This study reported the changes in carotid intima-media thickness (IMT) during a 36-month period in 233 HIV-infected patients. Median IMT increased in the first 12 months and then decreased by month 36. The prevalence of treatment with lipid-lowering agents and protease inhibitor-free highly active antiretroviral therapy regimens increased, whereas smoking prevalence decreased. The progression of atherosclerosis in HIV-infected patients can be controlled. The impact of individual measures to reduce the cardiovascular risk should be evaluated further.