDS Conference and the 2003 International Society for Sexually Transmitted Diseases Research Conference were searched on ‘herpes’ and ‘hsv’. Reference lists of included studies were examined for other pertinent studies. In addition, collaborating researchers were asked about any relevant unpublished data.
All identified abstracts were scanned and those clearly meeting exclusion criteria were eliminated at this point. Full-length papers were then retrieved if published or authors were contacted for more information if an abstract was not associated with a full length paper. Two reviewers (E. F. & H. W.) then applied the inclusion and exclusion criteria previously listed to the retrieved studies. Authors were contacted if further information was needed to include the study in this review.
Data were extracted onto standardized forms by the two reviewers. A quality assessment was also performed on each study to assess selection bias, response rates, loss to follow-up, misclassification and adjustment for confounding.
Meta-analyses were undertaken using odds ratios for nested case–control studies and rate ratios for cohort studies. Since HIV incidence rates were low in most studies, the odds ratios would approximate the risk ratio. Summary relative risks (RR) values were calculated where appropriate, using random-effects models rather than fixed-effects models [1,12,13]. Evidence for statistical heterogeneity was taken as P ≤ 0.1 [13,14] since the test for statistical heterogeneity lacked power .
Age and sexual behaviour were taken to be a-priori confounders of the relationship between HSV-2 seropositivity and subsequent infection with HIV. Measures of sexual behaviour were allowed to vary by study, since different measures were appropriate for different groups such as commercial sex workers or men who have sex with men (MSM). Only RR adjusted for age and at least one measure of sexual behaviour were included in the final meta-analysis.
It had been hypothesized that the effect of HSV-2 on acquisition of HIV might vary between women and men, and that within each sex there might be variation by type of study population. To explore this potential diversity, studies in males were divided into MSM and men in the general population (assumed to be largely heterosexual) since the effect of HSV-2 could vary by mode of HIV transmission. Studies in females were also divided into two groups: women at high risk, consisting of sex workers and bar workers; and women in the general population. High-risk women are more likely to have other STI besides HSV-2 that might enhance HIV acquisition.
Sex-specific Begg funnel plots were used to examine inclusion bias in the systematic review. The most comprehensively adjusted relative risk for each study was used for this investigation. Data management and statistical analyses were undertaken in STATA 8.0 (Stata Corp., College Station, Texas, USA).
A secondary objective of the systematic review was to collate available information on the incident HSV-2 (acquired during the study period) as a risk factor for HIV acquisition in studies retrieved in the review. An a-priori decision was made that results from these studies would not be included in the meta-analysis because of the unclear relative timing of the two infections, but results are presented in a separate table.
Details of selected studies
After removing duplicates, 4426 abstracts were identified through the PubMED and Embase searches. Additionally, 13 abstracts were retrieved from recent international conferences. One further unpublished study and one in press study were identified by collaborating researchers.
Out of a total of 4441 studies, 4361 were excluded as not relevant. Of the 80 full-length papers retrieved or the authors contacted, as appropriate, 37 studies were identified for possible inclusion (Fig. 1). There were 19 studies that met all of the inclusion criteria (Table 1) [8,16–33]; of these 14 were already published in a peer-reviewed journal, two were in press, and three were unpublished (two of which already had abstracts published in conference proceedings). Additional information and data were received from authors of 14 of these included studies. The 18 studies that were excluded failed to meet specific inclusion criteria, had insufficient information provided by the authors or had repetition of data (see Supplementary Table S1, http://www.lshtm.ac.uk/ideu/research/freeman_hsv2.html) [16,34–50].
Of the 19 studies included in the review (Table 1), RR values adjusted for both a-priori confounders, age and a marker of sexual behaviour (and in some cases for other factors as well) were obtained for 18. One study of MSM did not take confounding into account in the presentation of RR values and was considered unadjusted; this study was included in the review but not the meta-analysis. In total, there were 10 studies in women – 4 in the general population and 6 among high-risk women – and 14 studies in men – 9 in the general population and 5 among MSM. Fourteen studies were conducted in developing countries.
The methodological quality of included studies was assessed and can be seen in Supplementary Table S2 (http://www.lshtm.ac.uk/ideu/research/freeman_hsv2.html). Selection bias was considered, including selection of cases and controls where appropriate. Reporting of loss to follow-up was inconsistent; some retrospective studies only considered loss of data or serum rather than loss of individuals in the initial cohort. In studies that did report on this criterion, there was a broad range of loss to follow-up, ranging from a loss at first return visit of 5 to 38% in studies with active follow-up. Few studies supplied information on proportion of selected individuals agreeing to participate. A range of HIV and HSV-2 tests was used by the different studies, but in no case were potential problems thought to have influenced the association of HSV-2 and HIV; no studies were excluded on this basis.
Effect of HSV-2 seropositivity on HIV acquisition
The RR of HIV acquisition in HSV-2-seropositive compared with HSV-2-negative individuals, adjusted for age and sexual behaviour, is shown in Fig. 2. Among general population studies, the summary estimate of adjusted RR was similar for women [RR, 3.1; 95% confidence interval (CI), 1.7–5.6] and men (RR, 2.7; 95% CI, 1.9–3.9) (Table 2). There was little evidence of heterogeneity among studies of women in the general population. The studies in men all showed a positive association (RR values ranging from 1.3 to 7.5), but there was significant heterogeneity (P = 0.03). Among high-risk women, RR values ranged widely, from 0.50 to 6.3, with significant heterogeneity (P = 0.02). Hence, the summary estimates for these studies should be interpreted with caution. The effect of HSV-2 on HIV acquisition in MSM (RR, 1.7; 95% CI, 1.2–2.4) was lower than in general population males, and this difference was of borderline statistical significance (P = 0.07).
Sex-specific Begg funnel plots of included studies (supplementary Fig. S1, http://www.lshtm.ac.uk/ideu/research/freeman_hsv2.html) plot the natural logarithm of the RR from each study against the logarithm of the study's standard error (a marker of study size). There is little evidence of inclusion bias (i.e., there is no evidence that smaller studies were more likely to be included if they detected large effects).
Effect of incident HSV-2 infection on HIV acquisition
Of the studies in the review, eight either presented a relative risk for incident HSV-2 as a risk factor for HIV seroconversion, or presented data allowing for its calculation. These RR values are presented in Table 3. However, with few exceptions, the majority of HSV-2 and HIV seroconversions were recorded during the same follow-up intervals, so it was impossible to determine which infection occurred first, or whether both infections occurred simultaneously. Also, in contrast to our meta-analyses, very few studies adjusted for confounders such as markers of sexual behaviour. In most [19,24,25,27,32], but not all [30,33] studies, recent HSV-2 seroconverters had a higher risk of HIV acquisition than those who had seroconverted to HSV-2 before the study began (comparing Table 3 with Table 1), but these estimates should be interpreted with caution.
This systematic literature review and meta-analysis shows for the first time that prevalent HSV-2 infection is a statistically significant risk factor for HIV acquisition in both men and women in the general population, after adjusting for confounding by age and sexual behaviour. In general populations, men and women infected with HSV-2 had approximately three times the risk of acquiring HIV. Although there was evidence of heterogeneity in the effect among men in the general population, all nine studies contributing to this male summary estimate found a positive association (RR values ranging from 1.3 to 7.5). In MSM, the effect appeared slightly lower than in general population males. This may be due to chance or it could reflect true differences owing to the different transmission route.
The relationship between prevalent HSV-2 and HIV acquisition was not consistent in studies among high-risk women, with RR values ranging from 0.5 to 6.3. This variation between studies could be due to different prevalences of other STI, which act as cofactors for HIV transmission, since these would increase the rate of HIV acquisition in HSV-2-negative individuals. Alternatively, the difference may be a result of residual confounding, if adjustment for sexual exposure to HIV was more complete in some studies than others.
In comparison with the previous meta-analysis , we located 16 additional longitudinal estimates of RR from 11 additional studies. In heterosexual men, the new estimate of the adjusted relative risk was slightly higher than that found from unadjusted or partially adjusted studies in the previous meta-analysis (RR, 2.2; 95% CI, 1.3–3.8 ). In MSM, our summary adjusted RR was slightly lower than that reported for unadjusted and partially adjusted studies previously (RR, 2.1; 95% CI, 1.3–3.4 ), and, unlike the previous study, did not demonstrate any evidence of statistical heterogeneity.
