Trends in the incidence of cancers among HIV-infected persons and the impact of antiretroviral therapy: a 20-year cohort study
Crum-Cianflone, Nancya,b; Hullsiek, Katherine Hupplera,c; Marconi, Vincenta,d; Weintrob, Amya,e; Ganesan, Anuradhaa,f; Barthel, R Vincenta,g; Fraser, Susana,h; Agan, Brian Ka,d; Wegner, Scotta
aTriService AIDS Clinical Consortium, Infectious Disease Clinical Research Program, Uniformed Services University of the Health Sciences, Bethesda, Maryland, USA
bInfectious Disease Clinic, Naval Medical Center San Diego, San Diego, California, USA
cDivision of Biostatistics, University of Minnesota, Minneapolis, Minnesota, USA
dInfectious Disease Clinic, San Antonio Military Medical Center, San Antonio, Texas, USA
eInfectious Disease Clinic, Walter Reed Army Medical Center, Washington, District of Columbia, USA
fInfectious Disease Clinic, National Naval Medical Center, Bethesda, Maryland, USA
gInfectious Disease Clinic, Naval Medical Center Portsmouth, Portsmouth, Virginia, USA
hInfectious Disease Clinic, Tripler Army Medical Center, Honolulu, Hawaii, USA.
Received 14 May, 2008
Revised 29 July, 2008
Accepted 3 August, 2008
Correspondence to Dr Nancy Crum-Cianflone, MD, MPH, Clinical Investigation Department (KCA), Naval Medical Center San Diego, 34800 Bob Wilson Drive, Ste. 5, San Diego, CA 92134-1005, USA. Tel: +1 619 532 8134/40; fax: +1 619 532 8137; e-mail: firstname.lastname@example.org
Objective: To describe trends in incidence rates of AIDS-defining cancers (ADCs) and non-AIDS-defining cancers (NADCs) during the HIV epidemic and to evaluate predictors, including the impact of antiretroviral therapy, of cancer development.
Design: Retrospective analysis of a multicenter, prospective natural history study including 4498 HIV-infected US military beneficiaries with 33 486 person-years of follow-up.
Methods: Predictors evaluated included demographics, clinical data, time-updated CD4 cell counts, HIV viral loads, and antiretroviral history. Time periods were classified as early pre (1984–1990), late pre (1991–1995), early post (1996–2000), and late post (2001–2006) HAART eras. Cox proportional hazard models were used to evaluate the association of specific factors with cancer.
Results: Ten percent of HIV-infected persons developed cancer. ADC rates increased between the early and late pre-HAART eras (7.6 and 14.2 cases per 1000 person-years) and have since declined from 5.4 to 2.7 in the early and late HAART eras, respectively (P < 0.001). Rates of NADCs have risen over the four periods (2.9, 2.8, 4.2, 6.7, P = 0.0004). During the late HAART era, 71% of cancers were NADCs. Predictors for ADCs included low CD4 cell count, noncancer AIDS diagnosis, and lack of HAART. NADCs were predicted by increasing age and white race (due to skin cancers).
Conclusion: Although the rate of ADCs continues to fall, the rate of NADCs is rising and now accounts for the majority of cancers in HIV-infected persons. The development of NADCs is associated with increasing age among HIV patients. HAART use is protective for ADCs, but did not significantly impact NADCs.
Cancers such as Kaposi's sarcoma were among the initial clinical diagnoses that led to the recognition of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infections in 1981 . Some experts in the 1980s suggested that malignancies would cause a second epidemic, which was realized with the occurrence of Kaposi's sarcoma and lymphoma . Subsequently, three cancers were classified as AIDS-defining cancers (ADCs), including Kaposi's sarcoma, non-Hodgkin's lymphoma (NHL), and invasive cervical carcinoma (ICC) [3,4].
With the advent of HAART in 1996, the rates of Kaposi's sarcoma and NHL of the central nervous system have dramatically fallen, with less effect on ICC and systemic NHL rates [5–10]. Simultaneously, non-AIDS-defining cancers (NADCs) have accounted for an increasing proportion of cancer cases reported in HIV-infected individuals. Recent studies have reported that NADCs represented 13% of deaths during the HAART era, compared to less than 1% in the pre-HAART era , and that fatal NADCs are now more common than fatal ADCs . However, other research has shown conflicting results regarding incidence rates of NADCs [13,14]. Further evaluation of cancer trends in large and diverse HIV-positive cohorts that include early-stage HIV patients is needed.
We evaluated prospectively collected data from the 23-year observational Tri-Service AIDS Clinical Consortium (TACC) HIV Natural History Study (NHS) to further investigate trends in the rates of ADCs and NADCs among HIV-infected persons. Further, given the availability of individual patient data, we assessed whether CD4 cell counts, HIV viral loads, or antiretroviral medications were predictors of cancer occurrence among HIV-infected persons.
