Epidemiology and Social
Baseline renal insufficiency and risk of death among HIV-infected adults on antiretroviral therapy in Lusaka, Zambia
Mulenga, Lloyd Ba; Kruse, Ginaa; Lakhi, Shabirb; Cantrell, Ronald Aa,c; Reid, Stewart Ea,c; Zulu, Isaacd,e; Stringer, Elizabeth Ma,c; Krishnasami, Zipporahc; Mwinga, Alwynd; Saag, Michael Sc; Stringer, Jeffrey SAa,c; Chi, Benjamin Ha,c
aCentre for Infectious Disease Research in Zambia
bUniversity Teaching Hospital, Lusaka, Zambia
cSchools of Medicine and Public Health, University of Alabama, Birmingham, Alabama, USA
dUS Centers for Disease Control and Prevention Global AIDS Program
eSchool of Medicine, University of Zambia, Lusaka, Zambia.
Received 13 March, 2008
Revised 25 April, 2008
Accepted 1 May, 2008
Correspondence to Dr Ben Chi, Plot 1275 Lubutu Road, P.O. Box 34681, Lusaka, Zambia. E-mail: email@example.com
Objective: To examine the association between baseline renal insufficiency and mortality among adults initiating antiretroviral therapy (ART) in an urban African setting.
Design: Open cohort evaluation.
Methods: We examined mortality according to baseline renal function among adults initiating ART in Lusaka, Zambia. Renal function was assessed by the Cockcroft–Gault method, the Modification of Diet in Renal Disease equation, and serum creatinine.
Results: From April 2004 to September 2007, 25 779 individuals started ART with an available creatinine measurement at baseline. When creatinine clearance was calculated by the Cockcroft–Gault method, 8456 (33.5%) had renal insufficiency: 73.5% were mild (60–89 ml/min), 23.4% moderate (30–59 ml/min), and 3.1% severe (<30 ml/min). Risk for mortality at or before 90 days was elevated for those with mildly [adjusted hazard ratio (AHR) = 1.7; 95% confidence interval (95% CI) = 1.5–1.9], moderately (AHR = 2.3; 95% CI = 2.0–2.7), and severely (AHR = 4.3; 95% CI = 3.1–5.5) reduced creatinine clearance. Mild (AHR = 1.4; 95% CI = 1.2–1.6), moderate (AHR = 1.9; 95% CI = 1.5–2.3), and severe (AHR = 3.6; 95% CI = 2.4–5.5) insufficiency were also associated with increased mortality after 90 days, when compared with those with normal renal function. Trends were similar when renal function was estimated with Modification of Diet in Renal Disease or serum creatinine.
Conclusion: Renal insufficiency at time of ART initiation was prevalent and associated with increased mortality risk among adults in this population. These results have particular relevance for settings like Zambia, where tenofovir – a drug with known nephrotoxicity – has been adopted as part of first-line therapy. This emphasizes the need for resource-appropriate screening algorithms for renal disease, both as part of ART eligibility and pretreatment assessment.
Chronic infection with HIV is associated with numerous renal complications, both direct (e.g. HIV-associated nephropathy) and indirect (e.g. opportunistic infections, medications) [1–6]. Regardless of the underlying cause, however, renal insufficiency has been shown to be a significant, independent risk factor for mortality among HIV-infected patients. Two large cohorts in the United States – the HIV Epidemiology Research Study (HERS) and the Women's Interagency HIV Study (WIHS) – demonstrated a two-fold to 2.5-fold risk of death among HIV-infected women with serum creatinine at least 1.4 mg/dl (equivalent to 123.8 μmol/l) [7,8]. Similar findings have been observed in hospital settings in both the industrialized and the developing world [9,10]. Despite high burdens of both HIV and renal disease in sub-Saharan Africa [11,12], few studies to date have investigated whether these disease processes may have a combined effect on patient outcomes. In this analysis, we examined the association between baseline renal function and mortality among adults initiating antiretroviral therapy (ART) in a large public sector HIV care and treatment program in Lusaka, Zambia.
We analyzed data from a cohort of HIV-infected, ART-naïve adults initiating treatment across 18 primary care facilities within the Lusaka, Zambia public health sector. Protocols for patient care at these sites follow WHO guidelines and have been described elsewhere [13,14]. Briefly, patients with documented HIV-positive sero-status undergo history and physical examination (including WHO clinical staging for HIV) and blood is collected for CD4+ cell count. Those with CD4+ cell count less than 200 cells/μl, WHO stage 4, or WHO stage 3 and CD4 cell count less than 350 cells/μl are eligible for ART. Local guidelines do not explicitly include measure of renal dysfunction (e.g. elevated serum creatinine, proteinuria) as indications for initiating ART . Prior to initiating ART, screening tests for hematologic, renal, and hepatic function are performed. If serum creatinine is found to be equal to or greater than 120 μmol/l, creatinine clearance is calculated via the Cockcroft–Gault equation. Antiretroviral drug dosages are then adjusted accordingly.
