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Effect of ritonavir on lipids and post-heparin lipase activities in normal subjects

Purnell, Jonathan Q.a; Zambon, Albertoa; Knopp, Robert H.a; Pizzuti, David J.b; Achari, Ramanujb; Leonard, John M.b; Locke, Charlesb; Brunzell, John D.a

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Author Information

From the aDepartment of Medicine, Division of Metabolism, Endocrinology, and Nutrition, Department of Medicine, University of Washington, Seattle, WA 98195, USA; and bAbbott Laboratories, Abbott Park, IL, USA.

Sponsorship: This work was supported by a grant from Abbott Laboratories. A portion of this work was supported by the GCRC Grant M01-RR-00037, Program Project Grant HL 30086, and CNRU Grant P30 DK35816. Ritonavir (Norvir) was provided by Abbott Laboratories.

Correspondence to: Jonathan Q. Purnell, MD, University of Washington, Division of Metabolism, Endocrinology, and Nutrition, Box 356426, Seattle, WA 98195, USA. Tel: +1 (206) 543 3470; fax: +1 (206) 685 3781; e-mail: purnell>1w0,ashington.edu

Received: 24 May 1999; accepted: 14 October 1999.

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Abstract

Background: Intensive therapy of HIV infection with highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART) dramatically reduces viral loads and improves immune status. Abnormalities of lipid levels, body fat distribution, and insulin resistance have been commonly reported after starting HAART. Whether the lipid abnormalities result from changes in metabolism after an improvement in HIV status or are partly attributable to the effects of protease inhibitor use is unknown.

Methods: Twenty-one healthy volunteers participated in a 2 week double-blind, placebo-controlled study on the effect of the protease inhibitor ritonavir on total lipids, apolipoproteins, and post-heparin plasma lipase activities.

Results: Those taking ritonavir (n = 11) had significantly higher levels of plasma triglyceride, VLDL cholesterol, IDL cholesterol, apolipoprotein B, and lipoprotein (a) compared with placebo (n = 8). HDL cholesterol was lower with therapy as a result of a reduction in HDL3 cholesterol. Post-heparin lipoprotein lipase (LpL) activity did not change but hepatic lipase activity decreased 20% (P < 0.01) in those taking ritonavirrcompared with placebo. Although all lipoprotein subfractions became triglyceride enriched, most of the increase in triglyceride was in VLDL and not in IDL particles.

Conclusion: Treatment with ritonavir in the absence of HIV infection or changes in body composition results in hypertriglyceridemia that is apparently not mediated by impaired LpL activity or the defective removal of remnant lipoproteins, but could be caused by enhanced formation of VLDL. Long-term studies of patients with HIV infection receiving HAART will be necessary to determine the impact of these drugs and associated dyslipidemia on the risk of coronary artery disease.

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Introduction

Before the introduction of highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART), which includes drugs from the protease inhibitor class, patients with AIDS had been shown to have higher triglyceride levels but lower levels of total, LDL, and HDL cholesterol compared with non-HIV-infected controls [1–3] With the use of HAART, HIV viral loads have been dramatically reduced, CD4 cell counts have increased, and opportunistic infections have resolved in those with AIDS [4] Rather than an improvement in lipid levels with HAART, however, a cluster of metabolic abnormalities has been described that includes hypertriglyceridemia, abnormal central body fat distribution, and insulin resistance [5–9] Because of the association between central obesity, insulin resistance, and dyslipidemia (including increased triglyceride levels, increased apolipoprotein B, and decreased HDL cholesterol) [10,11] it is possible that the hyperlipidemia associated with HAART is influenced by changes in body composition or insulin sensitivity. Protease inhibitors may, however, have effects on lipids and lipoproteins independent of other metabolic changes resulting from treatment of HIV infection or AIDS. To answer this question, healthy individuals not known to be infected with the HIV virus were recruited to assess the effects of the protease inhibitor ritonavir on lipoprotein metabolism.

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Materials and methods

Twenty-one healthy, normal men and women were recruited from the Seattle area for this study. Individuals were excluded if they had a triglyceride level greater than 400 mg/dl. All medications were discontinued at least one week before entering the trial. Informed consent was obtained before entering into the study and all procedures were approved by the Human Subjects Committee of the University of Washington.

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Study design

Subjects were randomly selected in a double-blind manner to receive either capsules containing ritonavir 300, 400, and 500 mg doses every 12 h on study days 1, 2, and 3–14, respectively (n = 13), or a matching placebo (n = 8) (Fig. 1). Two subjects randomly assigned to the ritonavir treatment dropped out during the study because of side-effects from the medication: one subject withdrew on study day 3 after experiencing severe chills, nausea, sweating and dizziness, which resolved within 24 h after leaving the study; the other subject experienced flushing and developed a moderate rash over the neck and face on study day 1. At baseline and on the morning of the 14th day of therapy, subjects underwent the following procedures at the Northwest Lipid Research Clinic in Seattle, WA, USA.

Fig. 1
Fig. 1
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Lipids and lipoproteins

Blood was collected in 0.1% ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid after a 12–16 h overnight fast for lipoprotein measurements and post-heparin lipase activity. A heparin bolus of 60 units/kg was given intravenously and blood was collected after 10 min in lithium–heparin tubes for the measurement of post-heparin lipase activity. Blood was immediately centrifuged at 4°C at 1500 g for 15 min. Lipid measurements were made on plasma stored at 4°C within 2 days of collection. Lipase activities were obtained on plasma that had been immediately frozen and stored at −70°C. Lipoproteins were separated by ultracentrifugation [12] and HDL precipitation [13] and cholesterol and triglyceride levels were analysed enzymatically [14] Apolipoprotein B and apolipoprotein A-I were measured by radioimmunoassay [15] Liproprotein (a) mass was determined using a double monoclonal antibody-based enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay [16]

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Density gradient ultracentrifugation

The cholesterol content of lipoprotein subfractions was determined using non-equilibrium density gradient ultracentrifugation (DGUC) in a Sorvall TV-865B vertical rotor (DuPont, Wilmington, DE, USA) [17] In this protocol, 1 ml of plasma was adjusted to a density of 1.08 g/ml (total volume 5 ml) and layered below 13 ml of a 1.006 g/ml sodium chloride solution. Samples were then centrifuged at 399 727 g for 90 min at 10°C. Maintaining the temperature, centrifuge tubes were then placed in a tube fractionator (ISCO, Lincoln, NE, USA), pierced, and drained from the bottom using a P-1 peristaltic pump (Pharmacia, Piscataway, NJ, USA) at a flow rate of 1.0 ml/min. A total of 38 0.47 ml fractions were collected. Cholesterol was measured in each fraction by an enzymatic kit (Diagnostic Chemicals, Canada). The between-rotor coefficient of variation (CV) for LDL buoyancy (determined by dividing the fraction number containing the peak level of cholesterol within the LDL range by the total number of fractions, or 38) was 3.5%.

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Post-heparin lipase activities

The total lipolytic activity was measured in plasma after a heparin bolus of 60 units/kg [18] Tri-1-14C oleate (Amersham, Arlington Heights, IL, USA) and triolein emulsified with lecithin were incubated with postheparin plasma for 60 min at 37°C and the liberated 14C labelled free fatty acids were then extracted and counted. Lipoprotein lipase (LpL) activity was calculated as the lipolytic activity removed from the plasma by incubation with the specific 5D2 monoclonal antibody against LpL, and hepatic lipase activity was determined as the activity remaining after incubation with the LpL antibody. Enzyme activity is expressed as nanomoles of free fatty acid released per minute per milliliter of plasma at 37°C. For each assay, a bovine milk LpL standard was used to correct for inter-assay variation and a human postheparin plasma standard was included to monitor inter-assay variation. The intra-assay CV of hepatic lipase is 6%, inter-assay CV is 14%.

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Statistical methods

For comparisons between ritonavir and placebo groups at baseline, the two-sample t-test was used. For comparisons of ritonavir and placebo at the end of the dosing regimen (day 14), analysis of covariance was used with the variable from the day before the first dose as the baseline covariate. Within-group changes from baseline were tested using the paired t-test if the data were normally distributed, and the signed-rank test was used if they were not. Significance was ass-igned at P < 0.05. Results are expressed as mean ± SE.

To test the significance of differences in cholesterol distributions in the profiles generated by DGUC between baseline and follow-up visits, a difference plot was generated by subtracting the mean cholesterol value of each fraction measured at baseline from the mean cholesterol value in the same fraction at follow-up with determination of the 95% confidence interval (CI) for this difference. A difference in fractional cholesterol content between the time points is significant (P < 0.05) when the 95% CI does not cross the zero line.

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Results

The age of the ritonavir group (30 ± 1 years) was not significantly different from that of the placebo group (31 ± 2 years) The profile of the study is shown in Fig. 1. The groups did not differ significantly with respect to weight, and neither group experienced a significant change in weight during the study period (Table 1). No changes occurred in the levels of aspartate aminotransferase (AST) or alanine aminotranferase (ALT) in the ritonavir treatment group (AST: 16 ± 1.8 versus 19 ± 1.7 units/l, P = 0.76; ALT: 16 ± 4.2 versus 20 ± 2.3 U/l, P = 0.48, baseline and day 14 of treatment, respectively).