We examined data collected from the TACC NHS, a multicenter, prospective, observational study, which enrolled 4566 HIV-positive persons from 1984 to 2006 at seven geographic locations in the United States. Participants were military beneficiaries (active duty members, retirees, and dependents) evaluated on a biannual basis utilizing standardized data collection procedures, and all have free access to care, including medications. Our study was approved by central and local Institutional Review Boards, and patients provided informed consent.
All active duty US military personnel undergo routine HIV screening every 1–5 years; prior to enlistment, all members are confirmed HIV negative. For this study, among those with a last known HIV-negative date (58%), the median time from last HIV-negative date to first HIV-positive date [enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) confirmed by a western blot test] was 16 months. Baseline was defined as the time of HIV seroconversion, conservatively estimated as 6 months prior to the first documented HIV-positive test. Cancer cases were only included if they occurred after this point. The diagnosis of cancer was based on physician diagnosis supported by laboratory, radiologic, and/or histopathologic results. Cancer events were identified in our database by searching for specific cancer codes and for the terms ‘cancer’, ‘malignancy’, ‘tumor’, or ‘neoplasm’. Cancers were defined as ADCs (Kaposi's sarcoma, NHL, or ICC) or NADCs (all others). Participants excluded from this analysis were those without a documented HIV-positive test (n = 10), with cancer prior to HIV seroconversion (n = 51), and with a benign tumor or a clinical diagnosis that could not be confirmed as malignant (n = 7), yielding 4498 participants for our study (Fig. 1).
Data collected included demographics, including self-reported race/ethnicity, CD4 cell counts and HIV viral load tests at baseline and sequentially over time, history of AIDS-defining conditions other than cancer, and antiretroviral therapy. HAART was defined as two or more nucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitors (NRTIs) in combination with at least one protease inhibitor or one nonnucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitor (NNRTI), one NRTI in combination with at least one protease inhibitor and at least one NNRTI, or an abacavir-containing or tenofovir-containing regimen of three or more NRTIs. For those with cancer, the event date was determined by the first cancer diagnosis date for the specific type of cancer considered. For those without cancer, the censoring date was the last study visit or the date of death. Follow-up for this report ended 31 December 2006.
Statistical analyses included descriptive statistics to compare those with and without cancer events. Medians are presented with interquartile ranges (IQRs). Kruskal–Wallis tests were used to compare medians, and chi-squared tests were used to compare proportions. The number of events, person-years at risk, and rates of events (per 1000 person-years of follow-up) were calculated for the overall study period and for specific time intervals: the early pre-HAART era (1984–1990), the late pre-HAART era (1991–1995), the early post-HAART era (1996–2000), or the late post-HAART era (2001–2006). Each participant contributed to the person-years at risk for every time interval from HIV diagnosis until the event or censoring time. Poisson regression analyses were used to test the hypothesis that the cancer rates remained constant over those intervals. In order to compare the risk of cancer in our HIV-positive cohort with the risk seen in the general population, age-adjusted incidence (per 1000 person-years) over the study period (1984–2006) was calculated for any cancer event (excluding basal cell and squamous) and then separately for a NADC event (excluding basal cell and squamous), Kaposi's sarcoma, NHL, Hodgkin's disease, and anal carcinoma. For each event, the incidence was age-adjusted to the US 2000 standard population  and calculated for the overall cohort and for males only. The age-adjusted incidence was compared to data provided in the National Cancer Institute Surveillance Epidemiology and End Results (SEER) Cancer Statistics Review  for the period 1974–2004; for Kaposi's sarcoma, SEER results from 1975 to 1979 were used, as most cases of Kaposi's sarcoma occurred among HIV patients after 1980. Basal cell and squamous were excluded because SEER does not collect data on those events.
Participants were classified by HIV diagnosis era: pre-HAART (prior to 1996) or post-HAART (at or after 1996). Univariate and multivariate Cox proportional hazard models, stratified by HIV diagnosis eras, were used to evaluate the association of specific factors with cancer. The multivariate models were adjusted for demographics at the time of HIV diagnosis (age, sex, ethnicity, and year of HIV diagnosis). Variables that may change during follow-up (CD4 cell count, HIV RNA levels, HAART use, and noncancer AIDS event) were considered as time-updated covariates, using all available data between HIV diagnosis time and the event or censoring time. For those with cancer, time from cancer diagnosis to death was evaluated with unadjusted proportional hazards models and Kaplan–Meier survival estimates. Hazard ratios are reported with 95% confidence interval (CI). All analyses were conducted using SAS (version 8.2, SAS Institute, Cary, North Carolina, USA).
Between 1984 and 2006, 4498 participants were followed for a total of 33 486 person-years. The study cohort had a median age at HIV diagnosis of 28 (IQR 24–33) years; 91% were men. Race was reported as 45% African–American, 44% white/non-Hispanic, and 11% others (Table 1). HIV-seropositive date was prior to 1996 for 2443 (77%) of the participants. The median length of follow-up was 6.6 (IQR 3.7–10.1) years. Median baseline CD4 cell count at HIV diagnosis was 510 cells/μl (IQR 353–680). During the study period, 24% experienced an AIDS-defining event other than cancer (Table 1).