By limiting our meta-analysis to studies with known time sequence of HSV-2 infection and HIV infection, we tried to minimize any bias owing to HIV effects on subsequent acquisition of HSV-2. However, a time lag exists between acquisition of infection and a positive test for both infections. For HSV-2, median time to a positive test from culture-documented primary HSV-2 episodes is 21–120 days, dependent upon the type of test used . The time sequence could, therefore, be misclassified in either direction. This is a particular problem for the examination of incident HSV-2 as a risk factor for HIV, where exact timings are even more difficult to establish.
Although our analysis concentrated on the effect of prevalent HSV-2, there would have been variation between studies in the proportion of individuals with recent and with more remote HSV-2 infections. Since recent HSV-2 may have a stronger effect on HIV acquisition than does more long-standing HSV-2 infection, owing to greater frequency and severity [7,52] of clinical HSV-2 episodes, studies including more recent HSV-2 infections might be expected to have higher RR values.
It was not possible to assess the effect of very recent (incident) HSV-2 infections directly. Few studies examined incident HSV-2, and most of these recorded HSV-2 and HIV seroconversions during the same follow-up interval; consequently, the sequence of infections could not be established. While these studies are consistent with the hypothesis that recent HSV-2 infection is a stronger risk factor for HIV acquisition than is prevalent HSV-2 infection, problems with the time lag, small study size, long intervals between testing dates and lack of adjustment for confounding make the evidence inconclusive.
We attempted to minimize confounding by requesting that authors adjust their estimates of relative risk by a-priori confounders of age and sexual behaviour. Only studies adjusting for at least these confounders were included in the meta-analysis of the effect of prevalent HSV-2. However, residual confounding, especially by sexual behaviour, which was controlled for in a wide variety of ways by included studies, is a major concern in a meta-analysis of observational studies. Obtaining accurate information on sexual behaviour is extremely difficult. However, in most studies the RR changed little upon adjustment for a wide range of confounders.
Studies also used a wide range of HIV and HSV-2 tests. The sensitivity and specificity vary between different tests, and between the same test used on different populations . Misclassification of HSV-2 status is likely to be non-differential with respect to HIV status, leading to underestimation of the association between HSV-2 and HIV.
Publication bias is unlikely to have played an important role in our study since only 5 of the 23 RR values used were published in the form in which they appear in this analysis. Many RR values were extracted from papers or requested from authors whose papers had been published with a different purpose. In these cases, publication was probably not determined by the strength of the RR of interest to this meta-analysis. The funnel plots of ‘inclusion’ bias showed little evidence of any bias.
Controlling HSV-2 could potentially have a large impact on HIV incidence in areas of high HSV-2 prevalence. In a recent review, HSV-2 prevalence in Africa in random and population-based samples of individuals of reproductive age was found to be 29–71% in women and 5–53% in men . Despite the limitations of calculating population-attributable fractions for infectious diseases based on observational studies, from this range of prevalence values and the summary RR values calculated in this meta-analysis, our results suggest that, in these general populations, potentially 38–60% of new HIV infections may be attributable to prevalent HSV-2 infection in women and 8–49% in men.
HSV-2 antiviral treatment is available and has been shown to significantly reduce HSV-2 transmission between discordant heterosexual couples . The impact of this treatment on HIV incidence is not yet known . Ultimately, the best way to establish causality and to understand the impact of HSV-2 interventions on HIV is to undertake HSV-2 intervention studies; several are currently underway.
We would like to thank the authors of studies included in the review, and especially researchers contributing information and further data analyses to this review (listed alphabetically by study group/institution): Scott Holmberg (Centers for Disease Control); Nicolas Nagot (Centre Muraz, Burkina Faso); Eduard Sanders, Nicole Dukers (Ethio-Netherlands AIDS Research Project); Ron Gray (Johns Hopkins University Bloomberg School of Public Health); Steven Reynolds, Mary Shepherd, Sanjay Mehendale (Johns Hopkins University–National AIDS Research Institute India Collaboration); Jim Todd (London School of Hygiene and Tropical Medicine); Gabriele Riedner, Michael Hoelscher (Mbeya Medical Research Programme); Gita Ramjee, Eleanor Gouws, Brian Williams (Medical Research Council, South Africa/UNAIDS/WHO); Willi McFarland, Tim Kellogg (San Francisco Department of Public Health); Peter Kilmarx, Sara Whitehead, Philip Mock, Khanchit Limpakarniarnarat (Thailand MOPH–US CDC Collaboration); Lawrence Kingsley (University of Pittsburgh); Rupert Kaul (University of Toronto); Ludo Lavreys, Jared Baeten, Joel Rakwar (University of Washington/University of Nairobi).
Sponsorship: E. E. Freeman was supported by a Marshall Scholarship; H. A. Weiss is funded by the UK Medical Research Council; J. R. Glynn is supported by the UK Department of Health (Public Health Career Scientist Award).
1. Wald A, Link K. Risk of human immunodeficiency virus infection in herpes simplex virus type 2-seropositive persons: a meta-analysis. J Infect Dis 2002; 185:45–52.
2. Grosskurth H, Mosha F, Todd J, Mwijarubi E, Klokke A, Senkoro K, et al
. Impact of improved treatment of sexually transmitted diseases on HIV infection in rural Tanzania: randomised controlled trial. Lancet 1995; 346:530–536.
3. Fleming DT, Wasserheit JN. From epidemiological synergy to public health policy and practice: the contribution of other sexually transmitted diseases to sexual transmission of HIV infection. Sex Transm Infect 1999; 75:3–17.
4. de Vincenzi I. A longitudinal study of human immunodeficiency virus transmission by heterosexual partners. European Study Group on Heterosexual Transmission of HIV. N Engl J Med 1994; 331:341–346.
5. Corey L, Wald A, Celum CL, Quinn TC. The effects of herpes simplex virus-2 on HIV-1 acquisition and transmission: a review of two overlapping epidemics. J Acquir Immune Defic Syndr 2004; 35:435–445.
6. Wald A, Langenberg AG, Link K, Izu AE, Ashley R, Warren T, et al
. Effect of condoms on reducing the transmission of herpes simplex virus type 2 from men to women. JAMA 2001; 285:3100–3106.
7. Benedetti J, Corey L, Ashley R. Recurrence rates in genital herpes after symptomatic first-episode infection. Ann Intern Med 1994; 121:847–854.
8. Kilmarx PH, Limpakarnjanarat K, Mastro TD, Saisorn S, Kaewkungwal J, Korattana S, et al
. HIV-1 seroconversion in a prospective study of female sex workers in northern Thailand: continued high incidence among brothel-based women. AIDS 1998; 12:1889–1898.
9. Celum C, Levine R, Weaver M, Wald A. Genital herpes and human immunodeficiency virus: double trouble. Bull World Health Organ 2004; 82:447–453.
10. Wald A, Ashley-Morrow R. Serological testing for herpes simplex virus (HSV)-1 and HSV-2 infection. Clin Infect Dis 2002; 35:S173–S182.
11. van Doornum GJ, Slomka MJ, Buimer M, Groen J, van den Hoek JA, Cairo I, et al
. Comparison of a monoclonal antibody-blocking enzyme-linked immunoassay and a strip immunoblot assay for identifying type-specific herpes simplex virus type 2 serological responses. Clin Diagn Lab Immunol 2000; 7:641–644.
12. Cochrane Collaboration. Open Learning Material for Reviewers: Diversity and Heterogeneity
. Oxford, UK: Cochrane Library; 2002.
13. Engels EA, Schmid CH, Terrin N, Olkin I, Lau J. Heterogeneity and statistical significance in meta-analysis: an empirical study of 125 meta-analyses. Stat Med 2000; 19:1707–1728.
14. Villar J, Mackey ME, Carroli G, Donner A. Meta-analyses in systematic reviews of randomized controlled trials in perinatal medicine: comparison of fixed and random effects models. Stat Med 2001; 20:3635–3647.
15. Takkouche B, Cadarso-Suarez C, Spiegelman D. Evaluation of old and new tests of heterogeneity in epidemiologic meta-analysis. Am J Epidemiol 1999; 150:206–215.
16. Kamali A, Muhangi L, Quigley M, Whitworth J. Association between prevalence and incidence of herpes simplex virus-2, syphilis, and HIV-1 infection in rural Uganda. XIV International Conference on AIDS
. Barcelona, July 2002 [abstract MoOrC1011].
