Nearly 3.4 million children, 90% of whom live in sub-Saharan Africa, are currently living with HIV, and more than 500 000 were infected perinatally in the past 2 years . Recent advances in antiretroviral treatment (ART) and improved health coverage mean HIV-infected children are living longer healthier lives into adolescence and adulthood [2,3]. As a result, paediatric HIV care programs need to extend beyond focusing on survival, and work towards maximizing children's physical and psychosocial well being.
Living with HIV infection significantly impacts the psychosocial well being of children and their families, and has been linked to higher rates of mental health problems . HIV infection often requires that these children confront multiple challenges as they age, such as bereavement of lost caregivers and family members, internalized stigma and discrimination, issues involving disclosure, and difficulties understanding ART and adherence [5,6]. There is strong evidence regarding the negative effects of HIV on cognitive development and functioning among children living with HIV, suggesting a need for early childhood intervention [7,8]. HIV-infected children are also at risk for developing conduct problems and engaging in high-risk behaviours as they grow into adolescence , which in turn can affect adherence and treatment outcomes, transmission to others, and overall well being . Conversely, psychosocial well being has been linked to improved health outcomes and quality of life among HIV-infected children .
Until recently, attempts to understand the experiences of children who face traumatic situations, including life-threatening or chronic illnesses focused on the identification of risk factors for long-term mental health problems. However, there is now a greater recognition of the importance of resilience; why, when faced with adverse situations, some children are able to adjust better than others . Scholars and practitioners involved in supporting HIV-affected orphans and vulnerable children (OVC) advocate for approaches that identify factors that promote resilience rather than a focus on ‘pathologies’ [13,14]. Studies indicate that individual characteristics, resources, and competencies – including age, cognitive capacity, sense of purpose, and belief in a positive future –contribute to resilience; supportive and accepting environmental conditions help shape resilience by mitigating the negative effects of adversity . Resilience in HIV-affected children is also influenced by the complex interplay between individual-level factors, family-level factors such as caregiver well being or illness, institutional-level factors such as access to health services and education, and societal factors such as stigma . Over the last decade, research into the psychosocial well being of children who are orphaned or affected by HIV has explored factors that contribute to their unique vulnerabilities , and found that these vulnerabilities are often associated with coping with the illness or loss of a parent, and compounded by associated stigma. In resource-limited settings, support for HIV-affected children and their caregivers has been delivered largely through community-based mechanisms. Although these interventions make intuitive sense and build on local capacity, the evidence linking interventions with outcomes is, unfortunately, limited. A recent review by Betancourt et al. found that mental health and resilience HIV studies are rarely based on quantitative data. According to Betancourt et al., the few studies that are quantitative disproportionately focused on individual factors and failed to consider the full range of features known to contribute to resilience .
Providing psychosocial support specifically to HIV-infected children and their families becomes more challenging as these children are coping with their own illness in addition to the familial impacts of HIV. Promotion of ‘positive living’ and use of support groups are approaches used by the oncology community; these approaches assist clients to live a fulfilling life in spite of a chronic illness or disability . Any approach to providing psychosocial support specific to HIV-infected children must address factors related to living with a chronic disease, but also must consider the profound HIV-specific factors such as stigma and discrimination, challenges surrounding disclosure, treatment access, and retention in care. To maximize positive outcomes, psychosocial support interventions should be coordinated with clinical care, and reach children and caregivers where they are – in their communities, clinics, and schools.
Moreover, most current efforts to improve the psychosocial well being of HIV-infected children are resource-intensive programmes developed primarily in the United States and Europe [5,19]. This review advocates that psychosocial support programmes and interventions for HIV-positive children be adapted to create feasible interventions in resource-limited settings. Investments should prepare health workers, lay counsellors, and support groups to better support children and caregivers, and interventions should better equip schools to be supportive environments for children on treatment. This paper will explore the negative effect of several interrelated HIV-specific challenges on the psychosocial well being of HIV-positive children: disclosure, stigma and discrimination, grief and bereavement. Applying an ecologic perspective and a framework of approaches that promote resilience, it will also review interventions for individual children and their caregivers, family-centred approaches, programs that support or train healthcare providers, community interventions for HIV-positive children, and initiatives that improve the capacity of schools to provide more supportive environments for HIV-infected children.
HIV-specific challenges to psychosocial well being
Disclosure of both a child's and a parent's HIV status to a child can be challenging for caregivers and healthcare providers. Barriers to appropriate and sensitive disclosure include factors such as child's neurocognitive development, caregiver fears for the child's well being, caregiver's concerns about feelings of blame or anger, uncertainty about the correct timing of and approach to disclosure, and fear of isolation and stigmatization if the child discloses to others [20–23]. Barriers may be compounded by the occurrence of stigma-by-association, caregiver changes due to AIDS-related deaths, and an overstretched healthcare system [5,20].
