Acquired protein S deficiency leads to obliterative portal venopathy and to compensatory nodular regenerative hyperplasia in HIV-infected patients
Mallet, Vincent Oa,b,c; Varthaman, Aditid,e,f; Lasne, Dominiqueg; Viard, Jean-Paulh; Gouya, Hervéi; Borgel, Delphinej,k; Lacroix-Desmazes, Sébastiend,e,f; Pol, Stanislasa,b,c
aInstitut Cochin, Université Paris Descartes, CNRS (UMR 8104), France
bInserm, U567, France
cAPHP, Groupe Hospitalier Cochin Saint-Vincent de Paul, Unité d'Hépatologie, France
dInserm, UMR S 872, Centre de Recherche des Cordeliers, France
eUniversité Pierre et Marie Curie-Paris6, France
fUniversité Paris Descartes, UMR S 872, Centre de Recherche des Cordeliers, France
gAPHP, Hôpital Necker, Hématologie Biologique, France
hAPHP, Hôpital Necker, Maladies infectieuses, France
iAPHP, Groupe Hospitalier Cochin Saint-Vincent de Paul, Radiologie A, Paris, France
jAP-HP, Hôpital Ambroise Paré, Service d'Hématologie et d'Immunologie, Boulogne-Billancourt, France
kFaculté de Pharmacie, Université Paris-Sud 11, Châtenay-Malabry Cedex, France.
Received 5 December, 2008
Revised 10 February, 2009
Accepted 15 March, 2009
Correspondence to Dr Vincent O. Mallet, MD, PhD, APHP, Hôpital Cochin, Hépatologie, 27 rue du Faubourg Saint Jacques, 75014 Paris, France. Tel: +33 01 58 41 30 01; fax: +33 01 58 41 30 14; e-mail: firstname.lastname@example.org
Objective: To identify the mechanism of nodular regenerative hyperplasia in HIV-infected patients.
Design: Case–control study.
Setting: The hepatology and the infectious disease units of two tertiary care centers in France.
Patients: We compared 13 consecutive HIV-positive patients with unexplained nodular regenerative hyperplasia to 16 consecutive HIV-positive patients without nodular regenerative hyperplasia, to eight HIV-negative patients with nodular regenerative hyperplasia from an identified cause and to 10 anonymous healthy blood donors.
Main outcome measure: Patients and controls were screened for diminished protein S activity and antiprotein S immunoglobulin G (IgG) antibodies. The antiprotein S activity of purified IgG from patients and controls was assessed in a functional test of activation of protein C in which protein S serves as a cofactor. A full liver CT portography was realized on the liver explant of a case patient.
Results: The CT portography disclosed diffuse obliterative portal venopathy. Levels of protein S activity were lower among patients with HIV-associated nodular regenerative hyperplasia when compared with HIV-positive patients without nodular regenerative hyperplasia and when compared with HIV-negative patients with nodular regenerative hyperplasia (P < 0.005 for all comparisons). HIV-positive patients with nodular regenerative hyperplasia had significantly higher levels of antiprotein S IgG than HIV-positive patients without nodular regenerative hyperplasia and healthy controls. Purified IgG from patients with HIV-associated nodular regenerative hyperplasia specifically inhibited the protein S-dependent protein C activation.
Conclusion: Acquired autoimmune protein S paucity and secondary thrombophilia appear to be causes of obliterative portal venopathy and compensatory nodular regenerative hyperplasia in HIV-positive patients.
The decline in the mortality specifically related to HIV has triggered an increase of the morbimortality of associated liver diseases, which represent today one of the leading causes of death among HIV-infected patients on antiretrovirals [1,2].
Recently, several cases of unexplained liver disease in patients with a long history of HIV infection and adequate immune restoration with antiretrovirals have been reported . Nodular regenerative hyperplasia secondary to obliterative portal venopathy seems to account for some of these cases [4–10].
To identify the mechanism of HIV-associated nodular regenerative hyperplasia, we compared consecutive patients with HIV-associated nodular regenerative hyperplasia to control patients including HIV-positive patients without nodular regenerative hyperplasia, HIV-negative patients with nodular regenerative hyperplasia, and to healthy blood donors.