Table 1
Table 1
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At baseline, there were no significant differences between treatment groups in the levels of lipids, apolipoproteins, or post-heparin lipase activities (Tables 1–3). After 14 days of treatment, those receiving ritonavir experienced increased levels of total cholesterol, triglyceride, lipoprotein (a), and apolipoprotein B compared with baseline and the placebo group (Table 1). This increase in total cholesterol in the ritonavir group resulted from increases in VLDL cholesterol and IDL cholesterol but not LDL cholesterol (Table 2). HDL cholesterol decreased on ritonavir as a result of a decrease in HDL3 cholesterol. The triglyceride content of all lipid subfractions was increased in the group taking ritonavir compared with baseline and the placebo group (Table 2). Using DGUC to measure the cholesterol content of lipoprotein subfractions, no difference was seen in the placebo group from baseline to day 14 of dosing (Fig. 2). DGUC analysis from the ritonavir group demonstrated an increase in cholesterol in VLDL fractions, IDL fractions, and the most buoyant and most dense LDL fractions (Fig. 3), whereas cholesterol was reduced to the greatest extent in the dense HDL fractions. The buoyancy of the peak LDL particle (Rf) decreased slightly (became more dense) in the ritonavir group (Rf: 0.261 ± 0.008 versus 0.249 ± 0.010, baseline to follow-up, respectively, P = 0.126), but did not change in the placebo group (Rf: 0.274 ± 0.006 versus 0.270 ± 0.004, baseline to follow-up, respectively, P = 0.60).

Fig. 2
Fig. 2
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Fig. 3
Fig. 3
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Table 2
Table 2
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Table 3
Table 3
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Post-heparin plasma hepatic lipase activity was decreased in the ritonavir group at day 14 of dosing compared with baseline and compared with the placebo group (Table 3). LpL activity did not change with study drug dosing (Table 3).

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Discussion

In this group of healthy, normal subjects, treatment with ritonavir increased triglyceride levels in all lipoprotein fractions, with the greatest increase occurring in VLDL particles. Total cholesterol was increased with therapy as a result of increases in VLDL and IDL cholesterol. These effects on lipids occurred within 2 weeks of therapy while the subjects were weight stable. It is therefore unlikely that these changes in lipid levels resulted from the changes in body composition (i.e. central obesity) that have been reported in patients with HIV receiving HAART. Nor could this hyperlipidemia be the result of an interaction between ritonavir and inflammatory components of the HIV-infected state because these individuals were not known to be infected with the HIV virus. Therefore ritonavir itself is partly a cause of the hypertriglyceridemia and increases in cholesterol that have been described in HIV-positive patients taking this medication.

Increases in triglyceride, VLDL cholesterol, IDL cholesterol, and apolipoprotein B levels could result from increased secretion of VLDL particles, decreased lipolysis by LpL, delayed hepatic clearance of remnant lipoproteins, or some combination of the above. In this study, post-heparin LpL activity was not affected by treatment. In separate studies in our laboratory, ritonavir was also shown not to impair the lipolytic activity of LpL in vitro (unpublished data). Therefore an abnormality in LpL activity can be excluded as a cause of the triglyceride elevation in these individuals. Impaired remnant removal is also not the primary cause of the hypertriglyceridemia because subjects taking ritonavir experienced an increase mainly in VLDL particles, whereas an isolated increase in IDL particles was not seen (Fig. 3). Therefore, the most likely cause of the hypertriglyceridemia with ritonavir therapy was an increased secretion of VLDL particles. Because a small increase in IDL cholesterol was demonstrated in this study, however, some impairment of remnant clearance cannot be ruled out. Studies that measure VLDL secretion and clearance rates are needed to determine the specific abnormality in the processing of triglyceride-rich particles that occurs in patients taking ritonavir.

Hepatic lipase hydrolyses triglyceride and phospholipid in IDL, LDL and HDL particles. Alterations in the activity of this enzyme are also associated with changes in the cholesterol content of LDL and HDL particles [17,19,20] Hepatic lipase activity is higher in individuals with central obesity [21] and is associated with smaller, more dense LDL particles [20] which have been demonstrated to be an independent risk factor for the progression of heart disease [22,23] A low hepatic lipase activity, on the other hand, has been shown to be associated with buoyant LDL particles [20] An increase in LDL particle buoyancy is associated with the regression of coronary artery disease after aggressive lipid-lowering therapy [24]

In the present study, treatment with ritonavir resulted in a decrease in hepatic lipase activity, similar to the effect of estrogen treatment of post-menopausal women [25,26] As mentioned above, low hepatic lipase activity is usually associated with less cholesterol in small, dense LDL and more in HDL, primarily in HDL2. Neither of these lipoprotein changes occurred, in spite of the decrease in hepatic lipase activity that occurred with ritonavir therapy. This lack of expected change in the particle compositions of LDL and HDL2 is probably due to the off-setting effect of the induced hypertriglyceridemia, which is associated with the formation of small, dense LDL and a decline in HDL2 cholesterol [27,28] In this respect, the effect of ritonavir differs from the effect of estrogen which, in addition to its association with a reduction in post-heparin hepatic lipase activity and an increase in VLDL entry into the circulation, results in a decrease in buoyant LDL, no change in dense LDL, and an increase in HDL2 cholesterol [29,30] An additional mechanism affecting LDL and HDL is cholesteryl ester transfer protein (CETP). CETP transfers triglyceride from apolipoprotein B-containing particles to HDL in exchange for cholesteryl ester, and is thought to play an important role in the formation of dense LDL in hypertriglyceridemia disorders [27] An increase in CETP activity could also partly explain the increase in cholesterol in dense LDL fractions and the reduction in HDL cholesterol, although the activity of this enzyme was not measured as a part of this study. The effect of ritonavir on lipoprotein metabolism thus appears to be a hybrid of effects, including those associated with a reduction in post-heparin hepatic lipase activity and an increased production of lipoproteins. This overproduction of lipoproteins results in a lipid profile that is similar to that described in familial combined hyperlipidemia [31] including increased levels of triglyceride, VLDL cholesterol, and apolipoprotein B; and a reduction in LDL buoyancy.

The mechanism whereby ritonavir treatment might enhance the secretion of apolipoprotein B-containing particles or reduce hepatic lipase activity is unclear. Ritonavir and other protease inhibitor drugs have been shown to bind to and inhibit the catalytic site of HIV-1 protease. It is also known that protease inhibitors inhibit the cytochrome P450 system [4] and have been reported to have limited homology with the LDL receptor-related protein and the cytoplasmic retinoic acid-binding protein type 1 [32] None of these properties, however, satisfactorily explains the action of ritonavir on fatty acid synthesis, the hepatic secretion of apolipoprotein B-containing particles, or the alteration of hepatic lipase activity that would result in the lipid changes found in this study.

Lipoprotein (a) levels also increased in the subjects receiving ritonavir but not in those taking placebo. This increase may have been partly responsible for the increase in cholesterol in dense LDL fractions (Fig. 3). In healthy subjects, levels of lipoprotein (a) are determined primarily by genetic factors [33] Lipoprotein (a) levels have been shown to be increased in a number of diseases including nephrotic syndrome [34] renal failure [35] and hypothroidism [36] Estrogen deficiency in women also results in an increase in lipoprotein (a) levels that can be reversed with estrogen therapy [37] As the pathways responsible for the assembly, secretion, and catabolism of lipoprotein (a) particles remain unclear, how treatment with ritonavir might result in increased levels of this lipoprotein is unknown.

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Conclusion

The treatment of healthy, normal individuals with ritonavir results in increases in triglyceride and cholesterol levels that are independent of changes in body composition or interactions with inflammatory conditions that accompany HIV infection. This increase in triglyceride is not caused by the impairment of lipoprotein lipase activity, nor is it solely the result of the impaired clearance of remnant particles. Changes in lipid metabolism with ritonavir treatment are associated with a worsening of the cardiovascular lipid risk profile, including increases in VLDL cholesterol, IDL cholesterol, apolipoprotein B, and lipoprotein (a). Post-heparin hepatic lipase activity decreased with ritonavir treatment, but this was not accompanied by potentially beneficial changes, including an increase in peak LDL buoyancy or HDL2 cholesterol. Although these effects on lipids occurred independently of changes in body composition, they may be additive to the dyslipidemia and risk of coronary artery disease with the central obesity and insulin resistance described in HIV-positive patients treated with HAART regiments that include ritonavir. Metabolic studies of individuals taking this medication may offer new insights into the regulation of lipoprotein processing and hepatic lipase activity. Long-term studies will be needed, however, to determine the significance of these changes on the risk of coronary artery disease in patients with HIV infection.

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10.1210/jc.2007-0197
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British Journal of Nutrition
Nutrition and HIV infection
Salomon, J; De Truchis, P; Melchior, JC
British Journal of Nutrition, 87(): S111-S119.
10.1079/BJN2001464
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Clinical Infectious Diseases
Prospective, intensive study of metabolic changes associated with 48 weeks of amprenavir-based antiretroviral therapy
Dube, MP; Qian, DJ; Edmondson-Melancon, H; Sattler, FR; Goodwin, D; Martinez, C; Williams, V; Johnson, D; Buchanan, TA
Clinical Infectious Diseases, 35(4): 475-481.

Nutrition
A pilot study of the safety and efficacy of Cholestin in treating HIV-related dyslipidemia
Keithley, JK; Swanson, B; Sha, BE; Zeller, JM; Kessler, HA; Smith, KY
Nutrition, 18(2): 201-204.
PII S0899-9007(01)00688-8
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Journal of Lipid Research
The HIV protease inhibitor ritonavir increases lipoprotein production and has no effect on lipoprotein clearance in mice
Riddle, TM; Schildmeyer, NM; Phan, C; Fichtenbaum, CJ; Hui, DY
Journal of Lipid Research, 43(9): 1458-1463.

AIDS
Valuation and management of metabolic and coagulative disorders in HIV-infected patients receiving highly active antiretroviral therapy
Fantoni, M; Del Borgo, C; Autore, C
AIDS, 17(): S162-S169.

