Skip Navigation LinksHome > November 2013 - Volume 27 - Issue > Understanding the contribution of common childhood illnesses...
doi: 10.1097/QAD.0000000000000080
Supplement Articles

Understanding the contribution of common childhood illnesses and opportunistic infections to morbidity and mortality in children living with HIV in resource-limited settings

Modi, Surbhia; Chiu, Alexa,b; Ng’eno, Bernadettec; Kellerman, Scott E.d; Sugandhi, Nanditae; Muhe, Luluf; The Child Survival Working Group of the Interagency Task Team on the Prevention and Treatment of HIV Infection in Pregnant Women, Mothers and Child

Free Access
Article Outline
Collapse Box

Author Information

aDivision of Global HIV/AIDS, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, Atlanta, Geogia, USA

bThe CDC Experience Applied Epidemiology Fellowship, Scientific Education and Professional Development Program Office, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, Atlanta, Georgia, USA

cDivision of Global HIV/AIDS, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, Nairobi, Kenya

dManagement Sciences for Health, Arlington, Virginia

eClinton Health Access Initiative, New York City, New York, USA

fWorld Health Organization, Geneva, Switzerland.

*Complete author list follows references.

Correspondence to Surbhi Modi, Medical Officer, Pediatric HIV Care and Treatment Team, Division of Global HIV/AIDS, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, 1600 Clifton Rd NE, MS-E04, Atlanta, GA 30333, USA. Tel: +1 404 639 8909; fax: +1 404 639 8114; e-mail:

Collapse Box


Objective: Although antiretroviral treatment (ART) has reduced the incidence of HIV-related opportunistic infections among children living with HIV, access to ART remains limited for children, especially in resource-limited settings. This paper reviews current knowledge on the contribution of opportunistic infections and common childhood illnesses to morbidity and mortality in children living with HIV, highlights interventions known to improve the health of children, and identifies research gaps for further exploration.

Design and Methods: Literature review of peer-reviewed articles and abstracts combined with expert opinion and operational experience.

Results: Morbidity and mortality due to opportunistic infections has decreased in both developed and resource-limited countries. However, the burden of HIV-related infections remains high, especially in sub-Saharan Africa, where the majority of HIV-infected children live. Limitations in diagnostic capacity in resource-limited settings have resulted in a relative paucity of data on opportunistic infections in children. Additionally, the reliance on clinical diagnosis means that opportunistic infections are often confused with common childhood illnesseswhich also contribute to excess morbidity and mortality in these children. Although several preventive interventions have been shown to decrease opportunistic infection-related mortality, implementation of many of these interventions remains inconsistent.

Conclusions: In order to reduce opportunistic infection-related mortality, early ART must be expanded, training for front-line clinicians must be improved, and additional research is needed to improve screening and diagnostic algorithms.

Back to Top | Article Outline


Despite substantial global progress toward reducing new pediatric HIV infections, there were approximately 3.4 million children living with HIV and 230 000 AIDS-related deaths among children in 2011 [1]. More than 90% of HIV-infected children live in sub-Saharan Africa, meaning that this region is also disproportionately affected by pediatric HIV-related mortality [2]. Pooled analyses of data from sub-Saharan Africa show that more than half of HIV-infected infants die by age 2 years without antiretroviral treatment (ART), compared with 8% of HIV-exposed uninfected infants [3,4]. Even with ART, mortality rates in HIV-infected children are estimated to be at least 30 times higher than mortality rates among HIV-unexposed children, largely due to the impact of opportunistic infections and an increased susceptibility to common childhood illnesses such as diarrhea, pneumonia, malaria, and malnutrition [5–8]. Opportunistic infections are frequently the presenting symptom of HIV among children with undiagnosed infection or may be the determining factor for initiation of ART in known HIV-infected children who do not meet other criteria for treatment. As with adults, ART remains the single most effective intervention for reducing the incidence of opportunistic infections, decreasing opportunistic infection-related morbidity, and improving survival of HIV-infected patients [5,6,9,10]. Since the widespread introduction of ART in sub-Saharan Africa beginning in 2004, HIV-related mortality in children has decreased by more than 25% [1,6]. However, access to ART remains limited for children living with HIV. In the 22 high HIV burden countries identified as priorities in the ‘Global Plan Towards the Elimination of New HIV Infections among Children and Keeping their Mothers Alive’ only 34% of children in need of ART received treatment in 2012 compared with 63% of all people living with HIV (PLHIV), and HIV-infected children continue to suffer from disproportionately high rates of morbidity and mortality [11–13]. This paper reviews current knowledge on the contribution of opportunistic infections and common childhood illnesses to morbidity and mortality in children living with HIV, highlights interventions known to improve the health of children, and identifies research gaps for further exploration.

Back to Top | Article Outline

Opportunistic infection-related mortality among children living with HIV in the United States and Europe