For this analysis, we used estimates of creatinine clearance by the Cockcroft–Gault formula as our primary measure of renal function . This surrogate measure of glomerular filtration rate (GFR) has been validated in sub-Saharan Africa  and is commonly used in the region to describe renal outcomes for clinical practice and research [18–20]. We used published clinical guidelines from the US National Kidney Foundation's Kidney Disease Outcome Quality Initiative (K/DOQI) to categorize renal insufficiency . Creatinine clearance of at least 90 ml/min was considered normal. Individuals with a creatinine clearance of 60–89 ml/min (K/DOQI stage 2) were categorized as mild renal insufficiency; 30–59 ml/min as moderate insufficiency (K/DOQI stage 3); and less than 30 ml/min as severe insufficiency (K/DOQI stage 4 and 5).
We performed two secondary analyses using other measures of renal function: serum creatinine levels alone and GFR calculated by the Modification of Diet in Renal Disease (MDRD) equation . Because threshold values for serum creatinine are not well defined in the medical literature , we relied upon commonly used cutpoints from our clinical practice. A creatinine value was considered normal if 120 μmol/l or less. Renal insufficiency was considered mild if creatinine was 121–150 μmol/l; moderate if creatinine was 151–200 μmol/l; and severe if creatinine was more than 200 μmol/l. The aforementioned K/DOQI-based categories for renal insufficiency were used for MDRD estimates of GFR.
We included adult patients (>15 years of age) who were treatment-naïve, had a baseline creatinine result, and initiated ART between 1 May 2004 and 30 September 2007 (when the analysis dataset was frozen). The primary outcome of this analysis was mortality. Deaths were ascertained by reports from clinical facilities, home-based care organizations and follow-up visits by community workers. When the exact date of death was uncertain, we assumed it to be midpoint between the last kept appointment and the date of the report. Individuals who had withdrawn from the program were censored as of the date of their withdrawal. Those who were lost to follow-up (defined as at least 30 days late for a clinical or pharmacy appointment) were censored as of 1 October 2007 or 30 days after the last scheduled appointment, whichever came first.
We calculated the prevalence of baseline renal insufficiency with 95% confidence intervals (95% CIs). Medical and demographic characteristics were compared using Student's t-test or χ2 statistics. Crude mortality rates were compared by the z-test. All P-values were two-sided. We further calculated multivariable associations using adjusted relative risk (ARR) with 95% CIs by modified Poisson regression and robust error variances [24,25]. We evaluated the association of renal insufficiency with mortality over time using Kaplan–Meier curves, stratified by disease severity. Log-rank tests were used to identify statistical differences between the groups.
In previous analyses, hazard for death was found to be markedly higher in the first 90 days of ART when compared with after 90 days . For this reason, we used Cox proportional hazards regression to estimate the hazard ratios for mortality over two separate periods: before or at 90 days and after 90 days. We successfully tested the proportional hazards assumption for both models, using the Kolmogorov-type supremum test . Crude analyses were followed by multivariable analyses adjusting for factors known to be associated with mortality in this population: baseline CD4+ cell count, WHO stage, and hemoglobin .
Similar analyses were performed using our secondary measures of renal function: serum creatinine, and MDRD-estimated GFR. In addition to the aforementioned factors, age, sex, and body mass index (BMI) were added to the serum creatinine model; BMI was added to the MDRD model. All analyses were performed with SAS version 9.1.3 (SAS Institute; Cary, North Carolina, USA). Use of these routine clinical data was approved by the Institutional Review Boards of the University of Zambia, the US Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, and the University of Alabama at Birmingham.
From 1 May 2004 to 30 September 2007, 36 289 treatment naïve adults enrolled in the Lusaka district program and initiated ART. Baseline serum creatinine was documented in 25 779 (71.0%) of these individuals. The other 10 510 patients (29.0%) did not have a creatinine result recorded and were thus excluded from the analysis. When we compared individuals with reported baseline serum creatinine results with those without, we found the populations did not differ according to WHO stage, baseline hemoglobin, or baseline BMI (data not shown). Those with a documented serum creatinine, however, were slightly more likely to be men (39.6 vs. 37.7%; P < 0.001) and had slightly higher baseline CD4+ cell counts (148 vs. 141 cells/μl, P < 0.001). Although some of these discrepancies reached statistical significance, none are believed to be meaningful clinically. Crude mortality rate did not differ between those with baseline serum creatinine (8.4 per 100 person-years, 95% CI:8.1–8.8) and those without this data (8.0 per 100 person-years, 95% CI:7.6–8.4; P = 0.11). The full cohort profile is shown as Fig. 1.