17. Nagot N, Ouedraogo A, Ouangre A, Cartoux M, Defer MC, Meda N, et al
. Is STI management among sex workers still able to mitigate the spread of HIV infection in West Africa? J Acquir Immune Defic Syndr 2005; 39:454–458.
18. Ouedraogo A, Nagot N, Ouangre A, Defer MC, Meda N, van de Perre P. Is STI management among sex workers still able to mitigate the spread of HIV infection in West Africa? XV International Conference on AIDS
. Bangkok, July 2004 [abstract WePeC6191].
19. Ramjee G, Williams B, Gouws E, van Dyck E, de Deken B, Abdool Karim SS. The impact of incident and prevalent HSV-2 infection on the incidence of HIV-1 infection among commercial sex workers in South Africa. J Acquir Immune Defic Syndr 2005; 39:333–339.
20. Gray RH, Li X, Wawer MJ, Serwadda D, Sewankambo NK, Wabwire-Mangen F, et al
. Determinants of HIV-1 load in subjects with early and later HIV infections, in a general-population cohort of Rakai, Uganda. J Infect Dis 2004; 189:1209–1215.
21. Serwadda D, Gray RH, Sewankambo NK, Wabwire-Mangen F, Chen MZ, Quinn TC, et al
. Human immunodeficiency virus acquisition associated with genital ulcer disease and herpes simplex virus type 2 infection: a nested case-control study in Rakai, Uganda. J Infect Dis 2003; 188:1492–1497.
22. Kaul R, Kimani J, Nagelkerke NJ, Fonck K, Ngugi EN, Keli F, et al
. Monthly antibiotic chemoprophylaxis and incidence of sexually transmitted infections and HIV-1 infection in Kenyan sex workers: a randomized controlled trial. JAMA 2004; 291:2555–2562.
23. Kebede Y, Dorigo-Zetsma W, Mengistu Y, Mekonnen Y, Schaap A, Wolday D, et al
. Transmission of herpes simplex virus type 2 among factory workers in Ethiopia. J Infect Dis 2004; 190:365–372.
24. Renzi C, Douglas JM Jr, Foster M, Critchlow CW, Ashley-Morrow R, Buchbinder SP, et al
. Herpes simplex virus type 2 infection as a risk factor for human immunodeficiency virus acquisition in men who have sex with men. J Infect Dis 2003; 187:19–25.
25. Reynolds SJ, Risbud AR, Shepherd ME, Zenilman JM, Brookmeyer RS, Paranjape RS, et al
. Recent herpes simplex virus type 2 infection and the risk of human immunodeficiency virus type 1 acquisition in India. J Infect Dis 2003; 187:1513–1521.
26. Turner KR, McFarland W, Kellogg TA, Wong E, Page-Shafer K, Louie B, et al
. Incidence and prevalence of herpes simplex virus type 2 infection in persons seeking repeat HIV counseling and testing. STD 2003; 30:331–334.
27. McFarland W, Gwanzura L, Bassett MT, Machekano R, Latif AS, Ley C, et al
. Prevalence and incidence of herpes simplex virus type 2 infection among male Zimbabwean factory workers. J Infect Dis 1999; 180:1459–1465.
28. Rakwar J, Lavreys L, Thompson ML, Jackson D, Bwayo J, Hassanali S, et al
. Cofactors for the acquisition of HIV-1 among heterosexual men: prospective cohort study of trucking company workers in Kenya. AIDS 1999; 13:607–614.
29. Nopkesorn T, Mock PA, Mastro TD, Sangkharomya S, Sweat M, Limpakarnjanarat K, et al
. HIV-1 subtype E incidence and sexually transmitted diseases in a cohort of military conscripts in northern Thailand. J Acquir Immune Defic Syndr 1998; 18:372–379.
30. Nelson KE, Eiumtrakul S, Celentano D, Maclean I, Ronald A, Suprasert S, et al
. The association of herpes simplex virus type 2 (HSV-2), Haemophilus ducreyi
, and syphilis with HIV infection in young men in northern Thailand. J Acquir Immune Defic Syndr 1997; 16:293–300.
31. Kingsley LA, Armstrong J, Rahman A, Ho M, Rinaldo CR Jr. No association between herpes simplex virus type-2 seropositivity or anogenital lesions and HIV seroconversion among homosexual men. J Acquir Immune Defic Syndr 1990; 3:773–779.
32. Holmberg SD, Stewart JA, Gerber AR, Byers RH, Lee FK, O'Malley PM, et al
. Prior herpes simplex virus type 2 infection as a risk factor for HIV infection. JAMA 1988; 259:1048–1050.
33. Keet IP, Lee FK, van Griensven GJ, Lange JM, Nahmias A, Coutinho RA. Herpes simplex virus type 2 and other genital ulcerative infections as a risk factor for HIV-1 acquisition. Genitourin Med 1990; 66:330–333.
34. Hanson J, Posner S, Hassig S, Rice J, Farley TA. Assessment of sexually transmitted diseases as risk factors for HIV seroconversion in a New Orleans sexually transmitted disease clinic, 1990–1998. Ann Epidemiol 2005; 15:13–20.
35. Brown JM, Chitsungo S, Chipato T, Morrison C, Padian NS. Prevalence and risk factors for herpes simplex virus type 2 among Zimbabwean women. International Society for Sexually Transmitted Disease Research Congress
. Ottawa, July 2003 [abstract 0125].
36. Brown JM, Rungruengthanakit K, Rugpao S, Cornelisse P, Padian NS, Morrison C. Hormonal contraceptive use and incidence of herpes simplex virus type 2 among women in Thailand. XV International Conference on AIDS
. Bangkok, July 2004 [abstract ThPeC7385].
37. del Mar Pujades Rodriguez M, Obasi A, Mosha F, Todd J, Brown D, Changalucha J, et al
. Herpes simplex virus type 2 infection increases HIV incidence: a prospective study in rural Tanzania. AIDS 2002; 16:451–462.
38. Gray JA, Dore GJ, Li Y, Supawitkul S, Effler P, Kaldor JM. HIV-1 infection among female commercial sex workers in rural Thailand. AIDS 1997; 11:89–94.
39. Gray RH, Wawer MJ, Brookmeyer R, Sewankambo NK, Serwadda D, Wabwire-Mangen F, et al
. Probability of HIV-1 transmission per coital act in monogamous, heterosexual, HIV-1-discordant couples in Rakai, Uganda. Lancet 2001; 357:1149–1153.
40. Lavreys L, Rakwar JP, Thompson ML, Jackson DJ, Mandaliya K, Chohan BH, et al
. Effect of circumcision on incidence of human immunodeficiency virus type 1 and other sexually transmitted diseases: a prospective cohort study of trucking company employees in Kenya. J Infect Dis 1999; 180:330–336.
41. Moses S, Kaul R, Kimani J, Fonck K, Nagelkerke NJ, Keli F, et al
. Prevalent HSV-2 infection and risk for HIV seroconversion in a cohort of Kenyan female sex workers enrolled in a randomized controlled trial of antibiotic chemoprophylaxis to reduce HIV incidence. XV International Conference on AIDS
. Bangkok, July 2004 [abstract LbOrC24].
42. Page-Shafer K, Veugelers PJ, Moss AR, Strathdee S, Kaldor JM, van Griensven GJ. Sexual risk behavior and risk factors for HIV-1 seroconversion in homosexual men participating in the Tricontinental Seroconverter Study, 1982–1994. Am J Epidemiol 1997; 146:531–542.
43. Ramjee G, Gouws E, van Dyck E, Williams B, Abdool Karim SS. Incidence of herpes simplex virus-2 and HIV among sex workers in Kwazulu-Natal Durban: a relation in time study. XIV International Conference on AIDS
. Barcelona, July 2002 [abstract ThPeC7616].
44. Reynolds SJ, Risbud AR, Shepherd ME, Zenilman JM, Brookmeyer R, Kulkarni SV, et al
. Recent herpes simplex virus type 2 infection and the risk of HIV acquisition in Pune, India. XIV International AIDS Conference
. 2002. Barcelona, Spain [abstract MoOrC1012].