Clinical Infectious Diseases
Difficulties in understanding the metabolic complications of acquired immune deficiency syndrome
Grunfeld, C; Tien, P
Clinical Infectious Diseases, 37(): S43-S46.

Hiv Infection and the Cardiovascular System
Pathogenesis of the HAART-associated metabolic syndrome
Behrens, GMN; Stoll, M; Schmidt, RE
Hiv Infection and the Cardiovascular System, 40(): 83-96.

AIDS
Dose-ranging, randomized, clinical trial of atazanavir with lamivudine and stavudine in anti retroviral-naive subjects: 48-week results
Murphy, RL; Sanne, I; Cahn, P; Phanuphak, P; Percival, L; Kelleher, T; Giordano, M
AIDS, 17(): 2603-2614.
10.1097/01.aids.0000096930.51231.5d
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Circulation
What a cardiologist needs to know about patients with human immunodeficiency virus infection
Hsue, PY; Waters, DD
Circulation, 112(): 3947-3957.
10.1161/CIRCULATIONAHA.105.546465
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Clinical Infectious Diseases
Apparent resolution of type 2 diabetes mellitus after initiation of potent antiretroviral therapy in a man from Africa with HIV infection
Koeppe, J; Kosmiski, L
Clinical Infectious Diseases, 42(): E79-E81.

Current Medical Research and Opinion
HIV lipodystrophy and its metabolic consequences: implications for clinical practice
Wierzbicki, AS; Purdon, SD; Hardman, TC; Kulasegaram, R; Peters, BS
Current Medical Research and Opinion, 24(3): 609-624.
10.1185/030079908X272742
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AIDS
Effect of short-course of antiretroviral agents on serum triglycerides of healthy individuals
[Anon]
AIDS, 14(): 2407-2408.

Clinical Biochemistry
Sterol regulatory element-binding proteins and reactive oxygen species: potential role in highly-active antiretroviral therapy (HAART)-associated lipodystrophy
Nerurkar, PV; Shikuma, CM; Nerurkar, VR
Clinical Biochemistry, 34(7): 519-529.

AIDS Patient Care and Stds
Bullet points: New topics in HIV/AIDS
Laurence, J
AIDS Patient Care and Stds, 16(1): 1-4.

American Journal of Physiology-Endocrinology and Metabolism
Metabolic effects of nandrolone decanoate and resistance training in men with HIV
Sattler, FR; Schroeder, ET; Dube, MP; Jaque, SV; Martinez, C; Blanche, PJ; Azen, S; Krauss, RM
American Journal of Physiology-Endocrinology and Metabolism, 283(6): E1214-E1222.
10.1152/ajpendo.00189.2002
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Jaids-Journal of Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndromes
Incidence of and risk factors for lipoatrophy (abnormal fat loss) in ambulatory HIV-1-infected patients
Lichtenstein, KA; Delaney, KM; Armon, C; Ward, DJ; Moorman, AC; Wood, KC; Holmberg, SD
Jaids-Journal of Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndromes, 32(1): 48-56.

Progress in Lipid Research
Effects of HIV protease inhibitor therapy on lipid metabolism
Hui, DY
Progress in Lipid Research, 42(2): 81-92.
PII S0163-7827(02)00046-2
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Progress in Cardiovascular Diseases
HIV infection and lipodystrophy
Kotler, DP
Progress in Cardiovascular Diseases, 45(4): 269-284.
10.1053/pcad.2003.2
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Diabetes
Mechanisms for the deterioration in glucose tolerance associated with HIV protease inhibitor regimens
Woerle, IJ; Mariuz, PR; Meyer, H; Reichman, RC; Popa, EM; Dostou, JM; Welle, SL; Gerich, JE
Diabetes, 52(4): 918-925.

Expert Opinion on Pharmacotherapy
Treatment of dyslipidaemia in HIV-infected persons
Manuel, O; Thiebaut, R; Darioli, R; Tarr, PE
Expert Opinion on Pharmacotherapy, 6(): 1619-1645.
10.1517/14656566.6.10.1619
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Plos Medicine
Antiretroviral therapy and dyslipidaemia: Unlocking the code
Mallon, PWG
Plos Medicine, 3(3): 291-293.
ARTN e85
CrossRef
Expert Opinion on Therapeutic Patents
Cardiovascular risk associated with antiretroviral therapy in IV-infected patients
Calza, L; Manfredi, R; Chiodo, F
Expert Opinion on Therapeutic Patents, 16(): 1497-1516.

Journal of Virology
Antiretroviral Therapy in the Clinic
Tsibris, AMN; Hirsch, MS
Journal of Virology, 84(): 5458-5464.
10.1128/JVI.02524-09
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Annual Reports in Medicinal Chemistry, Vol 36
Chapter 13. In vitro and in vivo approaches to studying antiretroviral therapy (ART)-induced metabolic complications
Weiel, JE; Lenhard, JM
Annual Reports in Medicinal Chemistry, Vol 36, 36(): 129-137.

Lancet
Association between altered expression of adipogenic factor SREBP1 in lipoatrophic adipose tissue from HIV-1-infected patients and abnormal adipocyte differentiation and insulin resistance
Bastard, JP; Caron, M; Vidal, H; Jan, V; Auclair, M; Vigouroux, C; Luboinski, J; Laville, M; Malachi, M; Girard, PM; Rozenbaum, W; Levan, P; Capeau, J
Lancet, 359(): 1026-1031.

Journal of Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndromes
Pravastatin does not alter protease inhibitor exposure or virologic efficacy during a 24-week period of therapy
Moyle, GJ; Buss, NE; Gazzard, BG
Journal of Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndromes, 30(4): 460-462.
10.1097/01.QAI.0000018281.16783.B7
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Nature Reviews Drug Discovery
Toxicity of antiretroviral therapy and implications for drug development
Carr, A
Nature Reviews Drug Discovery, 2(8): 624-634.
10.1038/nrd1151
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AIDS Research and Human Retroviruses
HIV protease inhibitor ritonavir induces lipoatrophy in male mice
Goetzman, ES; Tian, LQ; Nagy, TR; Gower, BA; Schoeb, TR; Elgavish, A; Acosta, EP; Saag, MS; Wood, PA
AIDS Research and Human Retroviruses, 19(): 1141-1150.

Clinical Chemistry and Laboratory Medicine
Abnormalities in apolipoprotein and lipid levels in an HIV-infected Brazilian population under different treatment profiles: the relevance of apolipoprotein E genotypes and immunological status
Malavazi, I; Abrao, EP; Mikawa, AY; Landgraf, VO; da Costa, PI
Clinical Chemistry and Laboratory Medicine, 42(5): 525-532.

American Journal of Clinical Nutrition
Postprandial response to a physiologic caloric load in HIV-positive patients receiving protease inhibitor-based or nonnucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitor-based antiretroviral therapy
Thomas-Geevarghese, A; Raghavan, S; Minolfo, R; Holleran, S; Ramakrishnan, R; Ormsby, B; Karmally, W; Ginsberg, HN; El-Sadr, WM; Albu, J; Berglund, L
American Journal of Clinical Nutrition, 82(1): 146-154.

Antiviral Therapy
Adipocytes targets and actors in the pathogenesis of HIV-associated lipodystrophy and metabolic alterations
Gougeon, ML; Penicaud, L; Fromenty, B; Leclercq, P; Viard, JP; Capeau, J
Antiviral Therapy, 9(2): 161-177.

Antiviral Therapy
Management of dyslipidaemia in HIV-infected patients receiving antiretroviral therapy
Martinez, E; Tuset, M; Milinkovic, A; Miro, JM; Gatell, JM
Antiviral Therapy, 9(5): 649-663.

Diabetes Obesity & Metabolism
Antiretroviral therapy and the human immunodeficiency virus - improved survival but at what cost?
Bradbury, RA; Samaras, K
Diabetes Obesity & Metabolism, 10(6): 441-450.
10.1111/j.1463-1326.2007.00760.x
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Antiviral Therapy
The protease inhibitors ritonavir and saquinavir influence lipid metabolism: a pig model for the rapid evaluation of new drugs
Petersen, E; Mu, HL; Porsgaard, T; Bertelsen, LS
Antiviral Therapy, 15(2): 243-251.
10.3851/IMP1509
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Medizinische Klinik
The HIV-associated lipodystrophy syndrome
Mauss, S; Schmutz, G
Medizinische Klinik, 96(7): 391-401.

Progress in Lipid Research
Human immunodeficiency virus and host cell lipids. Interesting pathways in research for a new HIV therapy
Raulin, J
Progress in Lipid Research, 41(1): 27-65.

AIDS
High-density lipoprotein cholesterol is low in HIV-infected patients with lipodystrophic fat expansions: implications for pathogenesis of fat redistribution
Fessel, WJ; Follansbee, SE; Rego, J
AIDS, 16(): 1785-1789.

AIDS
HIV lipodystrophy: risk factors, pathogenesis, diagnosis and management
Carr, A
AIDS, 17(): S141-S148.

Clinical Infectious Diseases
Mechanisms and strategies for insulin resistance in acquired immune deficiency syndrome
Grinspoon, S
Clinical Infectious Diseases, 37(): S85-S90.

Annual Review of Medicine
HIV-associated lipodystrophy: Pathogenesis, prognosis, treatment, and controversies
Koutkia, P; Grinspoon, S
Annual Review of Medicine, 55(): 303-317.
10.1146/annurev.med.55.091902.104412
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Hiv Clinical Trials
Update on HIV lipodystrophy
Kravcik, S
Hiv Clinical Trials, 5(3): 152-167.