At least one cancer event was recorded for 446 individuals (10%). The first cancer was AIDS-defining for 311 (70%) individuals and non-AIDS-defining for 135 (30%). The median time from HIV diagnosis to an ADC was 5.6 (IQR 3.6–7.9) years and for a NADC was 6.0 (IQR 2.8–11.7) years. Figure 1 reports the specific types of cancers diagnosed. Of those whose first cancer was AIDS-defining, Kaposi's sarcoma was the most frequent (73%; n = 227); the most common NADC was skin cancer (47%; n = 63). Skin cancers were mostly basal carcinomas (n = 48), followed by melanoma (n = 10) and squamous (n = 5). Thirty-three persons (7.4% of those with cancer) developed two different cancers during the study period, as shown in Fig. 1. Eleven people had two different ADCs: 10 persons had Kaposi's sarcoma followed by NHL and one had NHL followed by Kaposi's sarcoma. Four people with an initial ADC subsequently developed a NADC (lung, anal, Hodgkin's, and skin cancer). Eight people with an initial NADC later developed an ADC (five had Kaposi's sarcoma and three had NHL), which was most commonly an initial skin cancer followed by Kaposi's sarcoma. Finally, 10 people developed two NADCs; most commonly, this was the development of two different types of skin cancer.
Of those who developed cancer, the diagnosis occurred in the pre-HAART era for 302 (68%) and in the post-HAART era for 144 (32%), resulting in pre-HAART and post-HAART cancer rates (per 1000 person-years) of 16.1 and 9.8, respectively. The rate of ADCs increased significantly between the early and late pre-HAART eras (7.6 and 14.2, respectively) and then declined significantly during the early and late post-HAART intervals (5.4 and 2.7, respectively) (Table 2). The rates for NADCs were stable in the pre-HAART era at approximately three cases per 1000 person-years. However, since the availability of HAART, NADC rates increased to 4.2 and 6.7 in the early and late post-HAART eras, respectively (P = 0.004). The rates of nonskin NADCs were less than two cases per 1000 person-years in the pre-HAART and early post-HAART eras, but increased to 4.1 per 1000 person-years during the late post-HAART era (P = 0.0003). Furthermore, the proportion of cancers that were NADCs significantly increased from 20% in the pre-HAART era to 36% in the early post-HAART era and 71% in the late post-HAART era (P < 0.0001).
The rates over time for the most common cancer types are shown in Table 2 and Fig. 2. Rates for both Kaposi's sarcoma and NHL increased significantly before HAART, but have steadily declined since 1996. The rate of anal cancer was stable in the pre-HAART era (0.1–0.2 cases per 1000 person-years), but significantly increased to 1.3 in the late post-HAART era (P = 0.001). Skin, renal, and prostate cancers also had the highest rates during the late post-HAART era.
The age-adjusted incidence among men in our HIV cohort was 13.0 per 1000 person-years for any cancer event (excluding basal cell and squamous), compared to 5.5 for men in the general population. Limiting the events to NADCs (excluding basal cell and squamous), the age-adjusted incidence among men in our cohort was 6.5 per 1000 person-years. The age-adjusted incidence among HIV-positive men (compared to the general population) was 4.0 (vs. 0.004) for Kaposi's sarcoma, 2.7 (vs. 0.2) for NHL, 1.6 (vs. 0.03) for Hodgkin's disease, and 0.2 (vs. 0.01) for anal carcinoma. For each type of event, the age-adjusted incidence for our overall cohort was similar to the age-adjusted incidence for men (data not shown).
The univariate proportional hazards regression models for any cancer, ADC, NADC, and nonskin NADC are shown in Table 3. For all outcomes, increased age was significantly associated with an increased risk of a cancer event. African–American race (compared with whites) was significantly associated with a decreased risk of an ADC or NADC event, but were not associated with a nonskin NADC. ADCs were also associated with male sex, occurrence of a noncancer AIDS diagnosis, lower CD4 cell counts, higher HIV viral loads and lack of HAART use. The association of ADCs and male sex was due to Kaposi's sarcoma (data not shown).
In the multivariate model, the predictors of any cancer and an ADC included male sex and a noncancer AIDS event, whereas factors associated with a reduced risk of a cancer event included African–American race, increased CD4 cell counts, and HAART (Table 4). HIV viral load was not included in the multivariate models because measurements were unavailable for 28% of the cohort.
NADCs were associated with increasing age and white race in the multivariate model; there was no association with sex, CD4 cell counts, HAART use, or prior noncancer AIDS events (Table 4). The relationship between white race and an elevated risk of NADCs was due to the high number of skin cancers; of the 63 cases of skin cancers, 93% occurred in the white race group. Models were repeated for nonskin NADCs (Tables 3 and 4). From the multivariate model for nonskin NADCs, age was still associated with cancer development.