From July 2003 to February 2007, 16 HIV-infected patients with biopsy-proven nodular regenerative hyperplasia of the liver were referred to the liver unit of Cochin University Hospital (Paris, France). The complete description of the syndrome has been previously published in a case series comprising the first eight patients of the present study .
Three of these 16 patients were coinfected with the hepatitis C virus and were excluded from the present analysis. All common causes of chronic liver disease were ruled out in the other 13 patients. Genome amplifications of viral hepatitis B and C were negative, excluding overt or occult hepatitis B or hepatitis C infection(s) or both. Hepatitis B core (HBc) antibodies [immunoglobulin G (IgG)] were positive in six out of 13 patients. There was no past or recent history of excessive alcohol consumption (>20 g/day), ferritin and transferrin saturation blood levels were normal, antiliver autoantibodies and antinuclear antibodies were tested negative. Serum alpha-1-antitrypsin, copper and ceruloplasmin levels were normal – ruling out hemochromatosis, autoimmune hepatitis, alpha-1-antitrypsin deficiency and Wilson's disease, respectively. None of the patients had significant comorbidity, especially concerning cardiac, hematological or renal disorders. There was no history of toxic exposure (vitamin A, copper sulfate, vinyl chloride monomer, thorium sulfate, Spanish toxic oil or arsenic salts), no past or ongoing hormonal therapy or herbal medicine treatment.
We compared the levels of protein S activity of these patients with those of 16 consecutive HIV-positive patients with strictly normal liver-function tests seen in the infectious unit of Necker University Hospital between June and July 2006 and of seven patients with nodular regenerative hyperplasia secondary to an identified cause followed in the liver unit of Cochin University Hospital. The seven HIV-negative patients with nodular regenerative hyperplasia presented with heterogeneous underlying diseases that included five kidney transplants (one with lupus), one lupus, one bartonellosis. On the basis of sample availability, we used the serum of either seven or five HIV-positive patients with nodular regenerative hyperplasia for testing the recognition of protein S in ELISA and the inhibitory activity of purified IgG toward protein S, respectively. The clinical profiles for these patients were similar to those of the remaining patients, especially concerning CD4 cell count, and there was no bias in the groups studied (P = 0.127 for the comparison). Ten samples of blood were taken from anonymous healthy blood donors, which served as controls for the IgG assays. Informed consent was obtained from all patients, and the institutional review board of our hospital approved the study.
Prothrombotic hemostatic defect assessment
All patients were screened for lupus anticoagulant, antiphospholipid antibodies of IgG and IgM isotypes, antithrombin and protein C functional deficiencies, protein S functional deficiency and G1691A factor V and G20210A factor II mutations. Levels of total protein S were also measured using standard ELISA protocols.
Measurement of C4b-binding protein in plasma
Levels of C4b-binding protein in the plasma from patients and controls were assessed using the commercially available Liatest C4b-binding protein chromogenic assay as instructed (Diagnostica Stago, Asnieres-sur-Seine, France).
Quantification of antiprotein S immunoglobulin G by ELISA
ELISA plates were coated with recombinant human protein S in phosphate buffered saline (PBS) at 2 μg/ml and left overnight at 4°C . The plates were washed with PBS containing 0.2% Tween 20 and blocked with PBS with 1% bovine serum albumin, then left for 1 h at room temperature. Plasma samples from patients and controls including healthy blood donors were incubated in serial dilutions for 2 h at room temperature. After extensive washing of the wells, bound IgG was revealed using polyclonal goat antihuman IgG antibodies coupled to peroxidase (Clone JDC-10, Southern Biotechnology, Birmingham, Alabama, USA) and its substrate. The chromogenic product was read at 492 nanometers using a Genyos (TECAN, Männedorf, Switzerland).
Purification of IgG from plasma
IgG was purified from the plasma of patients and healthy blood donors by affinity chromatography on protein G-Sepharose (Amersham Pharmacia Biotech, Buckinghamshire, England). Plasma was incubated with protein G-Sepharose in PBS with 0.01% azide (PBS/azide) and left overnight at 4°C. After extensive washing with PBS/azide, IgG was eluted using 0.2 mol/l glycine-HCl (pH 2.8) and neutralized using 3 mol/l Tris. IgG was dialyzed against PBS for 4 h at 4°C and quantified by spectrometry at 280 nm.