Among the 25 779 individuals with baseline serum creatinine, 25 249 (97.9%) had complete individual data (e.g. weight, age, sex) for calculation of creatinine clearance using the Cockcroft–Gault formula. We found 8456 (33.5%; 95% CI: 32.9%, 34.1%) had renal insufficiency. Of these, 6216 (73.5%) of them were mild, 1976 (23.4%) were moderate, and 264 (3.1%) were severe. When compared with those with normal creatinine clearance, several covariates were associated with renal disease (Table 1). In multivariable analysis, these predictors included female sex (ARR = 1.2; 95% CI: 1.1, 1.2), increasing age (ARR = 1.5 per 10 years; 95% CI: 1.4, 1.5), hemoglobin less than 8 g/dl (ARR = 1.5; 95% CI: 1.4, 1.6), BMI less than 16 kg/m2 (ARR = 1.7; 95% CI: 1.6, 1.8), and WHO stage 3 (ARR = 1.2; 95% CI: 1.2, 1.3) or stage 4 (ARR = 1.3; 95% CI: 1.2, 1.4). Risk for renal insufficiency increased slightly as CD4+ cell counts decreased. When compared with individuals with CD4+ cell counts over 200 cells/μl, those with CD4+ counts between 50 and 199 cells/μl (ARR = 1.2; 95% CI: 1.1, 1.2) and those with CD4+ counts less than 50 cells/μl (ARR = 1.4; 95% CI: 1.4, 1.5) were more likely to have reduced creatinine clearance at the time of enrollment.
In Kaplan–Meier analysis, 2-year survival was highest among those with normal creatinine clearance (91.1%), followed by mild (85.8%), moderate (78.8%), and severe (61.2%) renal insufficiency (log rank P < 0.001; Fig. 2). In a Cox proportional hazards model adjusting for potential confounders, risk for mortality less than 90 days was elevated for those with mildly [adjusted hazard ratio (AHR) = 1.7; 95% CI: 1.5, 1.9], moderately (AHR = 2.3; 95% CI: 2.0, 2.7), and severely (AHR = 4.3; 95% CI: 3.1, 5.5) reduced creatinine clearance. When compared with individuals with normal renal function, similar observations were noted in post-90 day mortality: mild insufficiency (AHR = 1.4; 95% CI: 1.2, 1.6), moderate insufficiency (AHR = 1.9; 95% CI: 1.5, 2.3), and severe insufficiency (AHR = 3.6; 95% CI: 2.4, 5.5; Table 2).
We performed secondary analysis using other estimates of renal insufficiency. Baseline serum creatinine was elevated in 979 of 25 779 individuals in our analysis population (3.8%; 95% CI: 3.7%, 4.0%). Of these, half had mild renal insufficiency (n = 503, 51.4%); the remainder had moderate (n = 242, 24.7%) or severe (n = 234, 23.9%) disease. When GFR was calculated by the MDRD equation, 3209 individuals (12.4%; 95% CI: 12.0%, 12.9%) had renal insufficiency: 2397 (74.7%) of them were mild, 642 (20.0%) were moderate, and 170 (5.3%) were severe. Regardless of measure of renal function in these secondary analyses, similar survival trends were observed according to renal insufficiency categories in Kaplan–Meier analysis (Fig. 2). When mortality risk was assessed using a Cox proportional hazards model, risk for mortality gradually increased as renal insufficiency worsened, before or at 90 days and after 90 days (Table 2).
In this programmatic cohort, we found a high baseline prevalence of renal insufficiency among individuals initiating ART. One-third demonstrated some degree of renal impairment when the Cockcroft–Gault method was used. This finding is concerning, as renal insufficiency – at all grades – was associated with increased risk for death. Even individuals with mild insufficiency had nearly a two-fold increase in early mortality when compared with those with no renal dysfunction. Like factors such as BMI and hemoglobin [13,27–29], baseline renal function appears to be an important independent predictor of survival among HIV-infected individuals initiating ART in Africa.
Although these observational data do not establish a direct causal relationship between renal insufficiency and mortality, they do indicate the need to further evaluate ART eligibility criteria. In the mean time, it would seem reasonable to consider renal function screening – by serum creatinine measurement – for all HIV-infected patients wherever feasible. Measurement with urine protein should also be considered, as it may help to differentiate HIV-associated nephropathy (HIVAN) from other causes. Early and ongoing assessment for renal insufficiency among individuals who do not immediately qualify for ART may also be an important strategy, given the rapid and severe clinical course associated with HIVAN . In cases wherever a diagnosis of HIVAN is made via biopsy – or highly suspected based on nonbiopsy algorithms  – a trial of empiric ART could preserve long-term renal function and improve clinical outcomes.