The majority of data on the impact of opportunistic infections in children living with HIV come from cohort studies conducted as part of clinical trials in the United States and Europe. The Pediatric AIDS Clinical Trials Group (PACTG) and the Perinatal AIDS Collaborative Transmission Study (PACTS) have followed HIV-infected children in the United States since the mid-1980s [5,6,9,14–16]. Data from both PACTG and PACTS since 1997 show decreases in overall mortality and in opportunistic infection-related mortality for children following the introduction of ART. Overall mortality for children in both cohorts declined to 0.8 deaths per 100 person-years in the post-ART era from pre-ART rates of 7.2 and 18 deaths per 100 person-years in the PACTG and PACTS cohorts, respectively [5,9,16]. Similarly, data from a cohort of children in the United Kingdom and Ireland showed a decrease in overall mortality from 8.2 deaths per 100 person-years before 1997 to 0.6 per 100 person-years by 2006 [17]. The proportion of deaths due to opportunistic infections has decreased dramatically with the advent of ART, but these infections remain substantial contributors to mortality. In the PACTS cohort, 31.8% of deaths prior to 1991 when ART was not widely available were due to opportunistic infections, decreasing to 16.9% in years of monotherapy and dual therapy (1991–1996) and to 9.1% when combination therapy was available (1997–2004) [16]. Opportunistic infections accounted for 24% of all deaths in children in the PACTG cohort between 2001 and 2006 [5]. The most commonly occurring infections among HIV-infected children in the developed world include bacterial pneumonia, herpes zoster, dermatophyte infections, and oral candidiasis [6]. The opportunistic infections causing death have changed since the introduction of ART in the United States. The proportion of deaths due to Mycobacterium avium complex (MAC) and cryptosporidium have significantly decreased, whereas mortality due to other opportunistic infections such as Pneumocystis jirovecii pneumonia (PCP) and cytomegalovirus (CMV) remained relatively stable [5,18]. Data from other studies in the United States and other developed countries have largely corroborated the PACTG and PACTS data and have shown that opportunistic infection-related mortality has declined, but that HIV-related infections still remain an important cause of morbidity and mortality in children [14,15,18–23].

Back to Top | Article Outline

Opportunistic infections among children living with HIV in resource-limited settings

There is a relative paucity of data on the burden of opportunistic infections in children living with HIV in resource-limited settings. There are few large published multicountry cohort studies specifically designed to measure the incidence of a broad range of opportunistic infections in HIV-infected children or determine specific causes of death in resource-limited settings where autopsies are not commonly performed. However, the data that are available suggest that ART has had a similar impact on decreasing opportunistic infection-related morbidity and mortality in resource-limited settings. Data from Thailand show that opportunistic infection-related mortality in children decreased from 27% of all causes of mortality in the pre-ART era (1989–2002) to 5.7% in the post-ART era (2003–2009). As seen in the United States and Europe, the types of opportunistic infections conferring higher morbidity (i.e., leading to hospitalization) have changed with the widespread availability of ART, although the specific trends were different in Thailand, where the incidence of PCP and recurrent salmonella septicemia decreased, whereas mycobacterial and systemic fungal infections increased [10]. A recent study demonstrated that the incidence of WHO stage 3 or 4 conditions among HIV-infected adults and children in resource-limited settings in Asia and Africa was approximately 14 times as high as among patients in a European cohort in the first 3 months after ART initiation, although overall incidence of these conditions decreased by more than 90% at the end of 12 months following ART initiation [24].

Even where ART is available, HIV-infected children in resource-limited settings continue to experience high levels of morbidity and mortality from opportunistic infections. A recent study from Latin America that compared a cohort of children with a similar length of follow-up, ART utilization, and CD4% at enrollment as the children in the PACTG study cohort showed a similar spectrum of opportunistic infections, but a much higher overall incidence of opportunistic infections than the children in the United States [25]. A systematic review of mortality in resource-limited settings in the ART era found that pediatric mortality remains significantly higher than developed countries despite more widespread ART availability, with 8 deaths per 100-child years compared with approximately 0.8–0.9 deaths per 100 child-years in developed countries [5,26]. This review also highlighted the delays in initiation of ART for children in resource-limited settings as evidenced by the relatively low CD4+ cell count, low weight-for-age z-scores, and high viral loads compared with children in developed countries [26]. Routine program data on HIV-infected adults and children from 10 countries in Asia and Africa further indicate that the highest regional burden of opportunistic infections occurs in Africa, where the incidence of any WHO stage 3 condition was three times as high as in Asia, and with pulmonary tuberculosis (TB) being the most commonly reported condition [24].

Back to Top | Article Outline

Common childhood illnesses among children living with HIV

In addition to opportunistic infections, HIV-infected children also suffer from diseases common in HIV-unexposed children in these settings, including malaria, pneumonia, and diarrheal illnesses. A review of hospital admission data in Soweto, South Africa shows that pneumonia, diarrhea, and malnutrition were the most common causes of childhood hospitalization, especially in HIV-infected children prior to the availability of ART [27]. A more recent study from the Democratic Republic of Congo reported that the most common causes of death in children on ART included septic shock and diarrhea, which only cause 8% of deaths in HIV-infected children in the United States [6,28]. The higher incidence of diarrhea and diarrhea-related mortality among children living with HIV may be explained by an underlying immunocompromised state, comorbid infections, and/or malnutrition, which often result from delayed ART initiation [28–30]. Persistent diarrhea, in particular, is associated with a high risk of mortality in HIV-infected children. Restoration of immune function with ART is a critical component of prevention and treatment of diarrhea in children with HIV infection, yet access to ART remains limited, especially in sub-Saharan Africa [12,31].

Data from Botswana showed that the burden of respiratory disease among children living with HIV is particularly high, causing 83% of deaths among HIV-infected children compared to 27–42% in the United States [14,18,32]. Pneumonia was the most common serious bacterial illness among HIV-infected children admitted to a hospital in Cape Town, South Africa, with common causes including Streptococcus pneumoniae, Staphylococcus aureus, and Klebsiella pneumoniae[33]. Similarly, a study in Thailand showed that the most frequent cause of hospital admission among children receiving ART was pneumonia and other bacterial infections, accounting for 62% of the admissions [34]. A systematic review of the causes of severe pneumonia in HIV-infected children in both resource-limited and developed countries found limited data, especially after the availability of ART. The available data suggest that PCP and CMV were the most common and second most common causes, respectively, of pneumonia in HIV-infected children; additionally, Mycobacterium tuberculosis was documented in 8% of children with acute pneumonia in South Africa [35]. The limited capacity to diagnose specific infections, such as PCP, CMV, and TB, among children in resource-limited settings means that these are often not differentiated from other common causes of respiratory disease in HIV-uninfected children [36,37]. Given these limitations, the true prevalence of these specific infections among HIV-infected children, stratified by ART exposure and CD4 cell count, remains unknown. A recent report showed that nearly 30% of the pneumonia burden in sub-Saharan Africa can be attributed to HIV-related immunosuppression (personal communication, WHO). Although common childhood illnesses contribute substantially to morbidity and mortality among children living with HIV, the relative burden of opportunistic infections may be underestimated in resource-limited settings due to limited diagnostic capacity and lack of routine surveillance for these illnesses.