Antiviral Therapy
Antiretroviral drugs with adverse effects on adipocyte lipid metabolism and survival alter the expression and secretion of proinflammatory cytokines and adiponectin in vitro
Lagathu, C; Bastard, JP; Auclair, M; Maachi, M; Kornprobst, M; Capeau, J; Caron, M
Antiviral Therapy, 9(6): 911-920.

Antiviral Therapy
Lipid profiles for antiretroviral-naive patients starting PI- and NNRTI-based therapy in the Swiss HIV Cohort Study
Young, J; Weber, R; Rickenbach, M; Furrer, H; Bernasconi, E; Hirschel, B; Tarr, PE; Vernazza, P; Battegay, M; Bucher, HC
Antiviral Therapy, 10(5): 585-591.

Hiv Medicine
The effect of low-dose ritonavir monotherapy on fasting serum lipid concentrations
Shafran, SD; Mashinter, LD; Roberts, SE
Hiv Medicine, 6(6): 421-425.

Hiv Medicine
Improvement in lipid profiles over 6 years of follow-up in adults with AIDS and immune reconstitution
Williams, PL; Wu, JW; Cohn, SE; Koletar, SL; McCutchan, JA; Murphy, RL; Currier, JS
Hiv Medicine, 10(5): 290-301.
10.1111/j.1468-1293.2008.00685.x
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Expert Opinion on Investigational Drugs
Strategies for treating HIV-related lipodystrophy
Garcia-Viejo, MA; Ruiz, M; Martinez, E
Expert Opinion on Investigational Drugs, 10(8): 1443-1456.

Clinical Nutrition
The metabolic puzzle during the evolution of HIV infection
Salas-Salvado, J; Garcia-Lorda, P
Clinical Nutrition, 20(5): 379-391.
10.1054/clnu.2001.0429
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European Journal of Clinical Investigation
LDL-receptors expression in HIV-infected patients: relations to antiretroviral therapy, hormonal status, and presence of lipodystrophy
Petit, JM; Duong, M; Duvillard, L; Florentin, E; Portier, H; Lizard, G; Brun, JM; Gambert, P; Verges, B
European Journal of Clinical Investigation, 32(5): 354-359.

Infection
Lipodystrophy syndrome by HAART in HIV-Infected patients: Manifestation, mechanisms and management
Hirsch, HH; Battegay, M
Infection, 30(5): 293-298.
10.1007/s15010-002-3044-7
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Pediatrics
Impact of protease inhibitor substitution with efavirenz in HIV-infected children: Results of the first pediatric switch study
McComsey, G; Bhumbra, N; Rathore, M; Alvarez, A
Pediatrics, 111(3): -.
ARTN e275
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Clinical Lipidology
Risk and progression of dyslipidemia in patients with HIV who have recovered from severe immunosuppression
Bennett, MT; Bondy, GP
Clinical Lipidology, 4(3): 287-289.
10.2217/CLP.09.22
CrossRef
International Journal of Clinical Practice
The potential place of tenofovir in antiretroviral treatment regimens
Gazzard, BG
International Journal of Clinical Practice, 55(): 704-709.

Progress in Cardiovascular Diseases
Dyslipidemia inhibitors in the era of HIV protease
Stein, JH
Progress in Cardiovascular Diseases, 45(4): 293-304.
10.1053/pcad.2003.3
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Diabetologia
Indinavir uncovers different contributions of GLUT4 and GLUT1 towards glucose uptake in muscle and fat cells and tissues
Rudich, A; Konrad, D; Torok, D; Ben-Romano, R; Huang, C; Niu, W; Garg, RR; Wijesekara, N; Germinario, RJ; Bilan, PJ; Klip, A
Diabetologia, 46(5): 649-658.
10.1007/s00125-003-1080-1
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Pharmacoepidemiology and Drug Safety
Indinavir did not further increase mean triglyceride levels in HIV-infected patients treated with nucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitors: An analysis of three randomized clinical trials
Rojas, C; Coplan, PM; Rhodes, T; Robertson, MN; DiNubile, MJ; Guess, HA
Pharmacoepidemiology and Drug Safety, 12(5): 361-369.
10.1002/pds.808
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Janac-Journal of the Association of Nurses in AIDS Care
Cardiovascular considerations in patients treated with HIV protease inhibitors
Colagreco, JP
Janac-Journal of the Association of Nurses in AIDS Care, 15(1): 30-41.
10.1177/1055329003256922
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Journal of Clinical Endocrinology & Metabolism
Markedly diminished lipolysis and partial restoration of glucose metabolism, without changes in fat distribution after extended discontinuation of protease inhibitors in severe lipodystrophic human Immunodeficient virus-1-infected patients
van der Valk, M; Allick, G; Weverling, GJ; Romijn, JA; Ackermans, MT; Lange, JMA; van Eck-Smit, BLF; van Kuijk, C; Endert, E; Sauerwein, HP; Reiss, P
Journal of Clinical Endocrinology & Metabolism, 89(7): 3554-3560.
10.1210/jc.2003-030985
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Hiv Medicine
Effects of HIV disease on lipid, glucose and insulin levels: results from a large antiretroviral-naive cohort
El-Sadr, W; Mullin, CM; Carr, A; Gibert, C; Rappoport, C; Visnegarwala, F; Grunfeld, C; Raghavan, SS
Hiv Medicine, 6(2): 114-121.

Arteriosclerosis Thrombosis and Vascular Biology
Ritonavir impairs lipoprotein lipase-mediated lipolysis and decreases uptake of fatty acids in adipose tissue
den Boer, MAM; Berbee, JFP; Reiss, P; van der Valk, M; Voshol, PJ; Kuipers, F; Havekes, LM; Rensen, PCN; Romijn, JA
Arteriosclerosis Thrombosis and Vascular Biology, 26(1): 124-129.
10.1161/01.ATV.0000194073.87647.10
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Journal of Clinical Endocrinology & Metabolism
Improved triglycerides and insulin sensitivity with 3 months of acipimox in human immunodeficiency virus-infected patients with hypertriglyceridemia
Hadigan, C; Liebau, J; Torriani, M; Andersen, R; Grinspoon, S
Journal of Clinical Endocrinology & Metabolism, 91(): 4438-4444.
10.1210/jc.2006-1174
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Antimicrobial Agents and Chemotherapy
Long-term treatment with lopinavir-ritonavir induces a reduction in peripheral adipose depots in mice
Prot, M; Heripret, L; Cardot-Leccia, N; Perrin, C; Aouadi, M; Lavrut, T; Garraffo, R; Dellamonica, P; Durant, J; Le Marchand-Brustel, Y; Binetruy, B
Antimicrobial Agents and Chemotherapy, 50(): 3998-4004.
10.1128/ACC.00625-06
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Jaids-Journal of Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndromes
Metabolic issues associated with protease inhibitors
Moyle, G
Jaids-Journal of Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndromes, 45(): S19-S26.

Metabolism-Clinical and Experimental
Short-term energy restriction reduces resting energy expenditure in patients with HIV lipodystrophy and hypermetabolism
Kosmiski, LA; Bessesen, DH; Stotz, SA; Koeppe, JR; Horton, TJ
Metabolism-Clinical and Experimental, 56(2): 289-295.
10.1016/j.metabol.2006.10.012
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Janac-Journal of the Association of Nurses in AIDS Care
Current clinical issues impacting the lives of patients living with HIV/AIDS
Gallagher, DM
Janac-Journal of the Association of Nurses in AIDS Care, 18(1): S11-S16.
10.1016/j.jana.2006.11.011
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Pharmacotherapy
Use of fenofibrate in the management of protease inhibitor-associated lipid abnormalities
Thomas, JC; Lopes-Virella, MF; Del Bene, VE; Cerveny, JD; Taylor, KB; McWhorter, LS; Bultemeier, NC
Pharmacotherapy, 20(6): 727-734.

Nature Medicine
HIV protease inhibitors protect apolipoprotein B from degradation by the proteasome: A potential mechanism for protease inhibitor-induced hyperlipidemia
Liang, JS; Distler, O; Cooper, DA; Jamil, H; Deckelbaum, RJ; Ginsberg, HN; Sturley, SL
Nature Medicine, 7(): 1327-1331.

Clinical Infectious Diseases
Clinical evaluation and management of metabolic and morphologic abnormalities associated with human immunodeficiency virus
Wanke, CA; Falutz, JM; Shevitz, A; Phair, JP; Kotler, DP
Clinical Infectious Diseases, 34(2): 248-259.

Jaids-Journal of Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndromes
Management of metabolic complications associated with antiretroviral therapy for HIV-1 infection: Recommendations of an International AIDS Society-USA panel
Schambelan, M; Benson, CA; Carr, A; Currier, JS; Dube, MP; Gerber, JG; Grinspoon, SK; Grunfeld, C; Kotler, DP; Mulligan, K; Powderly, WG; Saag, MS
Jaids-Journal of Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndromes, 31(3): 257-275.

Annals of Clinical Biochemistry
Severe hypertriglyceridaemia associated with human immunodeficiency virus and highly active antiretroviral therapy
Carling, RS; Hextall, R; DeSilva, PA; Barth, JH
Annals of Clinical Biochemistry, 39(): 409-413.

Jaids-Journal of Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndromes
Results of a phase 2 clinical trial at 48 weeks (AI424-007): A dose-ranging, safety, and efficacy comparative trial of atazanavir at three doses in combination with didanosine and stavudine in antiretroviral-naive subjects
Sanne, I; Piliero, P; Squires, K; Thiry, A; Schnittman, S
Jaids-Journal of Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndromes, 32(1): 18-29.

Jaids-Journal of Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndromes
HIV, HAART, and hyperlipidemia: Balancing the effects
Sherer, R
Jaids-Journal of Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndromes, 34(): S123-S129.