Functional assay for inhibition of protein S
Recombinant human protein S (20 μg/ml) was incubated in Owren-Koller buffer alone or with purified IgG (0.5, 1 and 2 mg/ml) for 2 h at 37°C . Samples were then added to a mixture of human plasma depleted in protein S, human activated protein C and bovine-activated factor V. Coagulation was initiated with calcium chloride (0.025 mol/l), and the time taken to coagulate was measured using a coagulometer KC10 micro (Amelung, Lemgo, Germany) and compared to a standard curve obtained with serial dilutions of recombinant protein S (30–0.33 μg/ml). We calculated the specific inhibitory activity of IgG expressed in units per milligram that represents the inverse of the IgG concentration that yields 50% of protein S inhibition.
Continuous variables are presented as median and interquartile range or means and standard errors of the mean. Categorical variables are presented as counts and percentages. The differences between groups were assessed with the Mann–Whitney U test and the Kruskal–Wallis H tests. All P values are two sided, and the type I error was set to 5%. All statistical analyses were performed using SPSS software, version 16 (SPSS, Inc., Chicago, Illinois, USA).
The median age of patients with HIV-associated nodular regenerative hyperplasia was 41 years. There were nine men and four women. All had a long-lasting HIV infection (median length of known HIV positivity of 12 years) with various routes of contamination. All were considered adequately immune restored by HAART with a median CD4 T cell count at the time of diagnosis of 265 cells/μl and a normal proportion of CD4 cells (Tables 1 and 2). All were or had been exposed to didanosine (among various antiretroviral treatments).
The initial mode of presentation was unexplained abnormal liver-function tests (elevation of alkaline phosphatase with mild thrombopenia) in more than half of the patients. The remainder presented with direct or indirect signs of portal hypertension. The median delay between the first noted liver abnormality and diagnosis of nodular regenerative hyperplasia was 17 months.
Eleven patients (85%) had esophageal varices and hypertensive gastropathy on upper endoscopy. Six of them experienced gastrointestinal hemorrhage at the time of diagnosis or during follow-up. One patient developed chronic diarrhea and severe denutrition related to portal hypertensive exsudative enteropathy. Four patients underwent liver transplantation for liver insufficiency and portal hypertension. The median delay between the diagnosis of nodular regenerative hyperplasia and liver transplantation was 37 months (range 24–47). Two patients had portal vein thrombosis at the time of the liver transplantation.
Nodular regenerative hyperplasia is secondary to obliterative portal venopathy
Access to the explant of the last transplanted patient provided a glimpse of the mechanism of HIV-associated nodular regenerative hyperplasia at both radiological and pathological levels. A CT portography of the whole liver revealed figures of obliterative portal venopathy with a diffuse occlusion of the distal intrahepatic portal branches (Fig. 1a). The pathological examination of the explant disclosed a typical aspect of obliterative portal venopathy with figures of nodular regenerative hyperplasia, sinusoidal dilatation and hepatoportal sclerosis in the liver parenchyma (Fig. 1b and c). No significant fibrosis was seen.
Prothrombotic hemostatic defect assessment
Obliterative portal venopathy is frequently associated with prothrombotic disorders. We therefore screened every patient with HIV-associated nodular regenerative hyperplasia for a prothrombotic hemostatic defect. All patients with HIV-associated nodular regenerative hyperplasia had decreased levels of protein S activity (Table 3). Accordingly, the levels of free protein S antigen were also low (data not shown). One patient had a G1691A factor V mutation and another had a G20210A factor II mutation. When compared to matched controls, the levels of protein S activity were lower in HIV-positive patients with nodular regenerative hyperplasia as compared with HIV-positive patients without nodular regenerative hyperplasia and as compared with HIV-negative patients with nodular regenerative hyperplasia (Table 3). In contrast, the levels of total protein S antigen were similar in the case of HIV-positive patients with and without nodular regenerative hyperplasia and were similar to that of healthy donors (Table 3).