Back to Top | Article Outline

Recommendations for prevention of opportunistic infections and common childhood illnesses among children living with HIV

Several medical interventions have been proven to reduce morbidity and mortality from opportunistic infections and are recommended as prophylactic therapy for children living with HIV. Cotrimoxazole has been shown to dramatically reduce the risk of opportunistic infections such as PCP and toxoplasmosis and to provide protection against common diseases such as malaria [38,39]. Since 2006, WHO has recommended cotrimoxazole preventive therapy for all HIV-exposed infants through the end of the breastfeeding period and for all HIV-infected infants and children under the age of 5 years [39]. To prevent TB-related morbidity and mortality in HIV-infected children, WHO recommends isoniazid preventive therapy (IPT) for all HIV-infected infants and children with a history of contact with a known TB case and for all HIV-infected children over age 12 months who are unlikely to have active TB or who have successfully completed treatment for TB disease [40–42]. WHO does not recommend the use of fluconazole for primary prophylaxis of cryptococcal infection in children and adolescents because available data suggest a lower incidence in these age groups [39].

Despite the known benefits and long-standing recommendations for cotrimoxazole and IPT, uptake of these interventions remains inconsistent. There are encouraging data from a recent national retrospective cohort study in Kenya, which show that 94% of HIV-infected children received cotrimoxazole prophylaxis at their last HIV clinic visit between 2004 and 2010 (unpublished data, CDC). However, data from a South African study showed that a third of HIV-exposed children attending a primary healthcare facility did not receive cotrimoxazole [43]. No published global data are available on routine uptake of IPT among HIV-infected children.

Further research is needed on the optimal use and duration of opportunistic infection prophylaxis regimens for HIV-exposed and HIV-infected children. Recent data confirm the benefit of extended cotrimoxazole prophylaxis for HIV-infected children receiving ART in resource-limited settings, with ongoing reductions in hospitalizations for malaria and other infections beyond 96 weeks [44]. Cotrimoxazole has also been shown to moderately reduce malaria incidence in HIV-exposed uninfected infants through age 2 years [45]; however, there have been no randomized clinical trials assessing the long-term impact of cotrimoxazole in HIV-exposed uninfected infants. Data from South Africa suggest that there is little benefit of cotrimoxazole prophylaxis for lower respiratory tract infections and a trend toward an increased risk of diarrhea without a decreased risk of lower respiratory tract infections in HIV-exposed uninfected infants receiving cotrimoxazole prophylaxis for more than 2 months while breastfeeding, but these findings were not statistically significant [46,47]. As countries continue to scale up prevention of mother-to-child HIV transmission (PMTCT) programs to reach goals for global elimination of new pediatric HIV infections, the need for data on cotrimoxazole use, and other preventive therapies in HIV-exposed, uninfected infants increases.

Although TB is one the most common causes of mortality in PLHIV, the difficulty of confirming a diagnosis of active TB in children remains a barrier to increasing case finding and ruling out active disease prior to IPT. Many promising advances have been made for TB diagnosis among PLHIV in the past 5 years, including the introduction of rapid, near point-of-care diagnosis with the Xpert MTB/RIF assay [48]. Initial studies of Xpert MTB/RIF testing in children living with HIV show that diagnostic yield is up to a three times as high as smear microscopy of sputum, gastric aspirates, or nasopharyngeal aspirate specimens [48–53]. However, obtaining these specimens remains challenging in resource-limited settings, especially in the youngest children who are at highest risk of TB-related mortality. Novel approaches using stool and urine are being tested, but preliminary results have been mixed [49,54]. The difficulty of ruling out active TB in children with HIV in resource-limited settings further complicates scale-up of IPT provision. In a routine clinical setting offering IPT to HIV-infected children in Kenya, less than half of all children enrolled in HIV care between 2008 and 2011 received IPT; the median time to IPT initiation was 8 months due to the large burden of TB among HIV-infected children and the difficulty of excluding active TB disease in this setting [55]. Research on the impact of IPT on TB incidence and mortality has focused on adults; additional population-based studies in HIV-exposed and HIV-infected infants and children are needed to strengthen the evidence base for this intervention [56,57]. The optimal duration, safety, efficacy, and cost–effectiveness of IPT alone or in addition to ART have not specifically been evaluated among children living with HIV, particularly in routine program settings in resource-limited settings. Further research is recommended for improving the accuracy and feasibility of diagnosis of active TB and other opportunistic infections, such as PCP and CMV, in HIV-infected children in resource-limited settings.

Interventions to decrease the burden of common childhood illnesses will also help decrease morbidity and mortality among HIV-infected children. Increasing the coverage of routine childhood immunizations is one such essential intervention. Several studies have shown that the pneumococcal conjugate vaccine and the Haemophilus influenza conjugate vaccine may prevent a large proportion of HIV-associated and non-HIV-associated pneumonia in children [58–61]. In one study from South Africa, the overall reduction in invasive pneumococcal disease attributed to pneumococcal conjugate vaccination was 60 times higher in HIV-infected children compared with HIV-uninfected children [58,62]. Although limited data exist on the use of rotavirus vaccine in HIV-infected children, this vaccine has the potential to decrease the burden of acute gastroenteritis-related morbidity and mortality in high HIV prevalence regions [63–65].