Studies from the Democratic Republic of Congo, Ethiopia, Kenya, and Thailand show that rates of disclosure to children are low, with all studies showing disclosure rates of less than 20% [24–29]. Little age-specific data on disclosure rates to HIV-infected children are available for high-prevalence settings ; qualitative research suggests that many children discerned their HIV status, either independently during routine engagement with the healthcare system, or through compelling a caregiver to tell them . Despite caregiver reluctance, a review concluded that disclosure to children may positively impact self-esteem and mental health . Nondisclosure may leave a child feeling isolated, create family rifts, and bring about accidental disclosure in an unsupported environment . Upon disclosure, some children or adolescents experience sadness or anger, but these feelings are gradually replaced with calm, relief, and comfort in understanding their condition, reasons for medication-taking, and satisfaction with the ability to openly ask questions and participate in their own care [31–33]. Children, and often caregivers, need guidance for making decisions about to whom it is beneficial to disclose and for what purpose. Incremental and developmentally appropriate disclosure with increasing age, in the context of ongoing support, has positive effects on the HIV-infected children's physical and psychosocial well being .
Stigma and discrimination
Social exclusion and stigma within communities promote vulnerability and poorer outcomes in HIV-infected children and adolescents [34,35]. Studies of children living with HIV have shown that experiences of stigma and discrimination can lead to poor mental health, social isolation, postponement of education, exclusion from religious organization, and reduced health-seeking behaviors [36,37]. For children with HIV-infected caregivers, and particularly those who have lost parents to AIDS, stigma-by-association can also result in poor mental health outcomes [37,38]. Experiences of stigma and discrimination take various forms including reduced social support, familial neglect, verbal assault, and physical abuse . Stigma felt towards HIV-infected children is strongly associated with being bullied and victimized .
In order to promote mental health, well being and resilience among HIV-infected children, issues such as stigma and discrimination need to be understood and addressed through programs and interventions at the peer, family, and community levels . At the peer level, stigma can be reduced by HIV awareness programming in schools and individual-level interventions that teach HIV-infected children how to seek support and openly talk to trusted peers [14,40]. Open communication, and in home discussion about HIV can help lessen the internalized stigma that may exist within families [13,40–43]. Community level interventions include campaigns and social support groups that will increase awareness about stigma within the larger communities [14,41–44].
Grief and bereavement
Although scale-up of ART has enabled many to live longer and healthier lives, far too many children still suffer the trauma of losing family members to HIV/AIDS. For those who are positive themselves, this raises additional fears about their own mortality and life prospects. Qualitative research among children, healthcare providers, and caregivers documents the crucial need for support for grief and bereavement; this is particularly challenging in settings in which talking about death with children is not encouraged [45,46]. HIV-infected children face varying degrees of grief that accompany AIDS-related bereavement. The degree of grief varies by age, the child's comprehension of their own HIV and health status, succession planning for caregiving arrangements following parental loss, and gender norms around grieving and emotions . Grief and bereavement after the loss of a family member is expected to have a profound impact on the psychosocial well being of any child; however, when death is caused by HIV/AIDS, additional challenges are introduced, including effects from financial hardship, disruption in care, and stigmatization .
Though it is not known how many orphaned children are themselves infected , issues surrounding caregiver loss will likely have significant impact on an HIV-infected child's disease. Children who are aware of their own status may have anxieties or misconceptions about their own illness, and along with coping with grief, may need support to feel hopeful about their own potential for survival and well being. The illness of a caregiver may mean that the health needs of a positive child in the household have been neglected . In addition, children may be subjected to unstable home environments after the death of a primary caregiver. In sub-Saharan Africa, orphans are often cared for by extended family, which may include elderly or distant relatives who are themselves inadequately prepared to care for an HIV-infected child. Or, those who remain in child-headed households are at further risk for poor coping and interrupted care due to their fragile family situation.
Healthcare providers often feel they have limited capacity, training, or time to support HIV-infected children in their grief experience. To mitigate this grief, psychosocial interventions must foster an enabling environment for open communication, and build the skills of key adults in their lives – surviving caregivers, teachers, and healthcare providers .
Gender norms and inequities impact the psychosocial health and well being of children . The socially and culturally constructed expectations of how women and men behave play an important role in HIV risk and vulnerability, and negatively impact health outcomes. These dynamics can impact women and girls’ access to essential resources and care, and affect men and boy's perception of need and availability of care, particularly in which services are initiated through maternal child health (MCH) settings. Harmful norms related to masculinity influence risk perception and risk taking, and limit the communication needed for disclosure, and discourage their seeking care or asking for emotional or other support. Gender norms for girls limit their ability to refuse unwanted sex, access critical information and resources, and also hamper their ability to comfortably disclose HIV status. Furthermore, gender distinctions in the ways that boys and girls experience and cope with HIV requires tailored responses to these differences. Sex-disaggregated data are needed to better understand important differences between the ability of boys and girls to cope with infection, stigma, needs for disclosure, use of protective practices, and care-seeking. Community interventions such as Stepping Stones and Program H engage women and men, boys and girls, in dialogue and life skills building exercises aimed at transforming the underlying gender norms that facilitate HIV risk and hinder meaningful uptake of services [50,51], and can contribute to a more supportive environment for both boys and girls living with HIV.