Levels of C4b-binding protein
To determine whether the decrease in free protein S could be attributed to a shift toward the form bound to the C4b-binding protein, levels of C4b-binding protein in the plasma of the patients were compared to those in the plasma of controls. HIV-infected patients with and without nodular regenerative hyperplasia presented with identical levels of C4b-binding protein in plasma (P = 0.530). Unexpectedly, plasma from HIV-negative patients with nodular regenerative hyperplasia had 3.6 to 5.4-fold higher levels of plasma C4b-binding protein (Table 3), possibly explaining the significant increase in total protein S in these patients.
Antiprotein S IgG
We investigated whether the reduced protein S levels in HIV-infected patients are due to an acquired antiprotein S humoral immune response. Interestingly, protein S-specific IgG was detected in the plasma of healthy donors. HIV-infected patients without nodular regenerative hyperplasia showed antiprotein S IgG levels similar to those of healthy individuals. In contrast, both HIV-negative and HIV-positive patients with nodular regenerative hyperplasia had higher levels of antiprotein S IgG than those of healthy donors and than those of patients with HIV infection without nodular regenerative hyperplasia (Fig. 2a). In the case of HIV-positive patients with nodular regenerative hyperplasia, the elevated protein S recognition by plasma IgG was associated with higher amounts of circulating IgG as compared with HIV-positive patients without nodular regenerative hyperplasia and to healthy blood donors (Table 3). Of note, the three HIV-negative patients with nodular regenerative hyperplasia who had the highest levels of antiprotein S IgG had lupus as an underlying disease.
Inhibitory activity of purified IgG toward protein S
We then investigated whether the antiprotein S IgG in patients with nodular regenerative hyperplasia can neutralize protein S function. Basal inhibition of protein S activity by IgG from healthy donors and HIV-infected patients without nodular regenerative hyperplasia was observed, probably owing to the limitations of our inhibitory assay. The inhibition of protein S activity was dependent on the concentration of IgG. IgG from HIV-positive patients with nodular regenerative hyperplasia showed consistently and significantly higher inhibitory activity toward protein S than IgG from healthy donors and IgG from HIV-positive patients without nodular regenerative hyperplasia. IgG from HIV-negative patients with nodular regenerative hyperplasia were heterogeneous in terms of protein S inhibition and did not differ significantly from that of healthy donors and HIV-infected patients without nodular regenerative hyperplasia (P = 0.329 and 0.126, respectively) (Table 3).
We present here a case series of 13 patients with nodular regenerative hyperplasia in which the only identified causal factor is HIV infection. The mode of presentation was very stereotypical: long-lasting HIV infection, exposition to antiretroviral drugs, especially didanosine, adequate immune restoration and unexplained abnormal liver-function tests or portal hypertension. Complications related to portal hypertension occurred in about half of them, and four required liver transplantation. The mechanism of HIV-associated nodular regenerative hyperplasia is unknown to date but does not seem to be related to HIV infection and acquired immunodepression per se as the majority of patients were adequately immune restored.
The CT portography of the explant of the last transplanted patient shows that the primary lesion in HIV-associated nodular regenerative hyperplasia is diffuse obliterative portal venopathy. The obliteration of the small portal veins results in ischemia of the supplied acini and regenerative hyperplasia of the remainders in order to maintain liver cell mass. This observation is in line with seminal autopsic studies on nodular regenerative hyperplasia suggesting that the primary lesion in nodular regenerative hyperplasia is obliterative portal venopathy [12–14]. We propose the term of HIV-associated obliterative portopathy (HIV-OP) to describe the present syndrome in HIV-infected patients.
Nodular regenerative hyperplasia and obliterative portal venopathy have been reported to occur not only in association with other systemic diseases, including rheumatic, vascular and myeloproliferative disorders, but also with certain drugs and congenital or acquired prothrombotic states, including acquired protein S deficiency [15,16].
Protein S serves as a cofactor for the anticoagulant reaction catalyzed by activated protein C . The prevalence of congenital protein S deficiency in the general population is estimated to be one in 29 000 . In congenital protein S deficiency, the probability of developing thrombosis by age 27 is 50% and increases to 70% by age 35 . In HIV-infected patients, protein S deficiency is reported in about 20% of patients after 15 years of HIV infection . Whether acquired reduction in protein S levels predisposes HIV-infected individuals to thrombosis is currently not clear, but it is suggested by several case reports and series [21–23].