Improving the health of families is also essential to improving outcomes for children. Data from multiple studies have shown that HIV-exposed and HIV-infected children are more likely to die when their mothers are ill or have died [66–68]. Importantly, data from South Africa show that mortality rates in children whose mothers received ART were not significantly different than HIV-unexposed children [68]. These data suggest that widespread implementation of universal ART for pregnant and breastfeeding women commonly referred to as (Option B+) may result in improved survival for children. Recognition and treatment of HIV infection and opportunistic infections in adults are also critical to the prevention of HIV infection and opportunistic infection-related morbidity in children, as these conditions tend to spread within families and households. HIV-infected women or HIV-infected family members who are co-infected with certain opportunistic pathogens are more likely to transmit these infections to their children, resulting in an increased likelihood of primary acquisition of such infections in the young child. For example, studies from Europe and Asia have shown that HIV-exposed infants have higher rates of congenital CMV infection than children born to mothers without HIV, and CMV is more common in HIV-infected infants than HIV-exposed uninfected infants [69,70]. Similarly, HIV-exposed infants are more likely to acquire hepatitis B and hepatitis C infection than HIV-unexposed infants [71–73]. Additional studies are needed to understand the prevalence and importance of perinatal transmission of CMV and hepatitis in sub-Saharan Africa. Infection with Mycobacterium tuberculosis among infants and children primarily reflects acquisition from family members with active TB disease. Furthermore, maternal TB infection is associated with not only an increased risk of TB in the infant, but also an increased risk of HIV transmission, making TB prevention and treatment among pregnant women a critical intervention for improving HIV-free survival for children [74,75].

Back to Top | Article Outline

Health systems gaps

In order to improve access to pediatric HIV care and treatment in resource-limited settings, these services are increasingly being decentralized to district hospitals and primary healthcare settings. In these lower-level healthcare facilities, treatment options, human resources, and capacity for laboratory, radiologic, and pathologic diagnosis of opportunistic infections are more limited than at secondary or tertiary level health facilities [76]. Given these limitations, management decisions are often made on the basis of clinical presentation alone. However, clinical diagnoses are often incorrect, as highlighted by autopsy studies in HIV-infected adults and children in sub-Saharan Africa, which show frequent discordance between clinical and postmortem diagnoses [36,77,78]. PCP and CMV pneumonia were identified as the main causes of mortality in autopsy studies of HIV-infected infants who died with presumptive bacterial pneumonia in Africa prior to the widespread availability of ART [77,79,80]. Additionally, these studies have identified lymphoid interstitial pneumonia (LIP) as one of the most common contributors to mortality [36]. LIP is commonly confused with TB, and the difficulty of confirming both of these diagnoses makes management difficult. Although corticosteroids are often available at a district hospital for children with LIP showing severe dyspnea, cyanosis, or hypoxia, this is often not the routine practice when the diagnosis is unclear or when clinicians are not experienced in managing clinical complications in children [81,82]. LIP has been shown to respond well to ART, but remains an important clinical consideration, especially in settings with low coverage of ART for HIV-infected children [83].

Identifying the various opportunistic infections in HIV-infected children requires a high index of suspicion from the healthcare worker, underscoring the need to ensure that clinical training emphasizes the importance of testing sick children for HIV and including opportunistic infections in the differential diagnosis of common childhood illnesses. Developing simplified algorithms for prevention, recognition, and treatment of opportunistic infections and other common illnesses in HIV-infected children will ensure that mid-level providers can deliver high quality pediatric HIV services. One proposed strategy involves including recommendations for diagnosis and management of opportunistic infections in Integrated Management of Childhood Illnesses (IMCI) guidelines along with treatment guidelines for common childhood illnesses such as diarrhea, pneumonia, and malaria and other interventions such as nutritional support, micronutrient supplementation, and deworming treatment [84,85]. However, data on the effectiveness of IMCI for early HIV diagnosis and for pediatric HIV management are limited; additional studies are needed to evaluate this approach [86,87].

Back to Top | Article Outline


There are clear regional differences in the incidence of HIV-associated opportunistic infections and opportunistic infection-associated mortality among children living with HIV globally. As PMTCT coverage increases, the number of annual pediatric HIV infections will continue to decrease, but continued expansion of HIV testing and treatment for children will remain critical for decreasing the impact of HIV until virtual elimination of mother-to-child HIV transmission becomes a global reality [12,88]. Implementation of family-centered and other innovative approaches to HIV testing and care is needed to help identify children living with HIV earlier and initiate ART earlier. Expanding coverage of ART for HIV-infected children in resource-limited settings is the most critical intervention to reduce the impact of opportunistic infections. If the recently published WHO guidelines recommending universal treatment of HIV-infected children younger than 5 years and treatment of older children with CD4+ cell counts below 500 are adopted widely, treatment coverage for children living in resource-limited settings should dramatically increase.

Adopting a universal treatment policy for the youngest children is likely to have the most impact in resource-limited settings in which access to CD4+ cell count testing or diagnostics for opportunistic infections are the most limited, in much the same way that Option B+ has expanded access to ART for pregnant women. However, even with ART, opportunistic infections and common childhood illnesses remain a major cause of morbidity and mortality for children with HIV. The limited attention to and capacity for diagnosis of pediatric opportunistic infections in resource-limited settings mean that the true burden of opportunistic infections in children living with HIV is unknown, especially in sub-Saharan Africa, where the majority of HIV-infected children live. These children are also more susceptible to common childhood illnesses, such as pneumonia and diarrhea, which are often more severe and fatal for HIV-infected children than uninfected children. Because many of these conditions have similar clinical presentations, healthcare workers relying on clinical symptoms alone may find it difficult to reliably distinguish opportunistic infections from common childhood illnesses.