Interventions for improved psychosocial outcomes
Psychosocial well being is multifaceted and with impacts on mental health and social adaptation. Applied to HIV-infected children, it includes the ability to cope with the illness or death of caregivers; the resilience to live positively despite the challenges associated with HIV; and the social, emotional, motor, and cognitive capacity to participate as full members of society at present and in the future . Psychosocial support is helpful to meet the ’age-appropriate and relevant emotional, spiritual, cognitive, social and physical needs (of HIV-infected children) through interactions with their surroundings and the people who care for them’ (Fig. 1) .
Given its complex and multidimensional nature, psychosocial well being requires support for individuals and families, as well as a supportive community environment – the three key points of intervention which are implicit in the ecological model (Fig. 2). Psychosocial programs can take the form of one-to-one counselling sessions, caregiver support and training, support groups for children-caregiver dyads, peer/mentorship from youth living with HIV, and recreational therapy developed to tackle AIDS-related grief and bereavement , and can be implemented by healthcare providers, peer counsellors, mentors, OVC programs, and community support groups. However, improving the social integration of HIV-infected children may require interventions within schools and other societal foundations, such as faith-based institutions, that have the potential to mainstream children, by showing them that they are welcomed and accepted in these sites, and by helping them see that they are contributing members of their communities. In light of the limited evidence on interventions, existing initiatives should be assessed in terms of appropriate programmatic content, effective mode of delivery, and feasibility in resource-limited settings.
Individual and family-level interventions
Interventions designed to minimize stigma, support disclosure, and improve adherence and retention in care include one-to-one counselling, mentoring, and the active engagement of people living with HIV in community programmes [22,45]. The Regional Psychosocial Support Initiative (REPSSI), which began as an interagency movement that pioneered community and family psychosocial support interventions to address needs of children affected by AIDS and their households, uses tools such as CARE International's Hero Book in Zambia, that empowers HIV-infected children to face, address, and respond to stigma and discrimination .
Appropriate psychosocial support is also needed to improve disclosure to children and to help them make decisions about disclosure to others. Whereas child-focused interventions that support disclosure and build self-efficacy can address internalized stigma, family-centred resilience approaches are necessary to ensure a more supportive environment for the child. Family members, particularly those a child trusts, play an important role in helping children to interpret the difficulties they face [54–56]. A child's ability to cope with HIV-specific stressors is affected by the quality of caregiving, both child and caregiver knowledge of the child's status, and the relationship and age of the caregiver. Caregiving may be influenced by social stigma, financial limitations, and emotional strain [57,58]. As many cultural factors affect disclosure, the process is expected to vary with context, and disclosure support programme must be adapted for cultural fit and feasibility in resource-limited settings . In addition to the WHO guidelines, multiple handbooks and provider training materials have been developed to support parents and providers with disclosure .
A systematic review highlighted several approaches associated with increased adherence in HIV-infected children  including an intensive, family-centred, community-based psychotherapy intervention  and home-based nursing programme . Additional approaches include involving caregivers in a family-centred approach  and follow-up counselling . In light of linkages between adherence, treatment outcomes, and psychosocial well being, interventions must also address the evolving needs of children with their caregivers to ensure children develop the responsibility and autonomy necessary for self-care. Evidence shows that family-based interventions are effective in some cases at reducing internalized stigma from community levels . A 2011 review of psychosocial support for children living with HIV noted that supporting caregivers through training and skill-building is key to expanding access to psychosocial care among HIV-infected children . The Joint Learning Initiative on Children and HIV/AIDS, which established an interdisciplinary learning network and championed family-centred care and households as the basis of support, published its final work in 2009, identifying best practices and evidence around interventions targeting a broader group of children impacted by HIV and AIDS. These include social protection approaches, income transfers, and other family-focused services. Several examples of promising family-centred programs are highlighted in Table 1[66–68].
Replicating and rolling out these interventions and services in sub-Saharan Africa can be demanding [19,69]. However, most evidence supports the focus on longitudinal approaches to the family, specifically the child-caregiver dyad as the root of how children learn coping mechanisms and develop resilience [70,71]. Negative family dynamics influenced by partner violence, parental alcohol abuse, aggressive parenting (which can be triggered by stressful events such as loss of income or job, death, HIV acquisition), and internalization of community-level stigma must be identified and prevented [14,72]. Additionally, support for HIV-infected children who will experience the loss of caregivers must start before bereavement, with succession planning, and anticipation of the child's needs for continued care – medical, emotional and basic child care.