45. Reynolds SJ, Risbud AR, Godbole SV, Shepherd ME, Joshi SN, Ghate MV, et al
. Comparison of risk factors for incident sexually transmitted infections among men attending STI clinics in Pune, India. XV International Conference on AIDS
. Bangkok, July 2004 [abstract ThPpC2097].
46. Salata R, Cornelisse P, Chipato T, Mmiro F, Morrison C, Padian NS, et al
. Prevalence and incidence of HIV and sexually transmitted infections among young women in Thailand, Uganda, and Zimbabwe participating in the hormonal contraception and risk of HIV acquisition cohort. XIV International Conference on AIDS
. Barcelona, July 2002 [abstract ThPeC7413].
47. Salata R, Cornelisse P, Richardson BA, Chipato T, Mmiro F, Mugerwa RD, et al
. Interrelationships between sexually transmitted infections and HIV-1 infection among women in Thailand, Uganda, and Zimbabwe participating in the Hormonal Contraception and Risk of HIV-1 Acquisition Study. XV International Conference on AIDS
. Bangkok, July 2004.
48. Sturm P, Moodley P, Connolly C, Sturm AW. Risk factors for the acquisition of HIV-1 and HSV-2 in patients presenting with genital ulcer disease. International Society for Sexually Transmitted Disease Research Congress
. Ottawa, July 2003 [abstract 0374].
49. Tabet SR, Krone MR, Paradise MA, Corey L, Stamm WE, Celum CL. Incidence of HIV and sexually transmitted diseases (STD) in a cohort of HIV-negative men who have sex with men (MSM). AIDS 1998; 12:2041–2048.
50. Telzak EE, Chiasson MA, Bevier PJ, Stoneburner RL, Castro KG, Jaffe HW. HIV-1 seroconversion in patients with and without genital ulcer disease. A prospective study. Ann Intern Med 1993; 119:1181–1186.
51. Morrow RA, Friedrich D, Krantz E. Performance of the focus and Kalon enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays for antibodies to herpes simplex virus type 2 glycoprotein G in culture-documented cases of genital herpes. J Clin Microbiol 2003; 41:5212–5214.
52. Benedetti JK, Zeh J, Corey L. Clinical reactivation of genital herpes simplex virus infection decreases in frequency over time. Ann Intern Med 1999; 131:14–20.
53. van Dyck E, Buve A, Weiss HA, Glynn JR, Brown DW, de Deken B, et al
. Performance of commercially available enzyme immunoassays for detection of antibodies against herpes simplex virus type 2 in African populations. J Clin Microbiol 2004; 42:2961–2965.
54. Smith JS, Robinson NJ. Age-specific prevalence of infection with herpes simplex virus types 2 and 1: a global review. J Infect Dis 2002; 186(Suppl 1):S3–S28.
55. Corey L, Wald A, Patel R, Sacks SL, Tyring SK, Warren T, et al
. Once-daily valacyclovir to reduce the risk of transmission of genital herpes. N Engl J Med 2004; 350:11–20.
56. Celum CL, Robinson NJ, Cohen MS. Potential effect of HIV type 1 antiretroviral and herpes simplex virus type 2 antiviral therapy on transmission and acquisition of HIV type 1 infection. J Infect Dis 2005; 191(Suppl 1):S107–S114.
This article has been cited 263 time(s).
Journal of VirologyGriffithsin Protects Mice from Genital Herpes by Preventing Cell-to-Cell SpreadJournal of Virology
International Journal of Std & AIDSPartner-concurrency associated with herpes simplex virus 2 infection in young South AfricansInternational Journal of Std & AIDS
Antimicrobial Agents and ChemotherapyTheaflavin-3,3 '-Digallate and Lactic Acid Combinations Reduce Herpes Simplex Virus InfectivityAntimicrobial Agents and Chemotherapy
Cold Spring Harbor Perspectives in MedicineBehavioral and Biomedical Combination Strategies for HIV PreventionCold Spring Harbor Perspectives in Medicine
Expert Review of VaccinesCombination of adjuvants: the future of vaccine designExpert Review of Vaccines
American Journal of Obstetrics and GynecologyMonitoring vaginal epithelial thickness changes noninvasively in sheep using optical coherence tomographyAmerican Journal of Obstetrics and Gynecology
International Journal of Std & AIDSHerpes simplex virus type 2 serological testing at a community court: predictors of test acceptance and seropositivity among female defendantsInternational Journal of Std & AIDS
Sexually Transmitted InfectionsHIV and STI control in El Salvador: results from an integrated behavioural survey among men who have sex with menSexually Transmitted Infections
International Journal of Std & AIDSHerpes simplex virus type 2 incidence and associated risk factors among female sex workers in a high HIV-prevalence area of ChinaInternational Journal of Std & AIDS
Prevalence of Chlamydia trachomatis and herpes simplex virus type 2: Results from the 2009 to 2011 Canadian Health Measures Survey
Health Reports, 24(4):
Public Health NursingParenting Strategies African American Mothers Employ to Decrease Sexual Risk Behaviors in Their Early Adolescent DaughtersPublic Health Nursing
Microbial PathogenesisHSV-2 vaccine: Current state and insights into development of a vaccine that targets genital mucosal protectionMicrobial Pathogenesis
Tropical Medicine & International HealthEffect of HSV-2 on population-level trends in HIV incidence in Uganda between 1990 and 2007Tropical Medicine & International Health
Journal of Infectious Diseases
Time to translate new knowledge into practice: A call for a national genital herpes control program
Journal of Infectious Diseases, 194(1):
Jama-Journal of the American Medical Association
Trends in herpes simplex virus type 1 and type 2 seroprevalence in the United States
Jama-Journal of the American Medical Association, 296(8):
Reproductive Health Matters
HSV-2 infection increases HIV acquisition in men and women
Reproductive Health Matters, 14():
Journal of Infectious DiseasesA comprehensive murine model to evaluate topical vaginal microbicides: Mucosal inflammation and susceptibility to genital herpes as surrogate markers of safetyJournal of Infectious Diseases
Incident and prevalent herpes simplex virus type 2 infection increases risk of HIV acquisition among women in Uganda and Zimbabwe
Amphipathic DNA polymers are candidate vaginal microbicides and block herpes simplex virus binding, entry and viral gene expression
Antiviral Therapy, 12(8):
Journal of Infectious DiseasesLow-Level CD4(+) T Cell Activation in HIV-Exposed Seronegative Subjects: Influence of Gender and Condom UseJournal of Infectious Diseases
International Journal of Std & AIDS
Decline in HIV prevalence among women of childbearing age in Moshi urban, Tanzania
International Journal of Std & AIDS, 18():
Bmc Infectious DiseasesPredictors of incident herpes simplex virus type 2 infections in young women at risk for unintended pregnancy in San FranciscoBmc Infectious Diseases
Journal of Clinical InvestigationThe spread, treatment, and prevention of HIV-1: evolution of a global pandemicJournal of Clinical Investigation
Infectious Disease Clinics of North AmericaEpidemiology of Infections in WomenInfectious Disease Clinics of North America
Evidence-based strategies for preventing HIV transmission and the Thailand perspective
Asian Biomedicine, 3(1):
Infectious Disease Clinics of North AmericaMeta-analytical Studies on the Epidemiology, Prevention, and Treatment of Human Immunodeficiency Virus InfectionInfectious Disease Clinics of North America
VaccineConstruction and properties of a herpes simplex virus 2 dl5-29 vaccine candidate strain encoding an HSV-1 virion host shutoff proteinVaccine
Science Translational MedicineFrequent Release of Low Amounts of Herpes Simplex Virus from Neurons: Results of a Mathematical ModelScience Translational Medicine
Annals of Tropical Medicine and ParasitologyHuman immunodeficiency virus (HIV) in developing countriesAnnals of Tropical Medicine and Parasitology
Impact of suppressive herpes therapy on genital HIV-1 RNA among women taking antiretroviral therapy: a randomized controlled trial
Journal of VirologyMolecular umbrellas: a novel class of candidate topical microbicides to prevent human immunodeficiency virus and herpes simplex virus infectionsJournal of Virology
AutoimmunityRegulation of dendritic cells by female sex steroids: Relevance to immunity and autoimmunityAutoimmunity
Maternal herpes simplex virus type 2 coinfection increases the risk of perinatal HIV transmission: possibility to further decrease transmission?