Although guidelines for prevention, diagnosis, and management of opportunistic infections have been published in developed countries, these may not always be directly applicable to the management of disease in children living in resource-limited settings, highlighting the need to develop context-specific guidelines for opportunistic infection and healthcare worker training curricula. Further research is needed to identify the true burden of opportunistic infections, essential diagnostics, and treatment protocols for the routine package of care, especially in lower-level healthcare facilities in resource-limited settings. Ultimately, earlier diagnosis of HIV, earlier initiation of ART for all children, increased usage of evidence-based prophylactic regimens, and increased clinical suspicion for opportunistic infections are needed to improve the long-term health of children living with HIV.

Back to Top | Article Outline



The findings and conclusions in this article are those of the authors and do not necessarily represent the official position of the World Health Organization or the U.S. government including the U.S. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention and Agency for Toxic Substances Disease Registry and the United States Agency for International Development. The authors acknowledge the support of UNICEF and the Canadian International Development Agency (CIDA) whose financial assistance made this series possible and the U.S. President's Emergency Plan for AIDS Relief for support of contributing staff time.

Back to Top | Article Outline


1. UNAIDS. Together we will end AIDS. Geneva, Switzerland: Joint United Nations Programme on HIV/AIDS; 2012.

2. WHO. Global HIV/AIDS response: epidemic update and health sector progress towards universal access: Progress Report 2011 Geneva, Switzerland, World Health Organization. 2011.

3. Newell ML, Coovadia H, Cortina-Borja M, Rollins N, Gaillard P, Dabis F, et al. Mortality of infected and uninfected infants born to HIV-infected mothers in Africa: a pooled analysis. Lancet 2004; 364:1236–1243.

4. Becquet R, Marston M, Dabis F, Moulton LH, Gray G, Coovadia HM, et al. Children who acquire HIV infection perinatally are at higher risk of early death than those acquiring infection through breastmilk: a meta-analysis. PLoS One 2012; 7:e28510.

5. Brady MT, Oleske JM, Williams PL, Elgie C, Mofenson LM, Dankner WM, et al. Declines in mortality rates and changes in causes of death in HIV-1-infected children during the HAART era. J Acquir Immune Defic Syndr 2010; 53:86–94.

6. Gona P, Van Dyke RB, Williams PL, Dankner WM, Chernoff MC, Nachman SA, et al. Incidence of opportunistic and other infections in HIV-infected children in the HAART era. JAMA 2006; 296:292–300.

7. CDCGuidelines for the prevention and treatment of opportunistic infections among HIV-exposed and HIV-infected children. MMWR 2009; 58:1–166.

8. CDCGuidelines for prevention and treatment of opportunistic infections in HIV-infected adults and adolescents: recommendations from CDC, the National Institutes of Health, and the HIV Medicine Association of the Infectious Diseases Society of America. MMWR 2009; 58:1–207.quiz CE201-204.

9. Dankner WM, Lindsey JC, Levin MJ. Correlates of opportunistic infections in children infected with the human immunodeficiency virus managed before highly active antiretroviral therapy. Pediatr Infect Dis J 2001; 20:40–48.

10. Sudjaritruk T, Oberdorfer P, Puthanakit T, Sirisanthana T, Sirisanthana V. Causes of first hospitalization among 1121 HIV-infected children: comparison of the pre-Pneumocystis jiroveci pneumonia prophylaxis, preantiretroviral therapy and antiretroviral therapy periods. Int J STD AIDS 2012; 23:335–339.

11. Landes M, van Lettow M, Chan AK, Mayuni I, Schouten EJ, Bedell RA. Mortality and health outcomes of HIV-exposed and unexposed children in a PMTCT cohort in Malawi. PLoS One 2012; 7:e47337.

12. UNAIDS2013 Progress Report on the Global Plan. Geneva, Switzerland:Joint United Nations Programme on HIV/AIDS; 2013.

13. WHOGlobal update on HIV treatment 2013: results impact and opportunities. Geneva, Switzerland:World Health Organization; 2013.

14. Johann-Liang R, Cervia JS, Noel GJ. Characteristics of human immunodeficiency virus-infected children at the time of death: an experience in the 1990s. Pediatr Infect Dis J 1997; 16:1145–1150.

15. Selik RM, Lindegren ML. Changes in deaths reported with human immunodeficiency virus infection among United States children less than thirteen years old, 1987 through 1999. Pediatr Infect Dis J 2003; 22:635–641.

16. Kapogiannis BG, Soe MM, Nesheim SR, Abrams EJ, Carter RJ, Farley J, et al. Mortality trends in the US Perinatal AIDS Collaborative Transmission Study (1986–2004). Clin Infect Dis 2011; 53:1024–1034.

17. Judd A, Doerholt K, Tookey PA, Sharland M, Riordan A, Menson E, et al. Morbidity, mortality, and response to treatment by children in the United Kingdom and Ireland with perinatally acquired HIV infection during 1996-2006: planning for teenage and adult care. Clin Infect Dis 2007; 45:918–924.

18. Langston C, Cooper ER, Goldfarb J, Easley KA, Husak S, Sunkle S, et al. Human immunodeficiency virus-related mortality in infants and children: data from the pediatric pulmonary and cardiovascular complications of vertically transmitted HIV (P(2)C(2)) Study. Pediatrics 2001; 107:328–338.

19. Ciuta ST, Boros S, Napoli PA, Pezzotti P, Rezza G. Predictors of survival in children with acquired immunodeficiency syndrome in Italy, 1983 to 1995. AIDS Patient Care STDS 1998; 12:629–637.