Compared to those with ADCs at the time of cancer diagnosis, those with NADC at the time of diagnosis were more likely to be older (median 42 vs. 35 years, P < 0.0001) and white (68 vs. 52%, P = 0.006), have an HIV diagnosis date after 1996 (13 vs. 3%, P < 0.0001), have higher median CD4 cell counts (430 vs. 72 cells/μl, P < 0.0001) and lower median HIV viral loads (3.4 vs. 4.8 log, P < 0.0001), have received HAART for a greater percentage of their follow-up time (15 vs. 3%, P < 0.0001), and were less likely to have a prior AIDS-defining event (16 vs. 45%, P < 0.0001). The median CD4 cell counts at cancer occurrence for those with an ADC during the early pre-HAART, late pre-HAART, early post-HAART, and late post-HAART eras were 40, 80, 44, and 242 cells/μl, respectively (P = 0.14). For the same intervals, those with NADCs at cancer diagnosis had median CD4 cell counts of 410, 370, 361, and 474 cells/μl, respectively (P = 0.05).
During the study period, 1523 (34%) participants of the overall cohort died. Death occurred among 85% of patients with an ADC, 40% of those with an NADC, 46% with a nonskin NADC, and 30% without cancer (P < 0.0001). For patients with an ADC compared with those with a NADC, the hazard ratio for time from cancer diagnosis to death was 3.7 (95% CI 2.7–4.9, P < 0.0001). The estimated mortality at 1, 3, and 5 years after cancer diagnosis was 51, 76, and 84%, respectively, for those with an ADC, 15, 29, and 41% for those with a NADC, and 26, 38, and 49% for those with a nonskin NADC.
This study, with extended follow-up in the late-HAART era, provides current data on the trends for AIDS-defining and non-AIDS-defining cancers. We found that rates for ADCs have continued to decline well after the advent of HAART. Conversely, the rates of NADCs have continued to rise over time and now account for the majority of the cancers in our study cohort; the development of NADCs appears most related to increasing age. HAART use was protective for ADCs, but did not significantly impact NADCs.
Studies after the advent of HAART noted dramatic declines in the rates of ADCs [5–10]; however, data on the late post-HAART era are more limited [17–19]. A recent study suggested that ADC rates have stabilized during the HAART era , whereas our study demonstrates that the rate of ADCs is progressively decreasing. These contrasting results may be due to the study periods considered (our study has follow-up up to 2006, whereas other studies include follow-up only up to 2002) and the general health of the cohorts considered (our cohort was composed primarily of people with earlier stages of HIV infection, whereas other cohorts included only those with AIDS). A more recent study (1996–2005) performed in an urban HIV clinic had findings similar to ours showing that ADC rates continue to decline . The decreasing rates of ADCs may be related to the improving efficacy and tolerability of antiretroviral therapies.
The most frequent cancer in our study cohort was Kaposi's sarcoma followed by NHL, both of which occurred most commonly during the pre-HAART era. Predictors for these cancers included low time-updated CD4 cell counts and the lack of HAART use. These data emphasize the importance of early HIV diagnosis and initiation of therapy before low CD4 cell counts occur.
The most common NADCs in our cohort were non-Kaposi's sarcoma skin cancers and anal cancer. For both of these cancers, the rates were fairly stable from 1984 to 2000, with increased rates during the period 2001 to 2006. The increasing rate of anal carcinoma was statistically significant (13-fold over the study period). Of note, formal cancer screening practices did not change in our cohort during recent years to explain the increased rate; however, data on trends in the number of MSM in our study cohort is not available. Other cancers, such as renal and prostate carcinoma, reached their highest rates during the late post-HAART period, but the trends were not significant, likely due to the small sample size of the individual cancer types; other studies have also reported an increase in these cancers during the late-HAART era [9,13,21]. We did not find an increase in the incidence of Hodgkin's disease as seen in some studies. [9,22,23].
The proportion of cancer due to NADCs increased over the study period similar to other reports in the literature . Reasons for the recent increased importance of NADCs among HIV-infected persons are likely several-fold. Increasing life expectancy [24,25] and the reduction in competitive causes of death  are undoubtedly contributory. Viral coinfections such as the human papillomavirus, which may have a relatively long latency before their oncogenic effect, are prevalent in HIV patients and may play a role in cancer development [27–29]. In addition, HIV-infected patients may have higher rates of behaviors, such as tobacco use, which contributes to cancer development [30,31]. Finally, HIV itself could play a role either by a direct oncogenic effect (e.g., HIV tat gene)  or as a consequence of immunosuppression with diminished tumor surveillance .