Indian Journal of Dermatology Venereology & Leprology
Herpes simplex virus 2 infection: A risk factor for HIV infection in heterosexuals
Indian Journal of Dermatology Venereology & Leprology, 74(3):
Bulletin of Mathematical BiologyDynamic Modeling of Herpes Simplex Virus Type-2 (HSV-2) Transmission: Issues in Structural UncertaintyBulletin of Mathematical Biology
International Journal of Std & AIDSHerpes simplex virus type 2 and HIV infection among US military personnel: implications for health prevention programmesInternational Journal of Std & AIDS
Postepy Dermatologii I Alergologii
Genital ulcer diseases as an entry for HIV infection
Postepy Dermatologii I Alergologii, 26(4):
ImmunologyIncreased number and function of natural killer cells in human immunodeficiency virus 1-positive subjects co-infected with herpes simplex virus 2Immunology
Nature Reviews MicrobiologyWhy do we need quality-assured diagnostic tests for sexually transmitted infections?Nature Reviews Microbiology
Sexually Transmitted InfectionsHerpes simplex virus type 2: epidemiology and management options in developing countriesSexually Transmitted Infections
Clinical and therapeutic issues for herpes simplex virus-2 and HIV co-infection
Journal of Infectious DiseasesStay it with flora: Maintaining vaginal health as a possible avenue for prevention of human immunodeficiency virus acquisitionJournal of Infectious Diseases
VirologyReplication-defective virus vaccine-induced protection of mice from genital herpes simplex virus 2 requires CD4 T cellsVirology
Enfermedades Infecciosas Y Microbiologia Clinica
Treatment of opportunistic infections in adolescent and adult patients infected by the human immunodeficiency virus during the era of highly active antiretroviral therapy - AIDS Study Group (GESIDA) and National AIDS Plan Expert Committe
Enfermedades Infecciosas Y Microbiologia Clinica, 26(6):
Journal of VirologyHerpes simplex virus downregulates secretory leukocyte protease inhibitor: a novel immune evasion mechanismJournal of Virology
Acta Microbiologica Et Immunologica HungaricaSeroprevalence of Hsv-2 in Hungary and Comparison of the Hsv-2 Prevalence of Pregnant and Infertile WomenActa Microbiologica Et Immunologica Hungarica
Jaids-Journal of Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndromes
High Rates of STD and Sexual Risk Behaviors Among Garifunas in Honduras
Jaids-Journal of Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndromes, 51():
Journal Der Deutschen Dermatologischen GesellschaftSkin diseases and sexually transmitted diseases in HIV-infected patients on HAART compared to a non-infected population - results of a retrospective studyJournal Der Deutschen Dermatologischen Gesellschaft
PediatricsPrevalence of Sexually Transmitted Infections Among Female Adolescents Aged 14 to 19 in the United StatesPediatrics
Human ReproductionHuman immunodeficiency virus serodiscordant couples on highly active antiretroviral therapies with undetectable viral load: conception by unprotected sexual intercourse or by assisted reproduction techniques?Human Reproduction
Sexually Transmitted InfectionsInterim modelling analysis to validate reported increases in condom use and assess HIV infections averted among female sex workers and clients in southern India following a targeted HIV prevention programmeSexually Transmitted Infections
Carbohydrate PolymersStructure of rhamnan sulfate from the green alga Monostroma nitidum and its anti-herpetic effectCarbohydrate Polymers
Substance Use & MisuseBehavior change and health-related interventions for heterosexual risk reduction among drug usersSubstance Use & Misuse
Male circumcision for HIV prevention in men in Rakai, Uganda: a randomised trial
Response to Brown et al., 'incident and prevalent herpes simplex virus type 2 infection increases risk of HIV acquisition among women in Uganda and Zimbabwe'
New England Journal of Medicine
Effect of herpes simplex suppression on incidence of HIV among women in Tanzania
New England Journal of Medicine, 358():
International Reviews of ImmunologyMucosal Immunity and Protection Against HIV/SIV Infection: Strategies and Challenges for Vaccine DesignInternational Reviews of Immunology
Sexually Transmitted InfectionsEvaluation of multiplex real-time PCR for detection of Haemophilus ducreyi, Treponema pallidum, herpes simplex virus type 1 and 2 in the diagnosis of genital ulcer disease in the Rakai District, UgandaSexually Transmitted Infections
Expert Review of Anti-Infective TherapyNovel approaches in fighting herpes simplex virus infectionsExpert Review of Anti-Infective Therapy
Journal of Family Planning and Reproductive Health Care
Aspects of herpes simplex virus: a clinical review
Journal of Family Planning and Reproductive Health Care, 35(4):
Plos OneSexually Transmitted Infections among HIV-1-Discordant CouplesPlos One
Expert Review of Anti-Infective TherapyMale circumcision for HIV prevention: developments from sub-Saharan AfricaExpert Review of Anti-Infective Therapy
Journal of VirologyMucosal Innate and Adaptive Immune Responses against Herpes Simplex Virus Type 2 in a Humanized Mouse ModelJournal of Virology
Current Hiv Research
Relative HIV Resistance in Kenyan Sex Workers is Not Due to an Altered Prevalence or Mucosal Immune Impact of Herpes Simplex Virus Type 2 Infection
Current Hiv Research, 7(5):
Current Opinion in Molecular Therapeutics
siRNA-based topical microbicides targeting sexually transmitted infections
Current Opinion in Molecular Therapeutics, 12(2):
LancetSexual and reproductive health 5 - Global control of sexually transmitted infectionsLancet
Mucosal ImmunologyDifferences in immunoregulatory cytokine expression patterns in the systemic and genital tract compartments of HIV-1-infected commercial sex workers in BeninMucosal Immunology
Antimicrobial Agents and ChemotherapyAmphipathic DNA polymers exhibit antiherpetic activity in vitro and in vivoAntimicrobial Agents and Chemotherapy
Sexually Transmitted InfectionsEffect of HIV-1 and antiretroviral therapy on herpes simplex virus type 2: a prospective study in African womenSexually Transmitted Infections
Sexually Transmitted InfectionsScreening for genital and anorectal sexually transmitted infections in HIV prevention trials in AfricaSexually Transmitted Infections
Cell Host & MicrobeAcyclovir is activated into a HIV-1 reverse transcriptase inhibitor in herpesvirus-infected human tissuesCell Host & Microbe
Expert Review of Anti-Infective TherapyAciclovir, herpes viruses and HIV: a never-ending storyExpert Review of Anti-Infective Therapy
International Journal of Std & AIDSAetiology of genital ulcer disease in female partners of male participants in a circumcision trial in UgandaInternational Journal of Std & AIDS
VaccinePopulation-level effect of potential HSV2 prophylactic vaccines on HIV incidence in sub-Saharan AfricaVaccine
AIDS Care-Psychological and Socio-Medical Aspects of AIDS/HivDiscussion and revision of the mathematical modeling tool described in the previously published article "Modeling HIV Transmission risk among Mozambicans prior to their initiating highly active antiretroviral therapy"AIDS Care-Psychological and Socio-Medical Aspects of AIDS/Hiv
Journal of ImmunologyHerpes Simplex Virus Infects Skin gamma delta T Cells before Langerhans Cells and Impedes Migration of Infected Langerhans Cells by Inducing Apoptosis and Blocking E-Cadherin DownregulationJournal of Immunology
Journal of Infectious Diseases
New information on the risks of HIV transmission in Mwanza, Tanzania - Reply to Gisselquist
Journal of Infectious Diseases, 194(4):
Bmc Public HealthPrevalence of HIV, Herpes Simplex Virus-2, and Syphilis in male sex partners of pregnant women in PeruBmc Public Health
Reassessing the hypothesis on STI control for HIV prevention
Sexually Transmitted InfectionsProportion of new HIV infections attributable to herpes simplex 2 increases over time: simulations of the changing role of sexually transmitted infections in sub-Saharan African HIV epidemicsSexually Transmitted Infections
Sexually Transmitted InfectionsRelative prevalence of different sexually transmitted infections in HIV-discordant sexual partnerships: data from a risk network study in a high-risk New York neighbourhoodSexually Transmitted Infections