20. Ormaasen V, Sandvik L, Dudman SG, Bruun JN. HIV related and non-HIV related mortality before and after the introduction of highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART) in Norway compared to the general population. Scand J Infect Dis 2007; 39:51–57.

21. Viani RM, Araneta MR, Deville JG, Spector SA. Decrease in hospitalization and mortality rates among children with perinatally acquired HIV type 1 infection receiving highly active antiretroviral therapy. Clin Infect Dis 2004; 39:725–731.

22. Guillen S, Garcia San Miguel L, Resino S, Bellon JM, Gonzalez I, Jimenez de Ory S, et al. Opportunistic infections and organ-specific diseases in HIV-1-infected children: a cohort study (1990-2006). HIV Med 2010; 11:245–252.

23. Kaplan JE, Hanson D, Dworkin MS, Frederick T, Bertolli J, Lindegren ML, et al. Epidemiology of human immunodeficiency virus-associated opportunistic infections in the United States in the era of highly active antiretroviral therapy. Clin Infect Dis 2000; 30 (Suppl 1):S5–S14.

24. Curtis AJ, Marshall CS, Spelman T, Greig J, Elliot JH, Shanks L, et al. Incidence of WHO stage 3 and 4 conditions following initiation of antiretroviral therapy in resource limited settings. PLoS One 2012; 7:e52019.

25. Alarcon JO, Freimanis-Hance L, Krauss M, Reyes MF, Cardoso CA, Mussi-Pinhata MM, et al. Opportunistic and other infections in HIV-infected children in Latin America compared to a similar cohort in the United States. AIDS Res Hum Retroviruses 2012; 28:282–288.

26. Peacock-Villada E, Richardson BA, John-Stewart GC. Post-HAART outcomes in pediatric populations: comparison of resource-limited and developed countries. Pediatrics 2011; 127:e423–e441.

27. Meyers TM, Pettifor JM, Gray GE, Crewe-Brown H, Galpin JS. Pediatric admissions with human immunodeficiency virus infection at a regional hospital in Soweto, South Africa. J Trop Pediatr 2000; 46:224–230.

28. Callens SF, Shabani N, Lusiama J, Lelo P, Kitetele F, Colebunders R, et al. Mortality and associated factors after initiation of pediatric antiretroviral treatment in the Democratic Republic of the Congo. Pediatr Infect Dis J 2009; 28:35–40.

29. Ramos-Soriano AG, Saavedra JM, Wu TC, Livingston RA, Henderson RA, Perman JA, et al. Enteric pathogens associated with gastrointestinal dysfunction in children with HIV infection. Mol Cell Probes 1996; 10:67–73.

30. Thom K, Forrest G. Gastrointestinal infections in immunocompromised hosts. Curr Opin Gastroenterol 2006; 22:18–23.

31. Guarino A, Bruzzese E, De Marco G, Buccigrossi V. Management of gastrointestinal disorders in children with HIV infection. Paediatr Drugs 2004; 6:347–362.

32. Ansari NA, Kombe AH, Kenyon TA, Mazhani L, Binkin N, Tappero JW, et al. Pathology and causes of death in a series of human immunodeficiency virus-positive and -negative pediatric referral hospital admissions in Botswana. Pediatr Infect Dis J 2003; 22:43–47.

33. Jaspan HB, Huang LC, Cotton MF, Whitelaw A, Myer L. Bacterial disease and antimicrobial susceptibility patterns in HIV-infected, hospitalized children: a retrospective cohort study. PLoS One 2008; 3:e3260.

34. Puthanakit T, Aurpibul L, Oberdorfer P, Akarathum N, Kanjananit S, Wannarit P, et al. Hospitalization and mortality among HIV-infected children after receiving highly active antiretroviral therapy. Clin Infect Dis 2007; 44:599–604.

35. Punpanich W, Groome M, Muhe L, Qazi SA, Madhi SA. Systematic review on the etiology and antibiotic treatment of pneumonia in human immunodeficiency virus-infected children. Pediatr Infect Dis J 2011; 30:e192–e202.

36. Bates M, Mudenda V, Mwaba P, Zumla A. Deaths due to respiratory tract infections in Africa: a review of autopsy studies. Curr Opin Pulm Med 2013; 19:229–237.

37. Nantongo JM, Wobudeya E, Mupere E, Joloba M, Ssengooba W, Kisembo HN, et al. High incidence of pulmonary tuberculosis in children admitted with severe pneumonia in Uganda. BMC Pediatr 2013; 13:16.

38. 2004; Chintu C, Bhat GJ, Walker AS, Mulenga V, Sinyinza F, Lishimpi K, et al. Co-trimoxazole as prophylaxis against opportunistic infections in HIV-infected Zambian children (CHAP): a double-blind randomised placebo-controlled trial. 364:1865–1871.

39. WHOGuidelines on co-trimoxazole prophylaxis for HIV-related infections among children adolescents and adults: recommendations for a public health approach. Geneva, Switzerland:World Health Organization; 2006.

40. Madhi SA, Nachman S, Violari A, Kim S, Cotton MF, Bobat R, et al. Primary isoniazid prophylaxis against tuberculosis in HIV-exposed children. N Engl J Med 2011; 365:21–31.

41. WHOGuidelines for intensified tuberculosis case-finding and isoniazid preventive therapy for people living with HIV in resource-constrained settings. Geneva, Switzerland:World Health Organisation; 2011.

42. Zar HJ, Cotton MF, Strauss S, Karpakis J, Hussey G, Schaaf HS, et al. Effect of isoniazid prophylaxis on mortality and incidence of tuberculosis in children with HIV: randomised controlled trial. Br Med J 2007; 334:136.

43. Moodley D, Reddy L, Mahungo W, Masha R. Factors associated with coverage of cotrimoxazole prophylaxis in HIV-exposed children in South Africa. PLoS One 2013; 8:e63273.