Healthcare services interventions
Positive interactions with healthcare providers can contribute to building coping mechanisms and resilience in HIV-infected children, whereas high satisfaction and trust in healthcare providers can reduce the negative effects of stigma on adherence (Table 2) [64,73–75]. Healthcare providers must work closely with caregivers during the progressive disclosure process , particularly during the crucial period following diagnosis or disclosure . However, limited resources and the lack of targeted training for healthcare providers on the paediatric disclosure process have been significant obstacles in sub-Saharan Africa for this important need . Interventions requiring trained psychologists and counsellors are likely to have a positive impact on the psychosocial well being of children and their caregivers, but are often not feasible in resource-limited settings. Sub-Saharan Africa, home to one tenth of the world's population, carries 25% of the global disease burden, but has only 3% of the world's health workforce, and spends less than 1% of the world's financial resources on health . Although the reach of healthcare systems in sub-Saharan Africa is improving, delivering highly specialized interventions remains a challenge. Task-shifting approaches that allow for service provision through supervised community lay counsellors may permit wider dissemination of intervention and supportive services for children .
Resilience is not only dependent on interactions with family, but with peers and teachers who also help children develop skills and values . HIV can also affect child development, resulting in motor and neurocognitive difficulties that impact the ability to learn . Although existing deficits may improve when children initiate appropriate treatment early, those initiated after infancy remain at significant risk for persistent developmental challenges [79,80]. In addition to contending with potential developmental delays, HIV-infected learners have to deal with intermittent or ongoing stressors: stigma, illness-related absenteeism, household mortality, or multiple caregivers, which can result in poor educational and developmental outcomes [81–83]. These factors can hamper educational progress at multiple levels: enrollment, attendance, academic performance, grade completion, and future educational expectations .
Regardless of these challenges, schools are one of the key environments in which children may develop resilience, and are considered an important locus of delivering interventions for all learners regardless of HIV status. The education system may contribute to psychosocial well being of HIV-infected children by addressing some of the structural barriers to school access, namely, poverty and food insecurity [84,85]. Disclosure in the school setting may also have positive outcomes. A study in Botswana found that two thirds of caregivers had disclosed to school staff, primarily to teachers . In reaction to disclosure, caregivers experienced acceptance, reassurance, and support from school staff, suggesting that schools may act as environments in which HIV-infected children and their caregivers can receive additional psychosocial support. However, the education system can also become an arena in which stigma and discrimination are exhibited. If perceptions of HIV in any of these populations are not well informed, children may face social isolation by peers and teachers . Prevention messaging and education campaigns on HIV prevention in schools have the potential to increase stigma and isolation of those already affected, particularly when HIV is portrayed as a death sentence, or the result of wrong behaviour. A concerted effort must be made to ensure that prevention messages do not stigmatize HIV-infected children and their families by emphasizing the successes of current ART regimens. Children living with HIV can also be at increased risk of getting bullied at their schools, and some research suggests that increased support from siblings and friends are protective factors from this form of discrimination [37,88]. School management and staff need to foster a nonstigmatizing environment in which HIV-infected children may be nurtured and supported by both their peers and teachers. Teachers may also be able to identify and nurture children's strength and resilience, particularly if trust-based relationships develop between school staff and caregivers. Providing the necessary training for school staff and management is crucial to increasing access to psychosocial support in the school setting. An example of an initiative integrating psychosocial support for OVC and AIDS-affected children in the education system was implemented by the Associaciao Reconstruindo a Esperanca (ARE), a local Maputo-based NGO and Ministry of Education (MINED) in 75 schools in Southern Mozambique. The final evaluation of the project estimated that the training received by 150 teachers increased access to psychosocial support to more than 25 000 AIDS-affected children in the schools . In these and many other ways, schools can be leaders within the society in protecting HIV-infected children, adding greatly to the psychosocial support network these young people need and deserve.
A constellation of individual and environmental factors influence how HIV-infected children cope with the disease and survive into adulthood. This article calls for an expanded approach to paediatric HIV care that includes a strong component of coordinated psychosocial support to address the complex needs of HIV-infected children. Factors that influence the psychosocial well being of HIV-infected children should be considered from an ecological perspective to ensure combination approaches are well targeted and coordinated across individual, family, and community structural factors as these spheres interact with and influence each other. Programs must support long-term resilience of children, caregivers, and families, and enhance support networks in communities, schools, and healthcare centres. Only through concerted efforts at all levels can the complex challenges be addressed.