Indian Journal of Medical Research
Obstacles to successful antiretroviral treatment of HIV-1 infection: problems & perspectives
Potter, SJ; Chew, CB; Steain, M; Dwyer, DE; Saksena, NK
Indian Journal of Medical Research, 119(6): 217-237.

AIDS
Metabolic complications of HIV therapy in children
McComsey, GA; Leonard, E
AIDS, 18(): 1753-1768.

Hiv Medicine
Regulation of adiponectin in adipocytes upon exposure to HIV-1
Sankale, JL; Tong, Q; Hadigan, CM; Tan, G; Grinspoon, SK; Kanki, PJ; Hotamisligil, GS
Hiv Medicine, 7(4): 268-274.

Infectious Disease Clinics of North America
Management of antiretroviral treatment-related complications
Hoffman, RM; Currier, JS
Infectious Disease Clinics of North America, 21(1): 103-+.
10.1016/j.idc.2007.01.007
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Biodrugs
Recombinant human growth hormone - Rationale for use in the treatment of HIV-associated lipodystrophy
Benedini, S; Terruzzi, F; Lazzarin, A; Luzi, L
Biodrugs, 22(2): 101-112.

Clinical Infectious Diseases
Preliminary guidelines for the evaluation and management of dyslipidemia in adults infected with human immunodeficiency virus and receiving antiretroviral therapy: Recommendations of the Adult AIDS Clinical Trial Group Cardiovascular Disease Focus Group
Dube, MP; Sprecher, D; Henry, WK; Aberg, JA; Torriani, FJ; Hodis, HN; Schouten, J; Levin, J; Myers, G; Zackin, R; Nevin, T; Currier, JS
Clinical Infectious Diseases, 31(5): 1216-1224.

Antiviral Therapy
Antiretroviral therapy and the lipodystrophy syndrome
John, M; Nolan, D; Mallal, S
Antiviral Therapy, 6(1): 9-20.

Oral Diseases
The epidemiology of the oral lesions of HIV infection in the developed world
Greenspan, JS; Greenspan, D
Oral Diseases, 8(): 34-39.

Journal of Clinical Laboratory Analysis
Human immunodeficiency virus genotype and hypertriglyceridemia
Anderson, SJ; Bradley, JF; Ferreira-Gonzalez, A; Garrett, CT
Journal of Clinical Laboratory Analysis, 16(4): 202-208.
10.1002/jcla.10042
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Antiviral Therapy
Antiretoviral therapy and the lipodystrophy syndrome, part 2: Concepts in aetiopathogenesis
Nolan, D; John, M; Mallal, S
Antiviral Therapy, 6(3): 145-160.

Drugs
Metabolic complications associated with HIV protease inhibitor therapy
Nolan, D
Drugs, 63(): 2555-2574.

Magnetic Resonance in Medicine
Glucose production pathways by H-2 and C-13 NMR in patients with HIV-associated lipoatrophy
Weis, BC; Margolis, D; Burgess, SC; Merritt, ME; Wise, H; Sherry, AD; Malloy, CR
Magnetic Resonance in Medicine, 51(4): 649-654.
10.1002/mrm.20057
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Nephrology Dialysis Transplantation
Atazanavir: a novel inhibitor of HIV-protease in haemodialysis
Izzedine, H; Launay-Vacher, V; Peytavin, G; Valantin, MA; Deray, G
Nephrology Dialysis Transplantation, 20(4): 852-853.

AIDS Care-Psychological and Socio-Medical Aspects of AIDS/Hiv
Strategies for management and treatment of dyslipidemia in HIV/AIDS
Sax, PE
AIDS Care-Psychological and Socio-Medical Aspects of AIDS/Hiv, 18(2): 149-157.
10.1080/0954012050161843
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Atherosclerosis
Protease inhibitor-based HAART, HDL, and CHD-risk in HIV-infected patients
Asztalos, BF; Schaefer, EJ; Horvath, KV; Cox, CE; Skinner, S; Gerrior, J; Gorbach, SL; Wanke, C
Atherosclerosis, 184(1): 72-77.
10.1016/j.atherosclerosis.2005.04.013
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Hiv Medicine
The management of dyslipidaemias in antiretroviral treated HIV infection: a systematic review
McGoldrick, C; Leen, CLS
Hiv Medicine, 8(6): 325-334.

Clinical Infectious Diseases
Workshop on HIV infection and aging: What is known and future research directions
Effros, RB; Fletcher, CV; Gebo, K; Halter, JB; Hazzard, WR; Horne, FM; Huebner, RE; Janoff, EN; Justice, AC; Kuritzkes, D; Nayfield, SG; Plaeger, SF; Schmader, KE; Ashworth, JR; Campanelli, C; Clayton, CP; Rada, B; Woolard, NF; High, KP
Clinical Infectious Diseases, 47(4): 542-553.
10.1086/590150
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AIDS
Genetic analysis implicates resistin in HIV lipodystrophy
Ranade, K; Geese, WJ; Noor, M; Flint, O; Tebas, P; Mulligan, K; Powderly, W; Grinspoon, SK; Dube, MP
AIDS, 22(): 1561-1568.

Circulation-Cardiovascular Genetics
Contribution of Genome-Wide Significant Single-Nucleotide Polymorphisms and Antiretroviral Therapy to Dyslipidemia in HIV-Infected Individuals A Longitudinal Study
Rotger, M; Bayard, C; Taffe, P; Martinez, R; Cavassini, M; Bernasconi, E; Battegay, M; Hirschel, B; Furrer, H; Witteck, A; Weber, R; Ledergerber, B; Telenti, A; Tarr, PE
Circulation-Cardiovascular Genetics, 2(6): 621-U246.
10.1161/CIRCGENETICS.109.874412
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Arteriosclerosis Thrombosis and Vascular Biology
HIV protease inhibitors stimulate hepatic triglyceride synthesis
Lenhard, JM; Croom, DK; Weiel, JE; Winegar, DA
Arteriosclerosis Thrombosis and Vascular Biology, 20(): 2625-2629.

Circulation
Use of human immunodeficiency virus-1 protease inhibitors is associated with atherogenic lipoprotein changes and endothelial dysfunction
Stein, JH; Klein, MA; Bellehumeur, JL; McBride, PE; Wiebe, DA; Otvos, JD; Sosman, JM
Circulation, 104(3): 257-262.

Antiviral Therapy
Metabolic and immunological effects of antiretroviral agents in healthy individuals receiving post-exposure prophylaxis
Garcia, F; Plana, M; Mestre, G; Cruceta, A; Martinez, E; Miro, JM; Mallolas, J; Tuset, M; Pumarola, T; Gallart, T; Gatell, JM
Antiviral Therapy, 7(3): 195-197.

American Journal of Physiology-Endocrinology and Metabolism
Alterations in lipid kinetics in men with HIV-dyslipidemia
Reeds, DN; Mittendorfer, B; Patterson, BW; Powderly, WG; Yarasheski, KE; Klein, S
American Journal of Physiology-Endocrinology and Metabolism, 285(3): E490-E497.
10.1152/ajprendo.00118.2003
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Current Hiv Research
Pharmacological cyclin-dependent kinase inhibitors as HIV-1 antiviral therapeutics
de la Fuente, C; Maddukuri, A; Kehn, K; Baylor, SY; Deng, LW; Pumfery, A; Kashanchi, F
Current Hiv Research, 1(2): 131-152.

AIDS
Increased risk of myocardial infarction with duration of protease inhibitor therapy in HIV-infected men
Mary-Krause, M; Cotteb, L; Simon, A; Partisani, M; Costagliola, D
AIDS, 17(): 2479-2486.

Atherosclerosis
Mechanism of highly active anti-retroviral therapy-induced hyperlipidemia in HIV-infected individuals
Carpentier, A; Patterson, BW; Uffelman, KD; Salit, I; Lewis, GF
Atherosclerosis, 178(1): 165-172.
10.1016/j.atherosclerosis.2004.07.035
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Antiviral Therapy
Effects of metformin or gemfibrozil on the lipodystrophy of HIV-infected patients receiving protease inhibitors
Martinez, E; Domingo, P; Ribera, E; Milinkovic, A; Arroyo, JA; Conget, I; Perez-Cuevas, JB; Casamitjana, R; de Lazzari, E; Bianchi, L; Montserrat, E; Roca, M; Burgos, R; Arnaiz, JA; Gatell, JM
Antiviral Therapy, 8(5): 403-410.

Jaids-Journal of Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndromes
State of the science conference initiative to decrease cardiovascular risk and increase quality of care for patients living with HIV/AIDS - Executive summary
Grinspoon, SK; Grunfeld, C; Kotler, DP; Currier, JS; Lundgren, JD; Dube, MP; Lipshultz, SE; Hsue, PY; Squires, K; Schambelan, M; Wilson, PWF; Yarasheski, KE; Hadigan, CM; Stein, JH; Eckel, RH
Jaids-Journal of Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndromes, 48(4): 369-380.

Future Lipidology
Current and future treatments of HIV-associated dyslipidemia
Bennett, MT; Johns, KW; Bondy, GP
Future Lipidology, 3(2): 175-188.
10.2217/17460875.3.2.175
CrossRef
Diabetes
The HIV protease inhibitor indinavir impairs sterol regulatory element-binding protein-1 intranuclear localization, inhibits preadipocyte differentiation, and induces insulin resistance
Caron, M; Auclair, R; Vigouroux, C; Glorian, M; Forest, C; Capeau, J
Diabetes, 50(6): 1378-1388.

Hiv-Associated Cardiovascular Disease: Clinical and Biological Insights
Cardiovascular disease risk factors in HIV-Infected patients in the HAART era
Galli, M; Ridolfo, AL; Gervasoni, C
Hiv-Associated Cardiovascular Disease: Clinical and Biological Insights, 946(): 200-213.