In view of these findings, we evaluated the protein S status in our patients and found that all of them had protein S activity below physiological levels. Protein S activity was significantly lower in patients with HIV-OP as compared with matched HIV-positive controls without nodular regenerative hyperplasia and in HIV-negative patients with nodular regenerative hyperplasia of another origin. Our data thus suggest a link between protein S deficiency and the development of HIV-OP.
Interestingly, despite a marked decrease in protein S activity, the levels of total protein S in patients with HIV-OP were identical to that of HIV-positive patients without nodular regenerative hyperplasia and healthy donors, suggesting functional inactivation of circulating protein S. We indeed document increased levels of antiprotein S IgG in the plasma from patients with HIV-OP as compared with patients from the other groups, including healthy donors. Antiprotein S IgG was able to inhibit the cofactor activity of protein S toward activated protein C in a functional assay. Importantly, levels of C4b-binding protein were not altered in patients with HIV-OP. Although levels of protein S activity may be affected by multiple disease process, including liver disease and thrombosis, our data suggest that acquired antiprotein S IgG participates in the pathogenesis of HIV-OP. The presence of high levels of inhibitory antiprotein S IgG in HIV-infected patients may be explained by a persisting abnormality of B-cell activation or B-cell repertoire despite antiretroviral therapy, leading to chronic polyclonal activation . Indeed, the presence of antiprotein S antibodies was well correlated to IgG levels. The HIV-infected patients studied herein had correct CD4+ lymphocyte cell count, and half of them had dramatically increased their CD4 cell count from a very low nadir. This is known to favor the occurrence of various manifestations of the inflammatory immune restoration syndrome, including inflammatory and bona fide autoantibody-mediated autoimmune conditions [25–27].
Although the incidence of HIV-OP is unknown, it is likely to be more common than generally thought. Although we report here only patients with isolated HIV-OP, we have observed identical cases in patients coinfected with hepatitis C virus . Because patients with HIV-OP typically present clinical features resembling those of cirrhosis, liver biopsy is indicated in most cases to confirm the diagnosis. Nevertheless, in the absence of any underlying liver disease, the diagnosis of HIV-OP should be considered in the presence of unexplained abnormal liver-function tests in an HIV-infected patient, especially if decreased level of protein S is found. In this case, patients should be screened for occult portal hypertension.
Our study has the inherent limitations of any small, observational case series. Although the characteristics of the control patients were similar to those of our patients with HIV-OP, they were not selected by means of systematic random sampling, and, thus, selection bias is possible, albeit unlikely. In addition, though our data show an intriguing association between levels of antiprotein S IgG, protein S deficiency and HIV-OP, they do not prove a causal relationship. Antiprotein S IgG may be an epiphenomenon or a secondary response in patients with nodular regenerative hyperplasia, rather than the root cause. However, the absence of protein S deficiency in HIV-negative patients with nodular regenerative hyperplasia suggests that the mechanism(s) of nodular regenerative hyperplasia in these patients is (or are) different: endothelitis related to infection or to immunosuppressive drugs and inducing hepatic peliosis and nodular regenerative hyperplasia probably accounted for the majority of them. Nevertheless, we observed antiprotein S IgG activity in two of these control patients. Both of them had lower levels of protein S (71 and 74%) than the other controls and were known to have autoantibodies.
In conclusion, HIV-OP appears as a complication of treated HIV infection under HAART secondary to acquired autoimmune protein S deficiency. Although our data suggest a persistent or emerging alteration of the autoantibody repertoire despite immune restoration, a more complete understanding of this immune deregulation warrants further research. As our data implicate a prothrombotic state, use of anticoagulants is an important question to be addressed, as oral anticoagulants are effective in preventing thrombosis in congenital protein S deficiencies.
We thank Dr Mircea Chirica for his help with the explant. We thank Pr. Valérie Vilgrain and Pr. Phlippe Sogni for helpful discussions on this study.