Given the complexities and the numerous biomedical, psychological, and social factors that interact to affect well being of HIV-infected children, and the evidence that treatment, survival, and later prevention outcomes all depend on effective support, it is imperative that greater investment in developing and evaluating developmentally appropriate combination psychosocial interventions for children occur as part of care and treatment programming. More rigorous studies are needed across disciplines to identify specific interventions, tools, programs, and policies that effectively address and overcome associated challenges related to disclosure, stigma, discrimination, and gender differences that still exist and negatively impact the psychosocial well being of children living with HIV. Interventions must engage both men and women to reduce the negative impact of gender norms on health-seeking behaviours, provide support to men as involved caregivers, and eliminate the violence and discrimination towards children and women in the household and in the community.
With increasing availability to paediatric ART, HIV is changing from a life-threatening to a chronic disease. Stigma, discrimination, disclosure, and cultural norms about grief and gender roles can result in negative psychosocial effects and hinder the success of care and treatment efforts for HIV-infected children. Improving resilience requires turning disclosure into an age-appropriate progressive process, addressing internalized and externalized stigma and discrimination, providing support for improved communication on issues of grief to help children respond to bereavement, and aiding them with fears for their own well being. This can only be done if we improve communication about HIV in families, health centres, and the community, and empower young people, women, people living with HIV, their families, healthcare workers, educators, and communities to reduce discrimination. These efforts must be active on all fronts: the individual, home, and community as well as in healthcare and educational systems. Only in this way will we be able to develop psychosocial support services, interventions, tools, and guidelines that address existing challenges. The examples covered in this article are only modest illustrations of the many promising approaches now under development to respond to the psychosocial needs of children and families; our challenge now is to ensure that evidence building keeps pace with evolving needs and program learning.
Conflicts of interest
There are no conflicts of interest.
Disclaimer: The findings and conclusions in this article are those of the authors and do not necessarily represent the official position of the World Health Organization or the U.S. government including the U.S. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention and Agency for Toxic Substances Disease Registry and the United States Agency for International Development. The authors acknowledge the support of UNICEF and the Canadian International Development Agency (CIDA) whose financial assistance made this series possible and the U.S. President's Emergency Plan for AIDS Relief for support of contributing staff time.
1. UNAIDS. (2013). Global Report 2012: UNAIDS Report on the Global AIDS Epidemic.
2. Patel K, Hernan MA, Williams PL, Seeger JD, McIntosh K, Van Dyke RB, et al. Long-term effectiveness of highly active antiretroviral therapy on the survival of children and adolescents with HIV infection: a 10-year follow-up study
. Clin Infect Dis
3. Collins IJ, Jourdain G, Hansudewechakul R, Kanjanavanit S, Hongsiriwon S, Ngampiyasakul C, et al. Long-term survival of HIV-infected children receiving antiretroviral therapy in Thailand: a 5-year observational cohort study
. Clin Infect Dis
4. Scharko AM. DSM psychiatric disorders in the context of paediatric HIV/AIDS
. AIDS Care
5. McCleary-Sills J, Kanesathasan A, Brakarsh J, Vujovic M, Dlamini K, Namisango E, Bowsky S. Foundation for the future: meeting the psychosocial needs of children living with HIV in South Africa and Uganda
. J HIV/AIDS Soc Services
6. Petersen I, Bhana A, Myeza N, Alicea S, John S, Holst H, et al. Psychosocial challenges and protective influences for socio-emotional coping of HIV+ adolescents in South Africa: a qualitative investigation
. AIDS Care
7. Sherr L. Distinct disadvantage: a review of children under 8 and the HIV/AIDS epidemic. Toronto: Consultative Group on Early Childhood Care and Development; 2011.
9. Mellins CA, Brackis-Cott E, Dolezal C, Leu CS, Valentin C, Meyer-Bahlburg HF. Mental health of early adolescents from high-risk neighborhoods: the role of maternal HIV and other contextual self-regulation, and family factors
. J Paediatr Psychol
2008; 33:1065–1075.[PubMed: 18250092.].
10. Lowenthal E, Lawler K, Harari N, Moamogwe L, Masunge J, Masedi M, Gross R. Rapid psychosocial function screening test identified treatment failure in HIV+ African youth
. AIDS Care
11. Mellins CA, Brackis-Cott E, Dolezal C, Abrams EJ. The role of psychosocial and family factors in adherence to antiretroviral treatment in human immunodeficiency virus-infected children
. Paediatr Infect Dis J
2004; 23:1035–1041.[PubMed: 15545859.].