Journal of Reproductive ImmunologyThe genital tract immune milieu: An important determinant of HIV susceptibility and secondary transmissionJournal of Reproductive Immunology
Effect of aciclovir on HIV-1 acquisition in herpes simplex virus 2 seropositive women and men who have sex with men: a randomised, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial
Postgraduate Medical JournalHerpes simplex virus type 2: epidemiology and management options in developing countriesPostgraduate Medical Journal
Pathogenesis and risk of HIV infection in women - review of recent literature
Ginekologia Polska, 80(1):
Infectious Disease Clinics of North AmericaIdentifying Risk Factors for Infections: The Role of Meta-analysesInfectious Disease Clinics of North America
Journal of Infectious DiseasesImprovement in Healing and Reduction in HIV Shedding with Episodic Acyclovir Therapy as Part of Syndromic Management among Men: A Randomized, Controlled TrialJournal of Infectious Diseases
AIDS and BehaviorPoverty, Sex and HIVAIDS and Behavior
Sexually Transmitted InfectionsEcological analysis of the association between high-risk population parameters and HIV prevalence among pregnant women enrolled in sentinel surveillance in four southern India statesSexually Transmitted Infections
Journal of Infectious DiseasesIncreased Risk of HIV Acquisition among Kenyan Men with Human Papillomavirus InfectionJournal of Infectious Diseases
New England Journal of Medicine
Acyclovir and Transmission of HIV-1 from Persons Infected with HIV-1 and HSV-2 REPLY
New England Journal of Medicine, 362():
British Medical JournalContribution of problem drug users' deaths to excess mortality in Scotland: secondary analysis of cohort studyBritish Medical Journal
Sexually Transmitted InfectionsHerpes complexSexually Transmitted Infections
Sexually Transmitted InfectionsHerpes simplex virus type 2 trends in relation to the HIV epidemic in northern MalawiSexually Transmitted Infections
Expert Review of VaccinesSTEP trial and HIV-1 vaccines inducing T-cell responsesExpert Review of Vaccines
Vulnerability of women in southern Africa to infection with HIV: biological determinants and priority health sector interventions
Journal of Clinical VirologySerologic detection of herpes simplex virus type 2 antibodies among pregnant women using a point-of-care test from Focus DiagnosticsJournal of Clinical Virology
Journal of Infectious DiseasesHerpes simplex virus type 2 infection does not influence viral dynamics during early HIV-1 infectionJournal of Infectious Diseases
Sexually Transmitted InfectionsRisk of herpes simplex virus type 2 acquisition increases over early adulthood: evidence from a cohort studySexually Transmitted Infections
Sexually Transmitted InfectionsAssociation between bacterial vaginosis and Herpes simplex virus type-2 infection: implications for HIV acquisition studiesSexually Transmitted Infections
Canadian Journal of Infectious Diseases & Medical Microbiology
The diagnosis of genital herpes - beyond culture: An evidence-based guide for the utilization of polymerase chain reaction and herpes simplex virus type-specific serology
Canadian Journal of Infectious Diseases & Medical Microbiology, 18(4):
Expert Opinion on Emerging DrugsThe potential impact of a prophylactic herpes simplex vaccineExpert Opinion on Emerging Drugs
International Journal of Std & AIDSLow seroprevalence of herpes simplex virus type 2 among pregnant women in SenegalInternational Journal of Std & AIDS
Drug and Alcohol DependenceThe associations of binge alcohol use with HIV/STI risk and diagnosis among heterosexual African American menDrug and Alcohol Dependence
Bmc Infectious DiseasesSeroprevalence and factors associated with herpes simplex virus type 2 among HIV-negative high-risk men who have sex with men from Rio de Janeiro, Brazil: a cross-sectional studyBmc Infectious Diseases
Clinical Infectious DiseasesPrevention of HIV Infection among Injection Drug Users in Resource-Limited SettingsClinical Infectious Diseases
Mayo Clinic Proceedings
Effect of valacyclovir on viral shedding in immunocompetent patients with recurrent herpes simplex virus 2 genital herpes: A US-based randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled clinical trial
Mayo Clinic Proceedings, 81():
Journal of Infectious Diseases
Predictors of Herpes simplex virus type 2 prevalence and incidence among bar and hotel workers in Moshi, Tanzania
Journal of Infectious Diseases, 195(4):
Journal of Infectious DiseasesHerpes simplex virus type 2 and HIV-1: The dialogue between the 2 organisms continuesJournal of Infectious Diseases
Journal of Infectious DiseasesRoles of clinical and subclinical reactivated herpes simplex virus type 2 infection and human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1)-induced immunosuppression on genital and plasma HIV-1 levelsJournal of Infectious Diseases
British Medical JournalImpact of Stepping Stones on incidence of HIV and HSV-2 and sexual behaviour in rural South Africa: cluster randomised controlled trialBritish Medical Journal
Mucosal ImmunologyDendritic cells and macrophages in the genitourinary tractMucosal Immunology
Journal of American College Health
Serologic Screening for Herpes Simplex Virus Among University Students: A Pilot Study
Journal of American College Health, 56(3):
Plos OneGenital Herpes Has Played a More Important Role than Any Other Sexually Transmitted Infection in Driving HIV Prevalence in AfricaPlos One
Infections in Medicine
Sexually Transmitted Viral Infections in Women: HIV, HSV, and HPV
Infections in Medicine, 26(1):
Sexually Transmitted InfectionsPopulation-level effect of HSV-2 therapy on the incidence of HIV in sub-Saharan AfricaSexually Transmitted Infections
Journal of Biological ChemistryThe Antiherpetic Drug Acyclovir Inhibits HIV Replication and Selects the V75I Reverse Transcriptase Multidrug Resistance MutationJournal of Biological Chemistry
Plos OneHIV Prevalence and Associated Risk Factors among Individuals Aged 13-34 Years in Rural Western KenyaPlos One
Sexual HealthRisk factors for herpes simplex virus type 2 and its association with HIV among pregnant teenagers in ZimbabweSexual Health
Genital herpes in Africa: time to rethink treatment
Journal of Infectious DiseasesCoinfection with herpes simplex virus type 2 is associated with reduced HIV-specific T cell responses and systemic immune activationJournal of Infectious Diseases
Bmc Infectious DiseasesSeroepidemiology of viral hepatitis, HIV and herpes simplex type 2 in the household population aged 21-64 years in Puerto RicoBmc Infectious Diseases
International Journal of Antimicrobial AgentsCandidate vaginal microbicides with activity against Chlamydia trachomatis and Neisseria gonorrhoeaeInternational Journal of Antimicrobial Agents
American Journal of Reproductive ImmunologyImpact of microbicides and sexually transmitted infections on mucosal immunity in the female genital tractAmerican Journal of Reproductive Immunology
Journal of Infectious Diseases
Association of herpes simplex virus type 2 infection and syphilis with human immunodeficiency virus infection among men who have sex with men in Peru
Journal of Infectious Diseases, 194():
Journal of Infectious DiseasesThe role of herpes simplex virus type 2 and other genital infections in the acquisition of HIV-1 among high-risk women in northern TanzaniaJournal of Infectious Diseases
Hormonal contraceptive use, herpes simplex virus infection, and risk of HIV-1 acquisition among Kenyan women
Sexually Transmitted InfectionsHerpes simplex virus type 2 antibody detection performance in Kisumu, Kenya, using the Herpeselect ELISA, Kalon ELISA, Western blot and inhibition testingSexually Transmitted Infections
Nature MedicinePersistence of HIV-1 receptor-positive cells after HSV-2 reactivation is a potential mechanism for increased HIV-1 acquisitionNature Medicine
HIV Incidence in Sub-Saharan Africa: A Review of Available Data with Implications for Surveillance and Prevention Planning
AIDS Reviews, 11(3):
Virology JournalFSL-1, a bacterial-derived toll-like receptor 2/6 agonist, enhances resistance to experimental HSV-2 infectionVirology Journal
Plos OneA Macaque Model to Study Vaginal HSV-2/Immunodeficiency Virus Co-Infection and the Impact of HSV-2 on Microbicide EfficacyPlos One
Tropical Medicine & International HealthDo behavioural differences help to explain variations in HIV prevalence in adolescents in sub-Saharan Africa?Tropical Medicine & International Health