Factors associated with the development of an NADC in our study included increasing age and white race, although the association with race was restricted to skin cancers. We did not find an association with NADCs and prior noncancer AIDS events or time-updated CD4 cell counts. In fact, in our study, patients with NADCs had robust CD4 cell counts at diagnosis (the median was 430 cells/μl) and 79% of the NADC events in the late post-HAART era occurred at a CD4 cell count more than 350 cells/μl. Other studies have also noted that NADCs, such as lung cancer, may not be related to advanced immunosuppression as measured by CD4 cell counts or HIV viral loads [9,11,30,34–36]. This suggests that strategies beyond achievement of high CD4 cell counts may be necessary for reduction in NADCs. Such strategies may include behavioral modifications, such as smoking cessation, safe-sex practices to reduce viral coinfections, and early recognition and management of viral hepatitis.
This study showed an association between HAART use and reduced rates of ADCs among individual HIV patients. Our study had the advantage of examining time-updated HAART data among individual patients; other studies have traditionally lacked individual data regarding HAART use, and simply examined cancer trends during the HAART era . We did not find a significant relationship between HAART use and NADCs. A recent study suggested that HAART use may be associated with a lower risk of NADCs, but did not demonstrate statistical significance . The lack of a demonstrable association suggests that NADCs may develop independently of CD4 cell count and antiretroviral therapy, concurring with the rising rates of these cancers during the HAART era. Our data suggests that the aging of the HIV population is the primary factor associated with the rising rates of NADCs.
It is possible that our study did not find a potential protective effect of HAART on NADCs due to the fact that most of these events occurred among persons with relatively high CD4 cell counts who had not yet initiated HAART. Whether initiating HAART earlier than advocated by previous guidelines  would be beneficial for cancer prevention via mechanisms such as decreased immune activation or suppression of oncogenic viruses is unknown. Research examining the effect of earlier initiation of antiretroviral therapy on the incidence of AIDS-defining and non-AIDS-defining conditions, such as cancers, is under development.
The strengths of our study include the long-term follow-up of HIV patients as part our 23-year Natural History Study. Given recommendations for early HIV detection through routine screening , this study of patients with early-stage HIV infection provides important data on cancer rates and trends. In addition, our study population was racially diverse, without barriers to healthcare access, and from varied geographical locations in the United States. Moreover, our data included confirmed cancer diagnoses and individual patient data, including precisely defined use of antiretroviral therapy, AIDS-defining events, and serial CD4 cell counts.
Several potential limitations of this study should be noted. Our cohort consisted primarily of nondrug users with a low prevalence of hepatitis C; hence, data regarding the effect of drug use or hepatitis coinfection on NADC rates could not be evaluated. Furthermore, we did not collect data on behaviors such as tobacco use, alcohol use, or on family history of cancer. In addition, our population was primarily men; hence, women-specific tumors could not be adequately studied. Finally, given the limited number of NADCs and that most were skin cancers, examining individual NADCs, such as anal cancer or Hodgkin's disease, was not possible.
In conclusion, although the overall rate of cancer has declined since the HAART era, malignancies remain an important cause of morbidity among HIV-infected persons. The rates of ADCs have continued to fall since the advent of HAART, but the rates of NADCs are rising and now account for the majority of cancer cases. The increasing rates of NADCs appear most related to the aging of the HIV population. Antiretroviral therapy appears protective for the development of ADCs, but had no significant impact on NADCs.
Support for this work was provided by the Infectious Disease Clinical Research Program (IDCRP), Uniformed Services University of the Health Sciences (USUHS), Bethesda, Maryland, of which the TriService AIDS Clinical Consortium (TACC) is a component. The IDCRP is a DoD tri-service program executed through USUHS and the Henry M. Jackson Foundation for the Advancement of Military Medicine in collaboration with HHS/NIH/NIAID/DCR through Interagency Agreement HU0001-05-2-0011.
The opinions or ascertains contained herein are the private views of the authors and are not to be construed as official or as reflecting the views of the Departments of the Army, Navy, or Air Force, or the Department of Defense. The authors have no commercial or other association that might pose a conflict of interest in this work.
Author contributions: N.C.-C. and K.H.H. had full access to the all of the data and take responsibility for the integrity accuracy of the data and its analyses.
Study concept and design: N.C.-C.
Acquisition of the data: N.C.-C., A.G., A.W., V.M., R.V.B., S.F. and S.W.
Analysis and interpretation of data: N.C.-C., K.H.H., V.M., R.V.B.,S.F. and B.K.A.
Drafting of the manuscript: N.C.-C., K.H.H. and S.F.
Critical revision of the manuscript for important intellectual content: N.C.-C., K.H.H., A.G., A.W., V.M., R.V.B., S.F., B.K.A. and S.W.
Statistical analysis: N.C.-C. and K.H.H.
Obtained funding: N.C.-C. and B.K.A.
Administrative, technical, or material support: N.C.-C., A.G., A.W., V.M., R.V.B., S.F., B.K.A. and S.W.
Study supervision: N.C.-C.
This work is original and has not been published elsewhere. Some data contained in this manuscript were presented at the 4th IAS Conference, ‘Trends in AIDS-defining and non-AIDS-defining cancers among HIV-infected patients: a 20-year study’, Sydney, Australia, 22–25 July 2007.