12. Shannon MP, Lonigan CJ, Finch AJ, Taylor CM. Children exposed to disaster: I. epidemiology of post-traumatic symptoms and symptom profiles
. J Am Acad Child Adolesc Psychiatry
13. Skovdal M. Pathologising healthy children? A review of the literature exploring the mental health of HIV-affected children in sub-Saharan Africa
. Transcult Psychiatry
14. Skovdal M, Daniel M. Resilience through participation and coping-enabling social environments: the case of HIV-affected children in sub-Saharan Africa
. Afr J AIDS Res
15. Goldstein S, Brooks RB. Handbook of Resilience in Children, New York, NY 2nd ed. 2013, XXI, 143–160.
16. Richter L, Foster G, Sherr L. Where the heart is: meeting the psychosocial needs of young children in the context of HIV/AIDS. The Hague, The Netherlands: Bernard van Leer Foundation; 2006.
17. Betancourt TS, Meyers-Ohki SE, Charrow A, Hansen N. Annual research review: mental health and resilience in HIV/AIDS-affected children – a review of the literature and recommendations for future research
. J Child Psychol Psychiatry
18. Werner-Beland J. Grief responses to long-term illness and disability. Reston, VA: Reston Publishing; 1980.
19. Kanesathasan A, McCleary-Sills J, Vujovic M, Brakarsh J, Dlamini K, Namisango E, et al.Foundation for the future: meeting the psychosocial needs of children living with HIV in Africa. Arlington, VA: USAID's AIDS Support and Technical Assistance Resources, AIDSTAR-One, Task Order 1; 2011.
20. Lowenthal ED, Marukutira TC. Editorial commentary: disclosure of HIV status to HIV-infected children in areas with high HIV prevalence
. J Paediatr Infect Dis Soc
21. Heeren GA, Jemmott JB III, Sidloyi L, Ngwane Z, Tyler JC. Disclosure of HIV diagnosis to HIV-infected children in South Africa: focus groups for intervention development
. Vulnerable Child Youth Stud
22. Campbell C, Foulis CA, Maimane S, Sibiya Z. I have an evil child at my house: stigma and HIV/AIDS management in a South African community
. Am J Public Health
23. Murphy DA. HIV-infected mothers’ disclosure of their serostatus to their young children: a review
. Clin Child Psychol Psychiatry
24. Vaz LM, Maman S, Eng E, Barbarin OA, Tshikandu T, Behets F. Patterns of disclosure of HIV-status to infected children in a sub-Saharan African setting
. J Develop Behav Paediatr
25. Abebe W, Teferra S. Disclosure of diagnosis by parents and caregivers to children infected with HIV: prevalence associated factors and perceived barriers in Addis Ababa, Ethiopia
. AIDS Care
2012; 24:1097–1102. . Epub 2012 Feb 9.
26. Biadgilign S, Deribew A, Amberbir A, Escudero HR, Deribe K. Factors associated with HIV/AIDS diagnostic disclosure to HIV infected children receiving HAART: a multicenter study in Addis Ababa, Ethiopia
. PloS One
27. Boon-Yasidhi V, Kottapat U, Durier Y, Plipat N, Phongsamart W, Chokephaibulkit K, Vanprapar N. Diagnosis disclosure in HIV-infected Thai children
. J Med Assoc Thai
2005; 88 (Suppl 8):S100–S105.
28. Brown BJ, Oladokun RE, Osinusi K, Ochigbo S, Adewole IF, Kanki P. Disclosure of HIV status to infected children in a Nigerian HIV care program
. AIDS Care
2011; 23:1053–1058. . Epub 2011 May 24.
29. Turissini ML, Nyandiko WM, Ayaya SO, Marete I, Mwangi A, Chemboi V, Vreeman RC. The prevalence of disclosure of HIV status to HIV-infected children in Western Kenya
. J Paediatr Infect Dis Soc
31. Menon A, Glazebrook C, Campain N, Ngoma M. Mental health and disclosure of HIV status in Zambian adolescents with HIV infection: implications for peer-support programs
. J Acquir Immune Defic Syndr
32. Vaz L, Eng E, Maman S, Tshikandu T, Behets F. Telling children they have HIV: lessons learned from findings of a qualitative study in sub-Saharan Africa
. AIDS Patient Care STDS
33. Marques HH, Silva NG, Gutierrez PL, Lacerda R, Ayres JR, Dellanegra M, et al. Disclosure of HIV infection from the perspective of adolescents living with HIV/AIDS and their parents and caregivers
. Cad Saude Publica
34. Ayres JR, Paiva V, França I Jr, Gravato N, Lacerda R, Della Negra M, Silva MH. Vulnerability, human rights, and comprehensive healthcare needs of young people living with HIV/AIDS
. Am J Public Health
35. Daniel M, Malinga Apila H, Bjargo R, Therese Lie G. Breaching cultural silence: enhancing resilience among Ugandan orphans
. Afr J AIDS Res
36. Fielden SJ, Chapman GE, Cadell S. Managing stigma in adolescent HIV: silence, secrets and sanctioned spaces
. Cult Health Sex
37. Cluver L, Orkin M. Cumulative risk and AIDS-orphanhood: interactions of stigma, bullying and poverty on child mental health in South Africa
. Soc Sci Med
39. Cluver L, Bowes L, Gardner F. Risk and protective factors for bullying victimization among AIDS-affected and vulnerable children in South Africa
. Child Abuse Neglect
40. Kennedy SB, Johnson K, Harris AO, Lincoln A, Neace W, Collins D. Evaluation of HIV/AIDS prevention resources in Liberia: strategy and implications
. AIDS Patient Care STDS
41. Sayson R, Meya AF. Strengthening the roles of existing structures by breaking down the barriers and building up bridges: intensifying HIV/AIDS awareness, outreach, and intervention in Uganda
. Child Welfare
42. Selikow TA, Ahmed N, Flisher AJ, Mathews C, Mukoma W. I am not ’umqwayito’: A qualitative study of peer pressure and sexual risk behaviour among young adolescents in Cape Town, South Africa
. Scand J Public Health
2009; 37 (2 suppl):107–112.