Hiv-Associated Cardiovascular Disease: Clinical and Biological Insights
Metabolic and morphologic disorders in patients treated with highly active antiretroviral therapy since primary HIV infection
Narciso, P; Tozzi, V; D'Offizi, G; De Carli, G; Orchi, N; Galati, V; Vincenzi, L; Bellagamba, R; Carvelli, C; Puro, V
Hiv-Associated Cardiovascular Disease: Clinical and Biological Insights, 946(): 214-222.

American Journal of Physiology-Endocrinology and Metabolism
Metabolic basis of HIV-lipodystrophy syndrome
Sekhar, RV; Jahoor, F; White, AC; Pownall, HJ; Visnegarwala, F; Rodriguez-Barradas, MC; Sharma, M; Reeds, PJ; Balasubramanyam, A
American Journal of Physiology-Endocrinology and Metabolism, 283(2): E332-E337.
10.1152/ajpendo.00058.2002
CrossRef
AIDS
Clinical perspectives on HIV-associated lipodystrophy syndrome: an update
Shevitz, A; Wanke, CA; Falutz, J; Kotler, DP
AIDS, 15(): 1917-1930.

Journal of Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndromes
Changes in metabolic parameters and body shape after replacement of protease inhibitor with efavirenz in virologically controlled HIV-1-positive persons: Single-arm observational cohort
Moyle, G; Baldwin, C; Mandalia, S; Comitis, S; Burn, P; Gazzard, B
Journal of Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndromes, 28(4): 399-401.

Jaids-Journal of Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndromes
Metabolic abnormalities in HIV disease and injection drug use
Dobs, A; Brown, T
Jaids-Journal of Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndromes, 31(): S70-S77.
10.1097/01.QAI.0000028067.79472.C2
CrossRef
American Journal of Physiology-Endocrinology and Metabolism
Visceral adiposity, C-peptide levels, and low lipase activities predict HIV-dyslipidemia
Yarasheski, KE; Tebas, P; Claxton, S; Marin, D; Coleman, T; Powderly, WG; Semenkovich, CF
American Journal of Physiology-Endocrinology and Metabolism, 285(4): E899-E905.
10.1152/ajpendo.00036.2003
CrossRef
Journal of Infection
Lipid lowering effects of statins and fibrates in the management of HIV dyslipidemias associated with antiretroviral therapy in HIV clinical practice
Visnegarwala, F; Maldonado, M; Sajja, P; Minihan, JL; Rodriguez-Barradas, MC; Ong, O; Lahart, CJ; Hasan, MQ; Balasubramanyam, A; White, AC
Journal of Infection, 49(4): 283-290.
10.1016/j.jinf.2003.09.006
CrossRef
Infectious Disease Clinics of North America
Antiretroviral therapy in HIV-infected children: The metabolic cost of improved survival
Leonard, EG; McComsey, GA
Infectious Disease Clinics of North America, 19(3): 713-+.
10.1016/j.idc.2005.05.006
CrossRef
Hiv Medicine
British HIV Association guidelines for the treatment of HIV-1-infected adults with antiretroviral therapy 2008
Gazzard, BG
Hiv Medicine, 9(8): 563-608.
10.1111/j.1468-1293.2008.00636.x
CrossRef
Toxicologic Pathology
The Role of Protease Inhibitors in the Pathogenesis of HIV-Associated Lipodystrophy: Cellular Mechanisms and Clinical Implications
Flint, OP; Noor, MA; Hruz, PW; Hylemon, PB; Yarasheski, K; Kotler, DP; Parker, RA; Bellamine, A
Toxicologic Pathology, 37(1): 65-77.
10.1177/0192623308327119
CrossRef
Drug Safety
Lipodystrophy syndrome in HIV infection - What is it, what causes it and how can it be managed?
Behrens, GMN; Stoll, M; Schmidt, RE
Drug Safety, 23(1): 57-76.

Drugs of the Future
Ritonavir - Norvir (R) - Anti-HIV - HIV protease inhibitor
[Anon]
Drugs of the Future, 25(7): 771-774.

Journal of Clinical Endocrinology & Metabolism
The effects of recombinant human growth hormone on body composition and glucose metabolism in HIV-infected patients with fat accumulation
Lo, JC; Mulligan, K; Noor, MA; Schwarz, JM; Halvorsen, RA; Grunfeld, C; Schambelan, M
Journal of Clinical Endocrinology & Metabolism, 86(8): 3480-3487.

Immunobiology
High level of anticholesterol antibodies (ACHA) in HIV patients. Normalization of serum ACHA concentration after introduction of HAART
Horvath, A; Banhegyi, D; Biro, A; Ujhelyi, E; Veres, A; Horvath, L; Prohaszka, Z; Bacsi, A; Tarjan, V; Romics, L; Horvath, I; Toth, FD; Fust, G; Karadi, I
Immunobiology, 203(5): 756-768.

Molecular Immunology
Antibodies against heat shock proteins and cholesterol in HIV infection
Fust, G; Beck, Z; Banhegyi, D; Kocsis, J; Biro, A; Prohaszka, Z
Molecular Immunology, 42(1): 79-85.
10.1016/j.molimm.2004.07.003
CrossRef
Journal of Clinical Endocrinology & Metabolism
Antiretroviral treatment reduces very-low-density lipoprotein and intermediate-density lipoprotein apolipoprotein B fractional catabolic rate in human immunodeficiency virus-infected patients with mild dyslipidemia
Shahmanesh, M; Das, S; Stolinski, M; Shojaee-Moradie, F; Jackson, NC; Jefferson, W; Cramb, R; Nightingale, P; Umpleby, AM
Journal of Clinical Endocrinology & Metabolism, 90(2): 755-760.
10.1210/jc.2004-1273
CrossRef
AIDS Research and Human Retroviruses
Predictive factors of hyperlipidemia in HIV-infected subjects receiving lopinavir/ritonavir
Bongiovanni, M; Bini, T; Cicconi, P; Landonio, S; Meraviglia, P; Testa, L; Di Biagio, A; Chiesa, E; Tordato, F; Biasi, P; Adorni, F; Monforte, AD
AIDS Research and Human Retroviruses, 22(2): 132-138.

Plos Medicine
Associations among race/ethnicity, ApoC-III genotypes, and lipids in HIV-1-infected individuals on antiretroviral therapy
Foulkes, AS; Wohl, DA; Frank, I; Puleo, E; Restine, S; Wolfe, ML; Dube, MP; Tebas, P; Reilly, MP
Plos Medicine, 3(3): 337-347.
ARTN e52
CrossRef
Future Lipidology
Dyslipidemia in HIV infection
Mangili, A; Wanke, CA
Future Lipidology, 1(6): 719-728.
10.2217/17460875.1.6.719
CrossRef
Atherosclerosis
Both long-term HIV infection and highly active antiretroviral therapy are independent risk factors for early carotid atherosclerosis
Lorenz, MW; Stephan, C; Harmjanz, A; Staszewski, S; Buehler, A; Bickel, M; von Kegler, S; Ruhkamp, D; Steinmetz, H; Sitzer, M
Atherosclerosis, 196(2): 720-726.
10.1016/j.atherosclerosis.2006.12.022
CrossRef
Medicinal Chemistry
Disturbance of Apolipoprotein B100 Containing Lipoprotein Metabolism in Severe Hyperlipidemic and Lipodystrophic HIV Patients on Combined Antiretroviral Therapy: Evidences of Insulin Resistance Effect
Ouguerram, K; Zair, Y; Billon, S; Chetiveaux, M; Brunet-Francois, C; Ngohou-Bach, K; Allavena, C; Reliquet, V; Milpied, B; Magot, T; Raffi, F; Krempf, M
Medicinal Chemistry, 4(6): 544-550.

AIDS
Getting to the HAART of insulin resistance
Nolan, D; Mallal, S
AIDS, 15(): 2037-2041.

Presse Medicale
Heart failure in patients treated with human immunodeficient virus protease inhibitors
Barthelemy, O; Escaut, L; Vayre, F; Gallet, B; Pulik, M; Heloire, F; Vittecoq, D
Presse Medicale, 31(8): 343-348.

Clinical Infectious Diseases
Factors related to lipodystrophy and metabolic alterations in patients with human immunodeficiency virus infection receiving highly active antiretroviral therapy
Saves, M; Raffi, F; Capeau, J; Rozenbaum, W; Ragnaud, JM; Perronne, C; Basdevant, A; Leport, C; Chene, G
Clinical Infectious Diseases, 34(): 1396-1405.

Clinical Infectious Diseases
Prediction of coronary heart disease risk in HIV-infected patients with fat redistribution
Hadigan, C; Meigs, JB; Wilson, PWF; D'Agostino, RB; Davis, B; Basgoz, N; Sax, PE; Grinspoon, S
Clinical Infectious Diseases, 36(7): 909-916.

Jaids-Journal of Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndromes
Cardiovascular risk factors in HIV-infected patients
Carr, A
Jaids-Journal of Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndromes, 34(): S73-S78.

Hiv Clinical Trials
Coronary heart disease risk, dyslipidemia, and management in HIV-infected persons
Fichtenbaum, CJ
Hiv Clinical Trials, 5(6): 416-433.

Journal of Infectious Diseases
Modeling the influence of APOC3, APOE, and TNF polymorphisms on the risk of antiretroviral therapy-associated lipid disorders
Tarr, PE; Taffe, P; Bleiber, G; Furrer, H; Rotger, M; Martinez, R; Hirschel, B; Battegay, M; Weber, R; Vernazza, P; Bernasconi, E; Darioli, R; Rickenbach, M; Ledergerber, B; Telenti, A
Journal of Infectious Diseases, 191(9): 1419-1426.