Data are available from Dr Mallet (email@example.com). The dataset is not available without establishing written agreements with the authors. V.O.M., S.L.-D., J.-P.V., S.P. contributed to conception and design. V.O.M., A.V., D.L., J.-P.V., H.G., D.B., S.L.-D., S.P. contributed to analysis and interpretation of the data. Drafting of the article was done by V.O.M., S.L.-D., S.P. Critical revision of the article for important intellectual content was done by V.O.M., S.L.-D., S.P. Final approval of the article was done by V.O.M., A.V., D.L., J.P.V., H.G., D.B., S.L.-D., S.P. Provision of study materials or patients was supplied by V.O.M., A.V., D.L., J.P.V., H.G., D.B., S.L.-D., S.P.
1. Rosenthal E, Pialoux G, Bernard N, Pradier C, Rey D, Bentata M, et al. Liver-related mortality in human-immunodeficiency-virus-infected patients between 1995 and 2003 in the French GERMIVIC Joint Study Group Network (MORTAVIC 2003 Study). J Viral Hepat 2007; 14:183–188.
2. Weber R, Sabin CA, Friis-Moller N, Reiss P, El-Sadr WM, Kirk O, et al. Liver-related deaths in persons infected with the human immunodeficiency virus: the D:A:D study. Arch Intern Med 2006; 166:1632–1641.
3. Maida I, Nunez M, Rios MJ, Martin-Carbonero L, Sotgiu G, Toro C, et al. Severe liver disease associated with prolonged exposure to antiretroviral drugs. J Acquir Immune Defic Syndr 2006; 42:177–182.
4. Arey B, Markov M, Ravi J, Prevette E, Batts K, Nadir A. Nodular regenerative hyperplasia of liver as a consequence of ART. AIDS 2007; 21:1066–1068.
5. Garvey LJ, Thomson EC, Lloyd J, Cooke GS, Goldin RD, Main J. Response to Mallet et al., ‘Nodular regenerative hyperplasia is a new cause of chronic liver disease in HIV-infected patients’. AIDS 2007; 21:1494–1495.
6. Mallet V, Blanchard P, Verkarre V, Vallet-Pichard A, Fontaine H, Lascoux-Combe C, Pol S. Nodular regenerative hyperplasia is a new cause of chronic liver disease in HIV-infected patients. AIDS 2007; 21:187–192.
7. Podevin P, Spiridon G, Terris B, Chauvelot-Moachon L, Guillevin L, Chaussade S, et al. Nodular regenerative hyperplasia of the liver after IL-2 therapy in an HIV-infected patient. AIDS 2006; 20:313–315.
8. Sandrine PF, Sylvie A, Andre E, Abdoulaye D, Bernard L, Andre C. Nodular regenerative hyperplasia: a new serious antiretroviral drugs side effect? AIDS 2007; 21:1498–1499.
9. Maida I, Garcia-Gasco P, Sotgiu G, Rios MJ, Vispo ME, Martin-Carbonero L, et al. Antiretroviral-associated portal hypertension: a new clinical condition? Prevalence, predictors and outcome. Antivir Ther 2008; 13:103–107.
10. Mallet VO, Bralet MP, Pol S. Response to Schiano et al., Hepatoportal sclerosis as a cause of noncirrhotic portal hypertension in patients with HIV. Am J Gastroenterol 2008; 103:808–809.
11. Morboeuf O, Borgel D, Aiach M, Kaabache T, Gandrille S, Gaussem P. Expression and characterization of recombinant protein S with the Ser 460 Pro mutation. Thromb Res 2000; 100:81–88.
12. Wanless IR. Micronodular transformation (nodular regenerative hyperplasia) of the liver: a report of 64 cases among 2,500 autopsies and a new classification of benign hepatocellular nodules. Hepatology 1990; 11:787–797.
13. Wanless IR, Godwin TA, Allen F, Feder A. Nodular regenerative hyperplasia of the liver in hematologic disorders: a possible response to obliterative portal venopathy. A morphometric study of nine cases with a hypothesis on the pathogenesis. Medicine (Baltimore) 1980; 59:367–379.
14. Wanless IR, Solt LC, Kortan P, Deck JH, Gardiner GW, Prokipchuk EJ. Nodular regenerative hyperplasia of the liver associated with macroglobulinemia. A clue to the pathogenesis. Am J Med 1981; 70:1203–1209.