1. Centers for Disease Control (CDC). Kaposi's sarcoma and Pneumocystis pneumonia among homosexual men – New York City and California. MMWR Morb Mortal Wkly Rep
2. Monfardini S, Vaccher E, Pizzocaro G, Stellini R, Sinicco A, Sabbatani S, et al
. Unusual malignant tumours in 49 patients with HIV infection. AIDS 1989; 3:449–452.
3. Centers for Disease Control (CDC). Update on acquired immune deficiency syndrome (AIDS): United States. MMWR Morb Mortal Wkly Rep
4. Centers for Disease Control (CDC). 1993 revised classification system for HIV infection and expanded surveillance case definition for AIDS among adolescents and adults. MMWR Morb Mortal Wkly Rep
5. Grulich AE, Li Y, McDonald A, Correll PK, Law MG, Kaldor JM. Decreasing rates of Kaposi's sarcoma and non-Hodgkin's lymphoma in the era of potent combination antiretroviral therapy. AIDS 2001; 15:629–633.
6. International Collaboration on HIV and Cancer. Highly active antiretroviral therapy and incidence of cancer in human immunodeficiency virus-infected adults. J Natl Cancer Inst
7. Jacobson LP, Yamashita TE, Detels R, Margolick JB, Chmiel JS, Kingsley LA, et al
. Impact of potent antiretroviral therapy on the incidence of Kaposi's sarcoma and non-Hodgkin's lymphomas among HIV-1 infected individuals. Multicenter AIDS Cohort Study. J Acquire Immune Defic Syndr Hum Retroviral 1999; 21:S34–S41.
8. Diamond C, Taylor TH, Aboumrad T, Anton-Culver H. Changes in acquired immunodeficiency syndrome-related non-Hodgkin's lymphoma in the era of highly active antiretroviral therapy. Cancer 2006; 106:128–135.
9. Engels EA, Pfeiffer RM, Goedert JJ, Virgo P, McNeel TS, Scoppa SM, et al
. Trends in cancer risk among people with AIDS in the United States 1980–2002. AIDS 2006; 20:1645–1654.
10. Louie JK, Hsu LC, Osmond DH, Katz MH, Schwarcz SK. Trends in causes of death among persons with acquired immunodeficiency syndrome in the era of highly active antiretroviral therapy, San Francisco, 1994–1998. J Infect Dis 2002; 186:1023–1027.
11. Bonnet F, Lewden C, May T, Heripret L, Jougla E, Bevilacqua S, et al
. Malignancy-related causes of death in human immunodeficiency virus-infected patients in the era of highly active antiretroviral therapy. Cancer 2004; 101:317–324.
12. D'Arminio Monforte A, Abrams D, Pradier C, Weber R, Bonnet F, De Wit S, et al. HIV-induced immunodeficiency and risk of fatal AIDS-defining and non-AIDS-defining malignancies: results from the D:A:D Study.
Abstract 84, Presented at the 14th Conference on Retroviruses and Opportunistic Infections
; Los Angeles, CA; 25–28 February 2007.
13. Bedimo R, Chen RY, Accortt NA, Raper JL, Linn C, Allison JJ, et al
. Trends in AIDS-defining and non-AIDS-defining malignancies among HIV-infected patients: 1989–2002. Clin Infect Dis 2004; 39:1380–1384.
14. Herida M, Mary-Krause M, Kaphan R, Cadranel J, Poizot-Martin I, Rabaud C, et al
. Incidence of non-AIDS-defining cancers before and during the highly active antiretroviral therapy era in a cohort of human immunodeficiency virus-infected patients. J Clin Oncol 2003; 21:3447–3453.
16. Ries LAB, Melbert D, Krapcho M, Mariotto A, Miller BA, Deuer EJ, et al
. SEER Cancer Statistics Review, 1975–2004
, National Cancer Institute. Bethesda, MN. http://seer.cancer.gov/csr/1975_2004
, based on November 2006 SEER data submission, posted to the SEER web site, 2007. Accessed 18 July 2008.
17. Stebbing J, Gazzard B, Mandalia S, Teague A, Waterston A, Marvin V, et al
. Antiretroviral treatment regimens and immune parameters in the prevention of systemic AIDS-related non-Hodgkin's lymphoma. J Clin Oncol 2004; 22:2177–2183.
18. Bower M, Powles T, Nelson M, Mandalia S, Gazzard B, Stebbing J. Highly active antiretroviral therapy and human immunodeficiency virus-associated primary cerebral lymphoma. J Natl Cancer Inst 2006; 98:1088–1091.
19. Matthews GV, Bower M, Mandalia S, Powles T, Nelson MR, Gazzard BG. Changes in acquired immunodeficiency syndrome-related lymphoma since the introduction of highly active antiretroviral therapy. Blood 2000; 96:2730–2734.