44. Bwakura-Dangarembizi M, Kendall L, Bakeera-Kitaka S, Nahirya-Ntege P, Keishanyu R, Kekitiinwa A, Natukunda E, et al.Randomized comparison of stopping vs continuing cotrimoxazole prophylaxis among 758 HIV+ children on long-term ART: the Anti-Retroviral Research for Watoto trial. 20th Conference on Retroviruses and Opportunistic Infections. Atlanta, GA; 2013; Abstract 86.

45. Sandison TG, Homsy J, Arinaitwe E, Wanzira H, Kakuru A, Bigira V, et al. Protective efficacy of co-trimoxazole prophylaxis against malaria in HIV exposed children in rural Uganda: a randomised clinical trial. BMJ 2011; 342:d1617.

46. Coutsoudis A, Kindra G, Esterhuizen T. Impact of cotrimoxazole prophylaxis on the health of breast-fed, HIV-exposed, HIV-negative infants in a resource-limited setting. AIDS 2011; 25:1797–1799.

47. Coutsoudis A, Pillay K, Spooner E, Coovadia HM, Pembrey L, Newell ML. Routinely available cotrimoxazole prophylaxis and occurrence of respiratory and diarrhoeal morbidity in infants born to HIV-infected mothers in South Africa. S Afr Med J 2005; 95:339–345.

48. Lawn SD, Mwaba P, Bates M, Piatek A, Alexander H, Marais BJ, et al. Advances in tuberculosis diagnostics: the Xpert MTB/RIF assay and future prospects for a point-of-care test. Lancet Infect Dis 2013; 13:349–361.

49. Nicol MP, Spiers K, Workman L, Isaacs W, Munro J, Black F, et al. Xpert MTB/RIF testing of stool samples for the diagnosis of pulmonary tuberculosis in children. Clin Infect Dis 2013; 57:e18–e21.

50. Rachow A, Clowes P, Saathoff E, Mtafya B, Michael E, Ntinginya EN, et al. Increased and expedited case detection by Xpert MTB/RIF assay in childhood tuberculosis: a prospective cohort study. Clin Infect Dis 2012; 54:1388–1396.

51. Sekadde MP, Wobudeya E, Joloba ML, Ssengooba W, Kisembo H, Bakeera-Kitaka S, et al. Evaluation of the Xpert MTB/RIF test for the diagnosis of childhood pulmonary tuberculosis in Uganda: a cross-sectional diagnostic study. BMC Infect Dis 2013; 13:133.

52. Tortoli E, Russo C, Piersimoni C, Mazzola E, Dal Monte P, Pascarella M, et al. Clinical validation of Xpert MTB/RIF for the diagnosis of extrapulmonary tuberculosis. Eur Respir J 2012; 40:442–447.

53. Zar HJ, Workman L, Isaacs W, Munro J, Black F, Eley B, et al. Rapid molecular diagnosis of pulmonary tuberculosis in children using nasopharyngeal specimens. Clin Infect Dis 2012; 55:1088–1095.

54. Song R, Sam S, Cardenas V, Chan S, Khem S, Guillard B, et al.Novel diagnostic modalities for TB diagnosis among children in Cambodia. 42nd World Conference on Lung Health of the International Union Against Tuberculosis and Lung Disease. Lille, France; 2011.

55. Houston J, Muriithi C, Mbogo W, Shivaishi RW, Langat A, Muchiri M, et al.Tuberculosis burden is a barrier to starting isoniazid preventive therapy in HIV-infected children enrolled in care in Nairobi, Kenya. 7th IAS Conference on HIV Pathogenesis, Treatment, and Prevention. Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia; 2013. Abstract WEPE475.

56. Frigati LJ, Kranzer K, Cotton MF, Schaaf HS, Lombard CJ, Zar HJ. The impact of isoniazid preventive therapy and antiretroviral therapy on tuberculosis in children infected with HIV in a high tuberculosis incidence setting. Thorax 2011; 66:496–501.

57. Gray DM, Young T, Zar H, Cotton M. Impact of tuberculosis preventive therapy on tuberculosis and mortality in HIV-infected children. Cochrane Database Syst Rev 2009; 1: CD006418.

58. Madhi SA, Kuwanda L, Cutland C, Klugman KP. The impact of a 9-valent pneumococcal conjugate vaccine on the public health burden of pneumonia in HIV-infected and -uninfected children. Clin Infect Dis 2005; 40:1511–1518.

59. Bliss SJ, O’Brien KL, Janoff EN, Cotton MF, Musoke P, Coovadia H, et al. The evidence for using conjugate vaccines to protect HIV-infected children against pneumococcal disease. Lancet Infect Dis 2008; 8:67–80.

60. Niessen LW, ten Hove A, Hilderink H, Weber M, Mulholland K, Ezzati M. Comparative impact assessment of child pneumonia interventions. Bull World Health Organ 2009; 87:472–480.

61. Klugman K, Madhi S, Huebner R, Kohberger R, Mbelle N, Pierce N. A trial of a 9-valent pneumococcal conjugate vaccine in children with and those without HIV infection. N Engl J Med 2003; 349:1341–1348.

62. Zar HJ, Madhi SA. Pneumococcal conjugate vaccine: a health priority. S Afr Med J 2008; 98:463–467.

63. Groome MJ, Madhi SA. Five-year cohort study on the burden of hospitalisation for acute diarrhoeal disease in African HIV-infected and HIV-uninfected children: potential benefits of rotavirus vaccine. Vaccine 2012; 30 (Suppl 1):A173–A178.

64. Madhi S, Cunliffe N, Steele D, Witte De, Kirsten M, Louw C, et al. Effect of human rotavirus vaccine on severe diarrhea in African infants. N Engl J Med 2010; 362:289–298.