43. de Souza R. Creating ‘communicative spaces’: a case of NGO community organizing for HIV/AIDS prevention
. Health Commun
44. Sweifach J, Laporte HH. Perceptions of peer to peer HIV/AIDS education: a social work perspective
. J HIV/AIDS Prev Child Youth
45. Kanesathasan A, McCleary-Sills J, Vujovic M, Brakarsh J, Dlamini K, Namisango E, et al.Equipping parents and health providers to address the psychological and social challenges of caring for children living with HIV in Africa. Arlington, VA: USAID's AIDS Support and Technical Assistance Resources, AIDSTAR-One, Task Order 1; 2011.
46. Mann G. Family matters: the care and protection of children affected by HIV/AIDS in Malawi. Save the children, Sweden; 2002.
47. Li X, Naar-King S, Barnett D, Stanton B, Fang X, Thurston C. A developmental psychopathology framework of the psychosocial needs of children orphaned by HIV
48. Department of Health. Psychosocial support (PSS) for children and adolescents infected and affected by HIV. Pretoria, South Africa; 2013.
49. Ellis C. HIV in Africa demands complex cultural responses
50. Jewkes R, Dunkle K, Nduna M, Levin J, Jama N, Dunkle K, et al. Impact of stepping stones on incidence of HIV and HSV-2 and sexual behavior in rural South Africa: cluster randomised controlled trial
51. Barker G, Nascimento M, Segundo M, Pulerwitz J. Ruxton S. How do we know if men have changed? Promoting and measuring attitude change with young men: lessons from Program H in Latin America. Gender equality and men: learning from practice. Oxford: Oxfam GB; 2004. 147–161.
52. King E, De Silva M, Stein A, Patel V. Interventions for improving the psychosocial well being of children affected by HIV and AIDS
. Cochrane Database Syst Rev
2009; Issue 2. Art. No.: CD006733. doi: 10.1002/14651858.CD006733.pub2 [Epub 8 JUL 2009].
54. Cohen E, Brom D, Pat-Horenczyk R. Ford J. Parenting in the throes of traumatic events: risks and protection. Treating traumatized children: risk, resilience and recovery; Routledge; 2009.
55. Brom D, Pat-Horenczyk P, Ford JD. Treating traumatized children: Risk, Resilience and Recovery. East Sussex; Routledge, 2009, 133–148.
56. Silva RR, Alpert M, Munoz DM, Singh S, Matzner F, Dummit S. Posttraumatic stress disorders in children and adolescents
. Am J Psychiatry
57. Brouwer CNM, Lok CL, Wolffers I, Sebagalls S. Psychosocial and economic aspects of HIV/AIDS and counselling of caretakers of HIV-infected children in Uganda
. AIDS Care
58. Klunkin P, Harrigan R. Child-rearing practices of primary caregivers of HIV infected children: an integrative review of literature
. J Paediatr Nurs
60. Simoni JM, Montgomery A, Martin E, New M, Demas PA, Rana S. Adherence to antiretroviral therapy for paediatric HIV infection: a qualitative systematic review with recommendations for research and clinical management
61. Ellis DA, Naar-King S, Cunningham PB, Secord E. Use of multisystemic therapy to improve antiretroviral adherence and health outcomes in HIV-infected paediatric patients: evaluation of a pilot program
. AIDS Patient Care STDS
62. Berrien VM, Salazar JC, Reynolds E, Mckay K. Adherence to antiretroviral therapy in HIV-infected paediatric patients improves with home-based intensive nursing intervention
. AIDS Patient Care STDS
63. Van Winghem J, Telfer B, Reid T, Ouko J, Mutunga A, Jama Z, Vakil S. Implementation of a comprehensive program including psycho-social and treatment literacy activities to improve adherence to HIV care and treatment for a paediatric population in Kenya
. BMC Pediatr
64. Biadgilign S, Deribew A, Amberbir A, Deribe K. Barriers and facilitators to antiretroviral medication adherence among HIV-infected paediatric patients in Ethiopia: a qualitative study
. SAHARA J
66. Michaels-Strasser S, Gibbons S. Growing up with HIV: money for drugs and labs alone are not enough [abstract]. Growing up with HIV in Africa: abstracts for special issue in children and youth services review; March 26 2013; London, UK. London (UK): LSE; 2013. 11. Abstract no. 7.