20. Long JL, Engels EA, Moore RD, Gebo KA. Incidence and outcomes of malignancy in the HAART era in an urban cohort of HIV-infected individuals. AIDS 2008; 22:489–496.
21. Rimland D, Guest J. Increasing incidence of prostate cancer in the Atlanta VA Cohort Study.
Abstract 874, Presented at the 14th Conference on Retroviruses and Opportunistic Infections
; Los Angeles, CA; 25–28 February 2007.
22. Biggar RJ, Jaffe ES, Goedert JJ, Chaturvedi A, Pfeiffer R, Engels EA. Hodgkin lymphoma and immunodeficiency in persons with HIV/AIDS. Blood 2006; 108:3786–3791.
23. Hessol NA, Pipkin S, Schwarcz S, Cress RD, Bacchetti P, Scheer S. The impact of highly active antiretroviral therapy on non-AIDS-defining cancers among adults with AIDS. Am J Epidemiol 2007; 165:1143–1153.
24. Lima VD, Hogg RS, Harrigan PR, Moore D, Yip B, Wood E, Montaner JS. Continued improvement in survival among HIV-infected individuals with newer forms of highly active antiretroviral therapy. AIDS 2007; 21:685–692.
25. Hogg RS, Heath KV, Yip B, Craib KJ, O'Shaughnessy MV, Schechter MT, Montaner JS. Improved survival among HIV-infected individuals following initiation of antiretroviral therapy. JAMA 1998; 279:450–454.
26. Palella FJ Jr, Delaney KM, Moorman AC, Loveless MO, Fuhrer J, Satten GA, et al
. Declining morbidity and mortality among patients with advanced human immunodeficiency virus infection. HIV Outpatient Study Investigators. N Engl J Med 1998; 338:853–860.
27. Forslund O, Iftner T, Andersson K, Lindelof B, Hradil E, Nordin P, et al
, Viraskin Study Group. Cutaneous human papillomaviruses found in sun-exposed skin: Beta-papillomavirus species 2 predominates in squamous cell carcinoma. J Infect Dis 2007; 196:876–883.
28. Harwood CA, McGregor JM, Proby CM, Breuer J. Human papillomavirus and the development of nonmelanoma skin cancer. J Clin Pathol 1999; 52:249–253.
29. Harwood CA, Surentheran T, McGregor JM, Spink PJ, Leigh IM, Breuer J, Proby CM. Human papillomavirus infection and nonmelanoma skin cancer in immunosuppressed and immunocompetent individuals. J Med Virol 2000; 61:289–297.
30. Kirk GD, Merlo C, O'Driscoll PO, Mehta SH, Galai N, Vlahov D, et al
. HIV infection is associated with an increased risk for lung cancer, independent of smoking. Clin Infect Dis 2007; 45:103–110.
31. Sèves M, Chène G, Ducimetière P, Leport C, Le Moal G, Amouyel P, et al
. Risk factors for coronary heart disease in patients treated for human immunodeficiency virus infection compared to the general population. Clin Infect Dis 2003; 37:292–298.
32. De Falco G, Bellan C, Lazzi S, Claudio P, La Sala D, Cinti C, et al
. Interaction between HIV-1 Tat and pRb2/p130: a possible mechanism in the pathogenesis of AIDS-related neoplasms. Oncogene 2003; 22:6214–6219.
33. Grulich AE, van Leeuwen MT, Falster MO, Vajdic CM. Incidence of cancers in people with HIV/AIDS compared with immunosuppressed transplant recipients: a meta-analysis. Lancet 2007; 370:59–67.
34. Mbulaiteye SM, Biggar RJ, Goedert JJ, Engels EA. Immune deficiency and risk for malignancy among persons with AIDS. J Acquir Immune Defic Syndr 2003; 32:527–533.
35. Piketty C, Darragh TM, Heard I, Da Costa M, Bruneval P, Kazatchkine MD, Palefsky JM. High prevalence of anal squamous intraepithelial lesions in HIV-positive men despite the use of highly active antiretroviral therapy. Sex Transm Dis 2004; 31:96–99.
36. Frisch M, Biggar RJ, Engels EA, Goedert JJ, AIDS-Cancer Match Registry Group. Association of cancer with AIDS-related immunosuppression in adults. JAMA 2001; 248:1736–1745.
37. Clifford G, Polesel J, Rickenbach M, Dal Maso L, Keiser O, Kofler A, et al
. Cancer risk in the Swiss HIV Cohort Study: associations with immunodeficiency, smoking, and highly active antiretroviral therapy. J Natl Cancer Inst 2005; 97:425–432.
38. Hammer SM, Saag MS, Schechter M, Montaner JS, Schooley RT, Jacobsen DM, et al
, International AIDS Society – USA panel. Treatment for adult HIV infection: 2006 recommendations of the International AIDS Society – USA panel. JAMA 2006; 296:827–843.