Hiv Medicine
The Protease Inhibitor Transfer Study (PROTRA 1): abacavir and efavirenz in combination as a substitute for a protease inhibitor in heavily pretreated HIV-1-infected patients with undetectable plasma viral load
Bickel, M; Rickerts, V; Stephan, C; Jacobi, V; Rottmann, C; Dauer, B; Carlebach, A; Thalhammer, A; Miller, V; Staszweski, S
Hiv Medicine, 6(3): 179-184.

Antiviral Therapy
Low density lipoprotein apolipoprotein B metabolism in treatment-naive HIV patients and patients on antiretroviral therapy
Umpleby, AM; Das, S; Stolinski, M; Shojaee-Moradie, F; Jackson, NC; Jefferson, W; Crabtree, N; Nightingale, P; Shahmanesh, M
Antiviral Therapy, 10(5): 663-670.

Antiviral Therapy
Ritonavir-boosted atazanavir-lopinavir combination: a pharmacokinetic interaction study of total, unbound plasma and cellular exposures
Colombo, S; Buclin, T; Franc, C; Guignard, N; Khonkarly, M; Tarr, PE; Rochat, B; Biollaz, J; Telenti, A; Decosterd, LA; Cavassini, M
Antiviral Therapy, 11(1): 53-62.

Journal of Infection
Risk of premature atherosclerosis and ischemic heart disease associated with HIV infection and antiretroviral therapy
Calza, L; Manfredi, R; Pocaterra, D; Chiodo, F
Journal of Infection, 57(1): 16-32.
10.1016/j.jinf.2008.02.006
CrossRef
Current Hypertension Reports
Insulin resistance in HIV-related lipodystrophy
Mikhail, N
Current Hypertension Reports, 5(2): 117-121.

Journal of Clinical Endocrinology & Metabolism
Regulation of adiponectin in human immunodeficiency virus-infected patients: Relationship to body composition and metabolic indices
Tong, Q; Sankale, JL; Hadigan, CM; Tan, G; Rosenberg, ES; Kanki, PJ; Grinspoon, SK; Hotamisligil, GS
Journal of Clinical Endocrinology & Metabolism, 88(4): 1559-1564.
10.1210/jc.2002-021600
CrossRef
AIDS Research and Human Retroviruses
Incidence of myocardial infarction in randomized clinical trials of protease inhibitor-based antiretroviral therapy: An analysis of four different protease inhibitors
Coplan, PM; Nikas, A; Japour, A; Cormier, K; Maradit-Kremers, H; Lewis, R; Xu, Y; DiNubile, MJ
AIDS Research and Human Retroviruses, 19(6): 449-455.

Pharmacoepidemiology and Drug Safety
Dyslipidaemia and cardiovascular disease risk associated with antiretroviral drugs
Lundgren, JD
Pharmacoepidemiology and Drug Safety, 12(5): 357-359.
10.1002/pds.807
CrossRef
Clinical Infectious Diseases
Guidelines for the evaluation and management of dyslipidemia in human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-infected adults receiving antiretroviral therapy: Recommendations of the HIV Medicine Association of the Infectious Disease Society of America and the Adult AIDS Clinical Trials Group
Dube, MP; Stein, JH; Aberg, JA; Fichtenbaum, CJ; Gerber, JG; Tashima, KT; Henry, WK; Currier, JS; Sprecher, D; Glesby, MJ
Clinical Infectious Diseases, 37(5): 613-627.

Clinical Infectious Diseases
Risk of metabolic abnormalities in patients infected with HIV receiving antiretroviral therapy that contains lopinavir-ritonavir
Martinez, E; Domingo, P; Galindo, MJ; Milinkovic, A; Arroyo, JA; Baldovi, F; Larrousse, M; Leon, A; de Lazzari, E; Gatell, JM
Clinical Infectious Diseases, 38(7): 1017-1023.

Hiv Clinical Trials
Relative effects of insulin resistance and protease inhibitor treatment on lipid and lipoprotein metabolism in HIV-infected patients
Beatty, G; Chu, J; Kulkarni, K; Lipshutz, G; Khalili, M; Abbasi, F; Stansell, J; Reaven, GM
Hiv Clinical Trials, 5(6): 383-391.

American Heart Journal
Effects of pravastatin on lipoproteins and endothelial function in patients receiving human immunodeficiency virus protease inhibitors
Stein, JH; Merwood, MA; Bellehumeur, JL; Aeschlimann, SE; Korcarz, CE; Underbakke, GL; Mays, ME; Sosman, JM
American Heart Journal, 147(4): -.
10.1016/j.ahj.2003.10.018
CrossRef
International Journal of Clinical Practice
Insulin resistance and HIV infection: a review
Aboud, M; Elgalib, A; Kulasegaram, R; Peters, B
International Journal of Clinical Practice, 61(3): 463-472.
10.1111/j.1742-1241.2006.01267.x
CrossRef
Archives of Medical Research
No evidence of increased risk for certain highly atherogenic lipoprotein phenotypes in HIV-infected patients
Catzin-Kuhlmann, A; Castillo-Martinez, L; Colin-Ramirez, E; Valles, V; Aguilar-Salinas, CA; Sierra, J; Calva, JJ
Archives of Medical Research, 39(1): 84-91.
10.1016/j.arcmed.2007.06.012
CrossRef
Current Atherosclerosis Reports
HIV Therapy, Metabolic Syndrome, and Cardiovascular Risk
Pao, V; Lee, GA; Grunfeld, C
Current Atherosclerosis Reports, 10(1): 61-70.

AIDS Research and Human Retroviruses
Metabolic abnormalities in HIV type 1-infected children treated and not treated with protease inhibitors
Melvin, AJ; Lennon, S; Mohan, KM; Purnell, JQ
AIDS Research and Human Retroviruses, 17(): 1117-1123.

Journal of Clinical Lipidology
Acute elevation of triglycerides after initiation of fosamprinavir/ritonavir in an HIV-negative patient with baseline hypertriglyceridemia
Nguyen, ST; Bain, AM; Bedimo, RG; Hall, RG; Busti, AJ
Journal of Clinical Lipidology, 2(5): 398-400.
10.1016/j.jacl.2008.06.012
CrossRef
AIDS
Clinical assessment of HIV-associated lipodystrophy in an ambulatory population
Lichtenstein, KA; Ward, DJ; Moorman, AC; Delaney, KM; Young, B; Palella, FJ; Rhodes, PH; Wood, KC; Holmberg, SD
AIDS, 15(): 1389-1398.

AIDS
Replacing ritonavir by nelfinavir or nelfinavir/saquinavir as part of highly active antiretroviral therapy leads to an improvement of triglyceride levels
Wensing, AMJ; Reedijk, M; Richter, C; Boucher, CAB; Borleffs, JCC
AIDS, 15(): 2191-2193.

Journal of Endocrinology
The HIV protease inhibitor saquinavir impairs lipid metabolism and glucose transport in cultured adipocytes
Ranganathan, S; Kern, PA
Journal of Endocrinology, 172(1): 155-162.

AIDS
How bad is HAART for the HEART?
Reiss, P
AIDS, 17(): 2529-2531.

Jaids-Journal of Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndromes
Do new protease inhibitors offer improved management options? Issues of PI tolerability and safety
Sax, PE
Jaids-Journal of Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndromes, 35(): S22-S34.

Atherosclerosis
HIV-related lipodystrophy and related factors
Tershakovec, AM; Frank, I; Rader, D
Atherosclerosis, 174(1): 1-10.
10.1016/S0021-9150(03)00246-6
CrossRef
Revista De Investigacion Clinica
Metabolic abnormalities in patients with HIV infection
Rodriguez-Carranza, SI; Aguilar-Salinas, CA
Revista De Investigacion Clinica, 56(2): 193-208.

Molecular Pharmacology
Endoplasmic reticulum stress links dyslipidemia to inhibition of proteasome activity and glucose transport by HIV protease inhibitors
Parker, RA; Flint, OP; Mulvey, R; Elosua, C; Wang, F; Fenderson, W; Wang, SL; Yang, WP; Noor, MA
Molecular Pharmacology, 67(6): 1909-1919.
10.1124/mol.104.010165
CrossRef
Herz
Metabolic syndrome and hyperlipidemia in HIV-positive patients
Behrens, GMN
Herz, 30(6): 458-466.
10.1007/s00059-005-2722-5
CrossRef
Antimicrobial Agents and Chemotherapy
Pharmacokinetic and safety evaluation of high-dose combinations of fosamprenavir and ritonavir
Shelton, MJ; Wire, MB; Lou, Y; Adamkiewicz, B; Min, SS
Antimicrobial Agents and Chemotherapy, 50(3): 928-934.
10.1128/AAC.50.3.928-934.2006
CrossRef
Journal of Midwifery & Womens Health
Hormonal contraception and HIV-positive women: Metabolic concerns and management strategies
Womack, J; Richman, S; Tien, PC; Grey, M; Williams, A
Journal of Midwifery & Womens Health, 53(4): 362-375.
10.1016/j.jmwh.2008.01.006
CrossRef
Antiviral Research
Metabolic complications associated with antiretroviral therapy
Jain, RG; Furfine, ES; Pedneault, L; White, AJ; Lenhard, JM
Antiviral Research, 51(3): 151-177.

AIDS
Fat distribution and metabolic changes are strongly correlated and energy expenditure is increased in the HIV lipodystrophy syndrome
Kosmiski, LA; Kuritzkes, DR; Lichtenstein, KA; Glueck, DH; Gourley, PJ; Stamm, ER; Scherzinger, AL; Eckel, RH
AIDS, 15(): 1993-2000.