65. Mphahlele MJ, Mda S. Immunising the HIV-infected child: a view from sub-Saharan Africa. Vaccine 2012; 30 (Suppl 3):C61–C65.

66. Clark SJ, Kahn K, Houle B, Arteche A, Collinson MA, Tollman SM, et al. Young children's probability of dying before and after their mother's death: a rural South African population-based surveillance study. PLoS Med 2013; 10:e1001409.

67. Ndirangu J, Newell ML, Tanser F, Herbst AJ, Bland R. Decline in early life mortality in a high HIV prevalence rural area of South Africa: evidence of HIV prevention or treatment impact?. AIDS 2010; 24:593–602.

68. Ndirangu J, Newell ML, Thorne C, Bland R. Treating HIV-infected mothers reduces under 5 years of age mortality rates to levels seen in children of HIV-uninfected mothers in rural South Africa. Antivir Ther 2012; 17:81–90.

69. Guibert G, Warszawski J, Le Chenadec J, Blanche S, Benmebarek Y, Mandelbrot L, et al. Decreased risk of congenital cytomegalovirus infection in children born to HIV-1-infected mothers in the era of highly active antiretroviral therapy. Clin Infect Dis 2009; 48:1516–1525.

70. Khamduang W, Jourdain G, Sirirungsi W, Layangool P, Kanjanavanit S, Krittigamas P, et al. The interrelated transmission of HIV-1 and cytomegalovirus during gestation and delivery in the offspring of HIV-infected mothers. J Acquir Immune Defic Syndr 2011; 58:188–192.

71. Ngo-Giang-Huong N, Jourdain G, Sirirungsi W, Decker L, Khamduang W, Le Coeur S, et al. Human immunodeficiency virus-hepatitis C virus co-infection in pregnant women and perinatal transmission to infants in Thailand. Int J Infect Dis 2010; 14:e602–e607.

72. Pappalardo BL. Influence of maternal human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) co-infection on vertical transmission of hepatitis C virus (HCV): a meta-analysis. Int J Epidemiol 2003; 32:727–734.

73. Hoffmann CJ, Thio CL. Clinical implications of HIV and hepatitis B co-infection in Asia and Africa. Lancet Infect Dis 2007; 7:402–409.

74. Gupta A, Bhosale R, Kinikar A, Gupte N, Bharadwaj R, Kagal A, et al. Maternal tuberculosis: a risk factor for mother-to-child transmission of human immunodeficiency virus. J Infect Dis 2011; 203:358–363.

75. Gupta A, Nayak U, Ram M, Bhosale R, Patil S, Basavraj A, et al. Postpartum tuberculosis incidence and mortality among HIV-infected women and their infants in Pune, India. Clin Infect Dis 2007; 45:241–249.

76. Fayorsey RN, Saito S, Carter RJ, Gusmao E, Frederix K, Koech-Keter E, et al. Decentralization of pediatric HIV care and treatment in five sub-Saharan African countries. J Acquir Immune Defic Syndr 2013; 62:e124–e130.

77. Chintu C, Mudenda V, Lucas S, Nunn A, Lishimpi K, Maswahu D, et al. Lung diseases at necropsy in African children dying from respiratory illnesses: a descriptive necropsy study. Lancet 2002; 360:985.

78. Cox JA, Lukande RL, Lucas S, Nelson AM, Van Marck E, Colebunders R. Autopsy causes of death in HIV-positive individuals in sub-Saharan Africa and correlation with clinical diagnoses. AIDS Rev 2010; 12:183–194.

79. Jeena PM, Coovadia HM, Chrystal V. Pneumocystis carinii and cytomegalovirus infections in severely ill, HIV-infected African infants. Ann Trop Paediatr 1996; 16:361–368.

80. Bakeera-Kitaka S, Musoke P, Downing R, Tumwine JK. Pneumocystis carinii in children with severe pneumonia at Mulago Hospital, Uganda. Ann Trop Paediatr 2004; 24:227–235.

81. De Baets AJ, Bulterys M, Abrams EJ, Kankassa C, Pazvakavambwa IE. Care and treatment of HIV-infected children in Africa: issues and challenges at the district hospital level. Pediatr Infect Dis J 2007; 26:163–173.

82. Gilks CF, Katabira E, De Cock KM. The challenge of providing effective care for HIV/AIDS in Africa. AIDS 1997; 11:S99–S106.

83. Weber HC, Gie RP, Cotton MF. The challenge of chronic lung disease in HIV-infected children and adolescents. J Int AIDS Soc 2013; 16:18633.

84. Qazi S, Muhe L. Integrating HIV management for children into the Integrated Management of Childhood Illness guidelines. Trans R Soc Trop Med Hyg 2006; 100:10–13.

85. WHOIntegrated Management of Childhood Illness for High HIV Settings. Geneva, Switzerland:World Health Organization; 2008.

86. Diener LC, Slyker JA, Gichuhi C, Tapia KA, Richardson BA, Wamalwa D, et al. Performance of the integrated management of childhood illness algorithm for diagnosis of HIV-1 infection among African infants. AIDS 2012; 26:1935–1941.

87. Horwood C, Vermaak K, Rollins N, Haskins L, Nkosi P, Qazi S. Paediatric HIV management at primary care level: an evaluation of the integrated management of childhood illness (IMCI) guidelines for HIV. BMC Pediatr 2009; 9:59.

88. Kellerman SE, Sugandhi N. Pediatric AIDS in the Elimination Agenda. PloS Med 2013; 10 8:e1001503.


children; HIV; mortality; opportunistic infections

© 2013 Lippincott Williams & Wilkins, Inc.


Search for Similar Articles
You may search for similar articles that contain these same keywords or you may modify the keyword list to augment your search.