39. Branson BM, Handsfield HH, Lampe MA, Janssen RS, Taylor AW, Lyss SB, et al
, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC). Revised recommendations for HIV testing of adults, adolescents, and pregnant women in health-care settings. MMWR Recomm Rep 2006; 55(RR-14):1–17.
This article has been cited 33 time(s).
Enfermedades Infecciosas Y Microbiologia ClinicaIncidence and risk factors of AIDS-defining cancers in a cohort of HIV-positive adults: Importance of the definition of incident casesEnfermedades Infecciosas Y Microbiologia Clinica
Enfermedades Infecciosas Y Microbiologia ClinicaNon-AIDS defining malignancies or the sleeping giant: an updateEnfermedades Infecciosas Y Microbiologia Clinica
Lancet OncologyEffect of immunodeficiency, HIV viral load, and antiretroviral therapy on the risk of individual malignancies (FHDH-ANRS CO4): a prospective cohort studyLancet Oncology
European Journal of Nuclear Medicine and Molecular ImagingPositron emission tomography in patients suffering from HIV-1 infectionEuropean Journal of Nuclear Medicine and Molecular Imaging
BloodThe Duffy-null state is associated with a survival advantage in leukopenic HIV-infected persons of African ancestryBlood
Clinical Infectious DiseasesIncidence of Malignancies in HIV-Infected Patients and Prognostic Role of Current CD4 Cell Count: Evidence from a Large Italian Cohort StudyClinical Infectious Diseases
American Journal of Clinical PathologyTrends in the Postmortem Diagnosis of Opportunistic Invasive Fungal Infections in Patients With AIDSAmerican Journal of Clinical Pathology
Future OncologyCancer risk in HIV-infected persons: influence of CD4(+) countFuture Oncology
Wspolczesna Onkologia-Contemporary Oncology
Acute myeloid leukaemia in a patient with AIDS - case report
Wspolczesna Onkologia-Contemporary Oncology, 13(3):
Clinical ImmunologyCould natural killer cells compensate for impaired CD4(+) T-cell responses to CMV in HIV patients responding to antiretroviral therapy?Clinical Immunology
Antiviral TherapyIncidence and risk factors of HIV-related non-Hodgkin's lymphoma in the era of combination antiretroviral therapy: a European multicohort studyAntiviral Therapy
American Journal of MedicineIt Began with a Suspected AbscessAmerican Journal of Medicine
Journal of Infectious DiseasesClinical Outcomes of Elite Controllers, Viremic Controllers, and Long-Term Nonprogressors in the US Department of Defense HIV Natural History StudyJournal of Infectious Diseases
Journal of Investigative DermatologyIncidence Trends of Squamous Cell and Rare Skin Cancers in the Swedish National Cancer Registry Point to Calendar Year and Age-Dependent IncreasesJournal of Investigative Dermatology
M S-Medecine Sciences
Cancer and HIV infection
M S-Medecine Sciences, 26(4):
Nature Reviews UrologyManagement of prostate cancer in HIV-positive patientsNature Reviews Urology
HIV MedicineTrends in mortality and antibiotic resistance among HIV-infected patients with invasive pneumococcal diseaseHIV Medicine
Revista Chilena De Infectologia
Malignancies in HIV-infected patients. Descriptive study of 129 cases between 1993 and 2010
Revista Chilena De Infectologia, 30(2):
HIV MedicineIncidence of AIDS-defining cancers and virus-related and non-virus-related non-AIDS-defining cancers among HIV-infected patients compared with the general population in a large health district of northern Italy, 1999-2009HIV Medicine
HIV MedicineCancer, immunodeficiency and antiretroviral treatment: results from the Australian HIV Observational Database (AHOD)HIV Medicine
Journal of the American Academy of DermatologyThe importance of early diagnosis and treatment of actinic keratosisJournal of the American Academy of Dermatology
Seminars in Nuclear MedicineFDG-PET Imaging in HIV Infection and TuberculosisSeminars in Nuclear Medicine
Journal of Clinical ImmunologyIncreased T-Cell Activation and Th1 Cytokine Concentrations Prior to the Diagnosis of B-Cell Lymphoma in HIV Infected PatientsJournal of Clinical Immunology
JAIDS Journal of Acquired Immune Deficiency SyndromesThe Impact of Nelfinavir Exposure on Cancer Development Among a Large Cohort of HIV-Infected PatientsJAIDS Journal of Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndromes
cancer; epidemiology; HAART; HIV; malignancy; military
© 2009 Lippincott Williams & Wilkins, Inc.
What does "Remember me" mean?
By checking this box, you'll stay logged in until you logout. You'll get easier access to your articles, collections,
media, and all your other content, even if you close your browser or shut down your
To protect your most sensitive data and activities (like changing your password),
we'll ask you to re-enter your password when you access these services.
What if I'm on a computer that I share with others?
If you're using a public computer or you share this computer with others, we recommend
that you uncheck the "Remember me" box.
Highlight selected keywords in the article text.
Data is temporarily unavailable. Please try again soon.
Readers Of this Article Also Read