AIDS
Highly active antiretroviral therapy and coronary heart disease: the need for perspective
Egger, M; Junghans, C; Friis-Moller, N; Lundgren, JD
AIDS, 15(): S193-S201.

Jama-Journal of the American Medical Association
Antiretroviral treatment for adult HIV infection in 2002 - Updated recommendations of the international AIDS Society-USA panel
Yeni, PG; Hammer, SM; Carpenter, CCJ; Cooper, DA; Fischl, MA; Gatell, JM; Gazzard, BG; Hirsch, MS; Jacobsen, DM; Katzenstein, DA; Montaner, JSG; Richman, DD; Saag, MS; Schechter, M; Schooley, RT; Thompson, MA; Vella, S; Volberding, PA
Jama-Journal of the American Medical Association, 288(2): 222-235.

Journal of Infection
HIV-associated lipodystrophy syndrome: Description and pathogenesis
Bodasing, N; Fox, R
Journal of Infection, 46(3): 149-154.
10.1053/jinf.2002.1102
CrossRef
AIDS
Clinical impact of HIV-related lipodystrophy and metabolic abnormalities on cardiovascular disease
Behrens, GMN; Meyer-Olson, D; Stoll, M; Schmidt, RE
AIDS, 17(): S149-S154.

Arteriosclerosis Thrombosis and Vascular Biology
HIV protease inhibitors and hyperlipidemia - A fatty acid connection
Spector, AA
Arteriosclerosis Thrombosis and Vascular Biology, 26(1): 7-9.
10.1161/01.ATV.0000198749.28422.29
CrossRef
AIDS Reviews
Pathogenesis of lipodystrophy and lipid abnormalities in patients taking antiretroviral therapy
Mallon, PWG
AIDS Reviews, 9(1): 3-15.

Liver International
Hepatitis C, human immunodeficiency virus and metabolic syndrome: interactions
Kotler, DP
Liver International, 29(): 38-46.
10.1111/j.1478-3231.2008.01951.x
CrossRef
Revista De Saude Publica
Metabolic changes associated with antiretroviral therapy in HIV-positive patients
Almeida, SEMD; Borges, M; Fiegenbaum, M; Nunes, CC; Rossetti, MLR
Revista De Saude Publica, 43(2): 283-290.

Atherosclerosis
Ritonavir protects against the development of atherosclerosis in APOE*3-Leiden mice
den Boer, MAM; Westerterp, M; de Vries-van der Weij, J; Wang, YA; Hu, LH; Santo, SMSE; Kooistra, T; Reiss, P; Romijn, JA; Havekes, LM; Rensen, PCN
Atherosclerosis, 210(2): 381-387.
10.1016/j.atherosclerosis.2009.11.043
CrossRef
AIDS
HIV-associated lipodystrophy syndrome
Mauss, S
AIDS, 14(): S197-S207.

Clinical Infectious Diseases
Lipid abnormalities
Dube, M; Fenton, M
Clinical Infectious Diseases, 36(): S79-S83.

Comparative Biochemistry and Physiology C-Toxicology & Pharmacology
Site-specific differences in the action of NRTI drugs on adipose tissue incubated in vitro with lymphoid cells, and their interaction with dietary lipids
Mattacks, CA; Sadler, D; Pond, CM
Comparative Biochemistry and Physiology C-Toxicology & Pharmacology, 135(1): 11-29.
10.1016/S1532-0456(03)00024-3
CrossRef
Journal of Lipid Research
Increased VLDL-apoB and IDL-apoB production rates in nonlipodystrophic HIV-infected patients on a protease inhibitor-containing regimen: a stable isotope kinetic study
Petit, JM; Duong, M; Florentin, E; Duvillard, L; Chavanet, P; Brun, JM; Portier, H; Gambert, P; Verges, B
Journal of Lipid Research, 44(9): 1692-1697.
10.1194/jlr.M300041-JLR200
CrossRef
Hiv Clinical Trials
Comparison of metabolic abnormalities and clinical lipodystrophy 48 weeks after switching from HAART to Trizivir (TM) versus continued HAART: The Trizal study
Lafeuillade, A; Clumeck, N; Mallolas, J; Jaeger, H; Livrozet, JM; Ferreira, MD; Johnson, M; Cheret, A; Antoun, Z
Hiv Clinical Trials, 4(1): 37-43.

European Journal of Clinical Microbiology & Infectious Diseases
Elevated Framingham risk score in HIV-positive patients on highly active antiretroviral therapy: results from a Norwegian study of 721 subjects
Bergersen, BM; Sandvik, L; Bruun, JN; Tonstad, S
European Journal of Clinical Microbiology & Infectious Diseases, 23(8): 625-630.
10.1007/s10096-004-1177-6
CrossRef
Arteriosclerosis Thrombosis and Vascular Biology
Postprandial lipoprotein changes in patients taking antiretroviral therapy for HIV infection
Stein, JH; Merwood, MA; Bellehumeur, JB; McBride, PE; Wiebe, DA; Sosman, JM
Arteriosclerosis Thrombosis and Vascular Biology, 25(2): 399-405.
10.1161/01.ATV.0000152233.80082.9c
CrossRef
AIDS
Differentiating hyperlipidaemia associated with antiretroviral therapy
Mauss, S; Stechel, J; Willers, R; Schmutz, G; Berger, F; Richter, WO
AIDS, 17(2): 189-194.

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AIDS
The HIV-associated lipodystrophy syndrome: research, results, yet more questions
Gharakhanian, S
AIDS, 15(2): 271-273.

PDF (98)
AIDS
Premature atherosclerosis in HIV-infected individuals – focus on protease inhibitor therapy
Depairon, M; Chessex, S; Sudre, P; Rodondi, N; Doser, N; Chave, J; Riesen, W; Nicod, P; Darioli, R; Telenti, A; Mooser, V; with the Swiss HIV Cohort Study,
AIDS, 15(3): 329-334.

PDF (143)
AIDS
Low lipolytic enzyme activity in patients with severe hypertriglyceridemia on highly active antiretroviral therapy
Bricaire, F; Baril, L; Beucler, I; Valantin, M; Bruckert, E; Bonnefont-Rousselot, D; Coutellier, A; Caumes, E; Katlama, C
AIDS, 15(3): 415-417.

AIDS
The metabolic effects of lopinavir/ritonavir in HIV-negative men
Lee, GA; Seneviratne, T; Noor, MA; Lo, JC; Schwarz, J; Aweeka, FT; Mulligan, K; Schambelan, M; Grunfeld, C
AIDS, 18(4): 641-649.

PDF (122)
AIDS
Pharmacokinetic interactions between protease inhibitors and statins in HIV seronegative volunteers: ACTG Study A5047
Blaschke, T; Alston, B; Fang, F; Kosel, B; Aweeka, F; and the NIAID AIDS Clinical Trials Group, ; Fichtenbaum, CJ; Gerber, JG; Rosenkranz, SL; Segal, Y; Aberg, JA
AIDS, 16(4): 569-577.

PDF (325)
AIDS
Morphologic and metabolic abnormalities in vertically HIV-infected children and youth
Aldrovandi, GM; Lindsey, JC; Jacobson, DL; Zadzilka, A; Sheeran, E; Moye, J; Borum, P; Meyer, WA; Hardin, DS; Mulligan, K; for the Pediatric AIDS Clinical Trials Group P1045 team,
AIDS, 23(6): 661-672.
10.1097/QAD.0b013e3283269dfb
PDF (172) | CrossRef
AIDS
Association of antiretroviral therapy with fibrinogen levels in HIV-infection
Madden, E; Lee, G; Kotler, DP; Wanke, C; Lewis, CE; Tracy, R; Heymsfield, S; Shlipak, MG; Bacchetti, P; Scherzer, R; Grunfeld, C
AIDS, 22(6): 707-715.
10.1097/QAD.0b013e3282f560d9
PDF (198) | CrossRef
AIDS
HIV protease inhibitors and glucose metabolism
Grunfeld, C
AIDS, 16(6): 925-926.

PDF (109)
AIDS
Sex differences in HAART-associated dyslipidaemia
Pernerstorfer-Schoen, H; Jilma, B; Perschler, A; Wichlas, S; Schindler, K; Schindl, A; Rieger, A; Wagner, OF; Quehenberger, P
AIDS, 15(6): 725-734.

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AIDS
Effect of pravastatin on body composition and markers of cardiovascular disease in HIV-infected men—a randomized, placebo-controlled study
Mallon, PW; Miller, J; Kovacic, JC; Kent-Hughes, J; Norris, R; Samaras, K; Feneley, MP; Cooper, DA; Carr, A
AIDS, 20(7): 1003-1010.
10.1097/01.aids.0000222072.37749.5a
PDF (236) | CrossRef
AIDS
Cardiovascular disease in HIV-positive patients
Kamin, DS; Grinspoon, SK
AIDS, 19(7): 641-652.
10.1097/01.aids.0000166087.08822.bc
PDF (2393) | CrossRef
AIDS
Metabolic effects of indinavir in healthy HIV-seronegative men
Noor, MA; Lo, JC; Mulligan, K; Schwarz, J; Halvorsen, RA; Schambelan, M; Grunfeld, C
AIDS, 15(7): F11-F18.

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AIDS
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Danoff, A; Shi, Q; Justman, J; Mulligan, K; Hessol, N; Robison, E; Lu, D; Williams, T; Wichienkuer, P; Anastos, K
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Keywords:

apolipoproteins; hepatic lipase; lipids; lipoprotein lipase; ritonavir

© 2000 Lippincott Williams & Wilkins, Inc.

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