Journal of Infectious DiseasesPrevalent herpes simplex virus type 2 infection is associated with altered vaginal flora and an increased susceptibility to multiple sexually transmitted infectionsJournal of Infectious Diseases
VirologyDisruption of the U(L)41 gene in the herpes simplex virus 2 dl5-29 mutant increases its immunogenicity and protective capacity in a murine model of genital herpesVirology
Annual Review of MedicineHerpes simplex: Insights on pathogenesis and possible vaccinesAnnual Review of Medicine
Sexually Transmitted InfectionsModelling the cost per ulcer treated of incorporating episodic treatment for HSV-2 into the syndromic algorithm for genital ulcer diseaseSexually Transmitted Infections
LancetHIV prevention 2 - Biomedical interventions to prevent HIV infection: evidence, challenges, and way forwardLancet
Drug and Alcohol DependenceUsing hepatitis C virus and herpes simplex virus-2 to track HIV among injecting drug users in New York CityDrug and Alcohol Dependence
Future VirologyOff-label indication: acyclovir as an anti-HIV drug?Future Virology
Journal of Epidemiology and Community HealthHIV prevention and psychoactive drug use: a research agendaJournal of Epidemiology and Community Health
International Journal of Infectious DiseasesPrevalence and predictors of HIV infection among female sex workers in Kaiyuan City, Yunnan Province, ChinaInternational Journal of Infectious Diseases
Future MicrobiologyRole of HSV-2 suppressive therapy for HIV preventionFuture Microbiology
Contemporary Clinical TrialsMeasurement and predictors of adherence in a trial of HSV suppressive therapy in TanzaniaContemporary Clinical Trials
Journal of Internal MedicineMucosal immune responses in the genital tract of HIV-1-exposed uninfected womenJournal of Internal Medicine
Journal of Infectious Diseases
Transmission of herpes simplex virus types 1 and 2 in a prospective cohort of HIV negative gay men: The Health in Men Study
Journal of Infectious Diseases, 194(5):
Nature Reviews MicrobiologyWhy do we need quality-assured diagnostic tests for sexually transmitted infections?Nature Reviews Microbiology
Journal of Clinical MicrobiologyPerformance of the HerpeSelect (Focus) and kalon enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays for detection of antibodies against herpes simplex virus type 2 by use of monoclonal antibody-blocking enzyme immunoassay and clinicovirological reference standards in BrazilJournal of Clinical Microbiology
Effectiveness and efficiency of imperfect therapeutic HSV-2 vaccines
Human Vaccines, 3(6):
Presse MedicaleHerpes serology for genital herpesPresse Medicale
Journal of Infectious DiseasesRapidly cleared episodes of herpes simplex virus reactivation in immunocompetent adultsJournal of Infectious Diseases
Nature Reviews MicrobiologyChromatin control of herpes simplex virus lytic and latent infectionNature Reviews Microbiology
Journal of VirologyCandidate microbicide PPCM blocks human immunodeficiency virus type 1 infection in cell and tissue cultures and prevents genital herpes in a murine modelJournal of Virology
Bulletin of the World Health OrganizationAn estimate of the global prevalence and incidence of herpes simplex virus type 2 infectionBulletin of the World Health Organization
Sexually Transmitted InfectionsProspective study of correlates of vaginal Lactobacillus colonisation among high-risk HIV-1 seronegative womenSexually Transmitted Infections
Journal of Investigative DermatologyVaccines and Microbicides Preventing HIV-1, HSV-2, and HPV Mucosal TransmissionJournal of Investigative Dermatology
Journal of Infectious DiseasesClinical and Virologic Efficacy of Herpes Simplex Virus Type 2 Suppression by Acyclovir in a Multicontinent Clinical TrialJournal of Infectious Diseases
Reviews in Medical VirologyTreatment of herpesvirus cofactors?Reviews in Medical Virology
Journal of Infectious DiseasesCircumcision's Place in the Vicious Cycle Involving Herpes Simplex Virus Type 2 and HIVJournal of Infectious Diseases
Plos OneCharacteristics of HIV-1 Discordant Couples Enrolled in a Trial of HSV-2 Suppression to Reduce HIV-1 Transmission: The Partners StudyPlos One
American Journal of Reproductive ImmunologyFemale Genital Tract Secretions Inhibit Herpes Simplex Virus Infection: Correlation with Soluble Mucosal Immune Mediators and Impact of Hormonal ContraceptionAmerican Journal of Reproductive Immunology
Journal of Clinical ImmunologyChemokine Expression Patterns in the Systemic and Genital Tract Compartments are Associated with HIV-1 Infection in Women from BeninJournal of Clinical Immunology
AIDS and BehaviorIntegrating HIV Prevention into Services for Abused Women in South AfricaAIDS and Behavior
Frequency of Curable Sexually Transmitted Infections Among Registered Female Sex-Workers in Ankara City
Mikrobiyoloji Bulteni, 44(1):
AIDS Care-Psychological and Socio-Medical Aspects of AIDS/HivA qualitative study of participant adherence in a randomized controlled trial of herpes suppressive therapy for HIV prevention in TanzaniaAIDS Care-Psychological and Socio-Medical Aspects of AIDS/Hiv
Journal of UrologyCircumcision and Reduced Risk of Self-Reported Penile Coital Injuries: Results From a Randomized Controlled Trial in Kisumu, KenyaJournal of Urology
New England Journal of Medicine
Reduction of HIV-1 RNA levels with therapy to suppress herpes simplex virus
New England Journal of Medicine, 356(8):
Cervicovaginal HIV-1 and herpes simplex virus type 2 shedding during genital ulcer disease episodes
Lancet Infectious Diseases
Herpes simplex virus and HIV-1: deciphering viral synergy
Lancet Infectious Diseases, 8(8):
AIDS Care-Psychological and Socio-Medical Aspects of AIDS/HivModeling HIV transmission risk among Mozambicans prior to their initiating highly active antiretroviral therapyAIDS Care-Psychological and Socio-Medical Aspects of AIDS/Hiv
Clinical Infectious DiseasesThe influence of hormonal contraceptive use on HIV-1 transmission and disease progressionClinical Infectious Diseases
Expert Review of Anti-Infective TherapyInteractions and management issues in HSV and HIV coinfectionExpert Review of Anti-Infective Therapy
VirologyImmunization with a replication-defective herpes simplex virus 2 mutant reduces herpes simplex virus 1 infection and prevents ocular diseaseVirology
Sexually Transmitted InfectionsHigh-risk sexual behaviour in men attending a sexually transmitted infection clinic in Durban, South AfricaSexually Transmitted Infections
Antiviral ResearchSexual transmission of HIV-1Antiviral Research
AIDS Research and Human RetrovirusesHSV Type 2 Infection Increases HIV DNA Detection in Vaginal Tissue of Mice Expressing Human CD4 and CCR5AIDS Research and Human Retroviruses
Journal of Infectious DiseasesA New Class of Dual-Targeted Antivirals: Monophosphorylated Acyclovir Prodrug Derivatives Suppress Both Human Immunodeficiency Virus Type 1 and Herpes Simplex Virus Type 2Journal of Infectious Diseases
Clinical Infectious DiseasesTreatment to Prevent Transmission of HIV-1Clinical Infectious Diseases
American Journal of Reproductive ImmunologyHIV Infection in the Female Genital Tract: Discrete Influence of the Local Mucosal MicroenvironmentAmerican Journal of Reproductive Immunology
Current Medical Research and OpinionSingle-day famciclovir therapy for recurrent genital herpesCurrent Medical Research and Opinion
New England Journal of Medicine
Synergistic copathogens - HIV-1 and HSV-2
New England Journal of Medicine, 356(8):
Molecular Medicine ReportsHerpes simplex virus: Drug resistance and new treatment options using natural products (Review)Molecular Medicine Reports
Journal of Infectious DiseasesImpact of Acyclovir on Genital and Plasma HIV-1 RNA, Genital Herpes Simplex Virus Type 2 DNA, and Ulcer Healing among HIV-1-Infected African Women with Herpes Ulcers: A Randomized Placebo-Controlled TrialJournal of Infectious Diseases
Jaids-Journal of Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndromes
Twenty-Five Years of HIV: Lessons for Low Prevalence Scenarios
Jaids-Journal of Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndromes, 51():
Annual Review of Clinical PsychologyThe Past, Present, and Future of HIV Prevention: Integrating Behavioral, Biomedical, and Structural Intervention Strategies for the Next Generation of HIV PreventionAnnual Review of Clinical Psychology