15. Hillaire S, Bonte E, Denninger MH, Casadevall N, Cadranel JF, Lebrec D, et al. Idiopathic noncirrhotic intrahepatic portal hypertension in the West: a re-evaluation in 28 patients. Gut 2002; 51:275–280.
16. Reshamwala PA, Kleiner DE, Heller T. Nodular regenerative hyperplasia: not all nodules are created equal. Hepatology 2006; 44:7–14.
17. Walker FJ. Regulation of activated protein C by a new protein. A possible function for bovine protein S. J Biol Chem 1980; 255:5521–5524.
18. Gladson CL, Scharrer I, Hach V, Beck KH, Griffin JH. The frequency of type I heterozygous protein S and protein C deficiency in 141 unrelated young patients with venous thrombosis. Thromb Haemost 1988; 59:18–22.
19. Comp PC. Hereditary disorders predisposing to thrombosis. In: Orlando BC, editor. Progress in hemostasis and thrombosis. Florida: Grune & Stratton; 1986. pp. 71–102.
20. Lafeuillade A, Alessi MC, Poizot-Martin I, Dhiver C, Quilichini R, Aubert L, et al. Protein S deficiency and HIV infection. N Engl J Med 1991; 324:1220.
21. Dillmon MS, Saag MS, Hamza SH, Adler BK, Marques MB. Unusual thromboses associated with protein S deficiency in patients with acquired immunodeficiency syndrome: case reports and review of the literature. AIDS Res Hum Retroviruses 2005; 21:753–756.
22. Levine AM, Vigen C, Gravink J, Mack W, Watts CH, Liebman HA. Progressive prothrombotic state in women with advancing HIV disease. J Acquir Immune Defic Syndr 2006; 42:572–577.
23. Stahl CP, Wideman CS, Spira TJ, Haff EC, Hixon GJ, Evatt BL. Protein S deficiency in men with long-term human immunodeficiency virus infection. Blood 1993; 81:1801–1807.
24. Redgrave BE, Stone SF, French MA, Krueger R, James IR, Price P. The effect of combination antiretroviral therapy on CD5 B- cells, B-cell activation and hypergammaglobulinaemia in HIV-1-infected patients. HIV Med 2005; 6:307–312.
25. French MA, Price P, Stone SF. Immune restoration disease after antiretroviral therapy. AIDS 2004; 18:1615–1627.
26. Foulon G, Wislez M, Naccache JM, Blanc FX, Rabbat A, Israel-Biet D, et al. Sarcoidosis in HIV-infected patients in the era of highly active antiretroviral therapy. Clin Infect Dis 2004; 38:418–425.
27. Jubault V, Penfornis A, Schillo F, Hoen B, Izembart M, Timsit J, et al. Sequential occurrence of thyroid autoantibodies and Graves' disease after immune restoration in severely immunocompromised human immunodeficiency virus-1-infected patients. J Clin Endocrinol Metab 2000; 85:4254–4257.
28. Mallet V, Pol S. A puzzling case of portal hypertension in a patient with human immunodeficiency and hepatitis C virus co-infection. Gastroenterol Clin Biol 2007; 31:878–880.
This article has been cited 6 time(s).
Journal of Crohns & ColitisMercaptopurine-induced hepatoportal sclerosis in a patient with Crohn's diseaseJournal of Crohns & Colitis
Clinics and Research in Hepatology and GastroenterologyLiver injury in HIV monoinfected patients: Should we turn a blind eye to it?Clinics and Research in Hepatology and Gastroenterology
Future VirologyHIV hepatotropism and pathogenesis: new challengesFuture Virology
Journal of the Royal Society of MedicineNon-cirrhotic portal hypertension in the HIV-infected individualJournal of the Royal Society of Medicine
Journal of Antimicrobial ChemotherapyHIV/hepatitis B virus co-infection: current challenges and new strategiesJournal of Antimicrobial Chemotherapy
Bmc GastroenterologyAnticoagulant therapy for nodular regenerative hyperplasia in a HIV-infected patientBmc Gastroenterology
autoimmunity; HIV infections/complications; hypertension/portal/etiology; protein S deficiency
© 2009 Lippincott Williams & Wilkins, Inc.
Highlight selected keywords in the article text.