67. Bhana A, Mellins CA, Petersen I, Alicea S, Myeza N, Holst H, McKay M. The VUKA family program: piloting a family-based psychosocial intervention to promote health and mental health among HIV infected early adolescents in South Africa. AIDS Care; 2013. Epub 2013 Jun 14
68. REPSSI (2012). Voices of hope and change. Johannesburg: REPSSI. www.repssi.org
69. De Cock KM, Mbori-Ngacha D, Marum E. Shadow on the continent: public health and HIV/AIDS in Africa in the 21st century
70. Fonagy P, Tasrget M. Early intervention and the development of self-regulation
. Psychoanalytic Inquiry
71. Main M. Goldberg S, Muir R, Kerr J. Attachment: overview with implications for clinical work. Attachment theory, social developmental and clinical perspectives. Hillsdale: Analytic; 1995.
72. Richter LM, Sherr L, Adato M, Belsey M, Chandan U, Desmond C, et al. Strengthening families to support children affected by HIV and AIDS
. AIDS Care
2009; 21 (Suppl 1):3–12.
73. Paediatric AIDS Treatment for Africa (PATA). Annual Report 2012. www.teampata.org
74. Kent R, Iorpenda K, Fay A. Family-centred HIV programming for children – guide to good practice. International HIV/AIDS Alliance; 2012.
75. Abubakar A, Van Baar A, Van de Vijver FJ, Holding P, Newton CR. Paediatric HIV and neurodevelopment in sub-Saharan Africa: a systematic review
. Trop Med Int Health
2008; 13:880–887. . Epub 2008 Mar 31.
76. Anyangwe SC, Mtonga C. Inequities in the global health workforce: the greatest impediment to health in sub-Saharan Africa
. Int J Environ Res Public Health
77. Petersen I, Lund C, Bhana A, Flisher AJ. A task shifting approach to primary mental healthcare for adults in South Africa: human resource requirements and costs for rural settings
. Health Policy Plan
78. Criss MM, Pettit GS, Bates JE, Dodge KAP, Lap AL. Family and adversity, positive peer relationships, and children's externalizing behaviour: a longitudinal perspective on risk and resilience
. Child Develop
79. Puthanakit T, Ananworanich J, Vonthanak S, Kosalaraksa P, Hansudewechakul R, van der Lugt J, et al. Cognitive function and neurodevelopmental outcomes in HIV-infected children older than 1 year of age randomized to early versus deferred antiretroviral therapy: the PREDICT neurodevelopmental study
. Paediatr Infect Dis J
80. Laughton B, Cornell M, Grove D, Kidd M, Springer PE, Dobbels E, et al. Early antiretroviral therapy improves neurodevelopmental outcomes in infants
81. Graff Zivin J, Thirumurthy H, Goldstein M. AIDS treatment and intra-household resource allocations: children's nutrition and schooling in Kenya. Paper presented at the Population Association of America 2007 Annual Meeting New York, NY, USA; 2007. http://paa2007.princeton.edu/papers/72154
. [Accessed 8 March 2009].
82. Guo Y, Li X, Sherr L. The impact of HIV/AIDS on children's educational outcome: a critical review of global literature
. AIDS Care
2012; 24:993–1012. . Epub 2012 Apr 23.
83. Punpanich W, Gorbach PM, Detels R. Impact of paediatric human immunodeficiency virus infection on children's and caregivers’ daily functioning and well being: a qualitative study
. Child Care Health Develop
2011; 38:714–722. . Epub 2011 Aug 19.
84. UNICEFChildren and AIDS: 5th stocktaking report
. Geneva:UNICEF; 2010.
86. Karugaba G, Marukutira T, Letamo G, Mabikwa1 V, Makhanda J, Marape M, et al.Disclosure of children's HIV status to school personnel: to do or not to do? 19th International AIDS Conference: Abstract no. MOPE054; 2012.
87. Maček Maja, Matković Vlatka. Attitudes of school environment towards integration of HIV-positive pupils into regular classes and knowledge about HIV/AIDS: cross-sectional study
. Croat Med J
88. Cluver L, Bowes L, Gardner F. Risk and protective factors for bullying victimization among AIDS-affected and vulnerable children in South Africa
. Child Abuse Negl