Pharmacology & TherapeuticsSulfated K5 Escherichia coli polysaccharide derivatives: A novel class of candidate antiviral microbicidesPharmacology & Therapeutics
American Journal of Public HealthPersistence and Change in Disparities in HIV Infection Among Injection Drug Users in New York City After Large-Scale Syringe Exchange ProgramsAmerican Journal of Public Health
American Journal of EpidemiologyHigh risk of human immunodeficiency virus in men who have sex with men with herpes simplex virus type 2 in the EXPLORE studyAmerican Journal of Epidemiology
British Journal of Hospital Medicine
The genitourinary complications of HIV infection in men
British Journal of Hospital Medicine, 69(3):
Fertility and SterilityAntiviral responses of human Fallopian tube epithelial cells to toll-like receptor 3 agonist poly(I : C)Fertility and Sterility
Antimicrobial Agents and ChemotherapyInhibition of herpes simplex virus types 1 and 2 in vitro infection by sulfated derivatives of Escherichia coli K5 polysaccharideAntimicrobial Agents and Chemotherapy
AIDS Patient Care and StdsPrevalence and incidence of sexually transmitted infections among South Indians at increased risk of HIV infectionAIDS Patient Care and Stds
International Journal of Std & AIDSPrevalence and predictors of herpes simplex virus type 2 infection among female sex workers in Yunnan Province, ChinaInternational Journal of Std & AIDS
Jama-Journal of the American Medical Association
Risk factors for recent HIV infection in Uganda
Jama-Journal of the American Medical Association, 300(5):
Journal of Infectious DiseasesProtection from Herpes Simplex Virus (HSV)-2 Infection with Replication-Defective HSV-2 or Glycoprotein D2 Vaccines in HSV-1-Seropositive and HSV-1-Seronegative Guinea PigsJournal of Infectious Diseases
Social Science & MedicineAlcohol and transactional sex: How risky is the mix?Social Science & Medicine
Journal of ImmunologyDetailed Characterization of T Cell Responses to Herpes Simplex Virus-2 in Immune Seronegative PersonsJournal of Immunology
Plos OneHigh GUD Incidence in the Early 20(th) Century Created a Particularly Permissive Time Window for the Origin and Initial Spread of Epidemic HIV StrainsPlos One
Plos OneSexual Risk Factors for HIV Infection in Early and Advanced HIV Epidemics in Sub-Saharan Africa: Systematic Overview of 68 Epidemiological StudiesPlos One
Plos OneHSV-2 Infection as a Cause of Female/Male and Racial/Ethnic Disparities in HIV InfectionPlos One
Primary CareSexually Transmitted DiseasesPrimary Care
Plos OneThe Epidemiology of HIV and HSV-2 Infections among Women Participating in Microbicide and Vaccine Feasibility Studies in Northern TanzaniaPlos One
Biomedical and Environmental SciencesHerpes Simplex Virus Type 2 Risks in Female Sex Workers in the China-vietnam Border County of HekouBiomedical and Environmental Sciences
Bmj OpenHIV incidence among men who have sex with men in Beijing: a prospective cohort studyBmj Open
Antiviral ResearchPoly (4-styrenesulfonic acid-co-maleic acid) is an entry inhibitor against both HIV-1 and HSV infections - Potential as a dual functional microbicideAntiviral Research
American Journal of Reproductive ImmunologyProinflammatory Cytokines and Chemokines - But not Interferon-beta - Produced in Response to HSV-2 in Primary Human Genital Epithelial Cells are Associated with Viral Replication and the Presence of the Virion Host Shutoff ProteinAmerican Journal of Reproductive Immunology
Pharmaceutical ResearchDecreasing Herpes Simplex Viral Infectivity in Solution by Surface-Immobilized and Suspended N,N-Dodecyl,methyl-polyethyleniminePharmaceutical Research
Drug and Alcohol DependencePublic health strategies for prevention and control of HSV-2 in persons who use drugs in the United StatesDrug and Alcohol Dependence
Substance Use & MisuseSexual HIV/HSV-2 Risk Among Drug Users in New York City: An HIV Testing and Counseling InterventionSubstance Use & Misuse
International Journal of Std & AIDSHerpes simplex virus type 2 infection as a biomarker for sexual debut among young people in sub-Saharan Africa: a literature reviewInternational Journal of Std & AIDS
American Journal of Reproductive ImmunologyFemale Genital Cutting and HIV Transmission: Is There an Association?American Journal of Reproductive Immunology
American Journal of Reproductive ImmunologyGenital immunology and HIV susceptibility in young womenAmerican Journal of Reproductive Immunology
Journal of Infectious DiseasesRole of Seminal Shedding of Herpesviruses in HIV Type 1 TransmissionJournal of Infectious Diseases
International Journal of Std & AIDSAssociation between herpes simplex virus type 2 and HIV-1 in a population of married couples from Dakar, SenegalInternational Journal of Std & AIDS
Viruses-BaselExploiting Herpes Simplex Virus Entry for Novel TherapeuticsViruses-Basel
Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of AmericaOvercoming drug-resistant herpes simplex virus (HSV) infection by a humanized antibodyProceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
Journal of VirologyAntiviral Activity of Trappin-2 and Elafin In Vitro and In Vivo against Genital HerpesJournal of Virology
Journal of Infectious DiseasesReactivation of Herpes Simplex Virus Type 2 After Initiation of Antiretroviral TherapyJournal of Infectious Diseases
Expert Review of VaccinesThe challenge of developing a herpes simplex virus 2 vaccineExpert Review of Vaccines
Plos PathogensA Multi-targeted Drug Candidate with Dual Anti-HIV and Anti-HSV ActivityPlos Pathogens
Nature MedicineRapid host immune response and viral dynamics in herpes simplex virus-2 infectionNature Medicine
VirologyVaricella zoster vaccines and their implications for development of HSV vaccinesVirology
Plos OneHIV-DNA in the Genital Tract of Women on Long-Term Effective Therapy Is Associated to Residual Viremia and Previous AIDS-Defining IllnessesPlos One
Plos OneInteracting Epidemics and Coinfection on Contact NetworksPlos One
Drug Development and Industrial PharmacyEvaluation of a 13-hexyl-berberine hydrochloride topical gel formulationDrug Development and Industrial Pharmacy
Current Opinion in Infectious DiseasesSexual networks and the transmission of drug-resistant HIVCurrent Opinion in Infectious Diseases
JAIDS Journal of Acquired Immune Deficiency SyndromesAnal Sexually Transmitted Infections and Risk of HIV Infection in Homosexual MenJAIDS Journal of Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndromes
JAIDS Journal of Acquired Immune Deficiency SyndromesBacterial Vaginosis and Vaginal Yeast, But Not Vaginal Cleansing, Increase HIV-1 Acquisition in African WomenJAIDS Journal of Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndromes
JAIDS Journal of Acquired Immune Deficiency SyndromesThe Potential Role of Biomarkers in HIV Preventive Vaccine TrialsJAIDS Journal of Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndromes
JAIDS Journal of Acquired Immune Deficiency SyndromesGender Differences in Sex Risk Behaviors Among Ukraine Injection Drug UsersJAIDS Journal of Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndromes
JAIDS Journal of Acquired Immune Deficiency SyndromesGroup Sex Events and HIV/STI Risk in an Urban NetworkJAIDS Journal of Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndromes
Sexually Transmitted DiseasesBiomarkers of Cervicovaginal Inflammation for the Assessment of Microbicide SafetySexually Transmitted Diseases
Sexually Transmitted DiseasesPopulation Level Impact of an Imperfect Prophylactic Vaccine for Herpes Simplex Virus-2Sexually Transmitted Diseases
Sexually Transmitted DiseasesRiddle of the Sphinx Revisited: The Role of STDs in HIV PreventionSexually Transmitted Diseases
Sexually Transmitted DiseasesHSV-2 Serologic Testing in an HMO Population: Uptake and Psychosocial SequelaeSexually Transmitted Diseases
Sexually Transmitted DiseasesHerpes Simplex Virus-2 and HIV Among Noninjecting Drug Users in New York CitySexually Transmitted Diseases
Sexually Transmitted DiseasesScreening for HSV-2 Infection in STD Clinics and Beyond: A Few Answers But More QuestionsSexually Transmitted Diseases
systematic review; meta-analysis; HSV-2; HIV; follow-up
© 2006 Lippincott Williams & Wilkins, Inc.
Highlight selected keywords in the article text.