In settings in which renal insufficiency is diagnosed but the cause is unknown, provision of ART in itself has been shown to improve renal function . However, there may also be a role for adjunctive interventions. Small studies have demonstrated improved outcomes with the use of corticosteroids [32,33] and angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitors [34,35] among patients with HIVAN. Empiric treatment with these interventions may be reasonable when a patient's initial response to ART is marginal or when clinical expertise and laboratory systems allow for the close patient monitoring. These measures could be particularly important in resource-limited settings like Zambia, where there is only one hemodialysis center available to support patients with either acute or chronic renal failure.
We observed a high prevalence of renal insufficiency among individuals initiating ART when the Cockcroft–Gault method was used. Our findings have particular relevance for HIV treatment locally, as the Zambian Ministry of Health recently introduced the nucleotide reverse transcriptase inhibitor tenofovir as part of first-line therapy. Although tenofovir has demonstrated efficacy, low pill burden, and a favorable safety profile , dose adjustments are needed to prevent chronic renal failure when creatinine clearance drops below 50 ml/min [37–39]. In our analysis, approximately 5% of patients would have required tenofovir dose adjustments if the drug had been used at the time of ART initiation. Nearly 30% would have benefited from serial creatinine monitoring following initiation of tenofovir-based ART due to mild-to-moderate baseline impairment (i.e. creatinine clearance of 50–89 ml/min). These considerations should probably be included in future cost–benefit analyses of tenofovir use in resource-limited settings. Although a strategy of routine screening will increase costs in resource-constrained settings, this must be balanced against the risk of iatrogenic renal failure. Similar concerns should be raised for other routinely used drugs with known renal toxicities, including antiretroviral (e.g. indinavir) or antimicrobial (e.g. aminoglycocides, trimethoprim–sulfamethoxazole) agents.
The prevalence of renal insufficiency varied significantly when measures other than Cockcroft–Gault-derived creatinine clearance were evaluated. Only 4% met criteria when serum creatinine was used alone; 12% met criteria when GFR was calculated by the MDRD formula. Both of these measures will likely require further validation in African settings, where malnutrition and lowered muscle mass might lead to lower measurements overall. Establishment of regionally appropriate screening cutoffs for renal insufficiency – particularly for serum creatinine  – could be useful in settings like Lusaka, where the majority of HIV care is provided by nonphysician clinicians [13,14].
One limitation of this analysis was the high proportion of individuals with missing serum creatinine results: nearly 30% of patients initiating ART did not have a recorded baseline value. The reasons for this are varied, but mostly relate to the rapid nature of service scale-up in already busy primary care clinics (e.g. patient refusals, insufficient samples, lost laboratory results, oversight by health provider). As the populations with and without serum creatinine appeared comparable according to important demographic characteristics and mortality risk factors, we believe the effect of ascertainment bias is likely small. Another limitation was the lack of detailed information regarding possible causes of renal insufficiency. Due to prohibitive cost and limited availability, access to histological diagnoses through renal biopsy is out of reach for most individuals seeking care in the Lusaka public sector. Routine urinalysis is not a standard practice at most sites; information regarding acute and chronic medical comorbidities is not routinely collected. Finally, information describing renal function over time could have provided greater insight into the relationship between baseline renal insufficiency and death; however, these data are not reliably collected in our setting. The impact of ART on long-term renal outcomes is another area requiring further study, particularly in settings in which screening modalities may be limited.
In summary, we observed higher risk for mortality among patients with renal insufficiency at time of ART initiation, even among individuals with mild renal disease. This finding was consistent across different measures of renal function and independent of other known predictors of mortality. Our results suggest that, wherever feasible, screening for renal function should be instituted as part of ART expansion programs, particularly when drugs with known nephrotoxicities have been incorporated into HIV treatment. Algorithms for more aggressive assessment and management of renal insufficiency should also be developed specifically for settings with limited diagnostic capabilities.
L.B.M., G.K. and B.H.C. developed the study concept, designed the analysis plan, interpreted the data, and wrote the manuscript. S.L., S.E.R., I.Z., E.M.S. and J.S.A.S. contributed to the study concept, interpreted the data, and provided critical revision of the manuscript for intellectual content. R.A.C. provided data management, conducted statistical analyses, and edited the manuscript. Z.K., A.M. and M.S.S. contributed to the data interpretation and provided critical revision of the manuscript for intellectual content. All authors approved the final version for submission.
The authors acknowledge the Zambian Ministry of Health for consistent and high-level support of operations research surrounding its national HIV care and treatment program. They thank Dr Sten Vermund for his thoughtful review of the manuscript. Investigator and trainee support was provided by the National Institutes of Health (K23 AI01411, K01 TW05708, K01 TW06670 D43-TW001035), the University of Alabama at Birmingham Center for AIDS Research (P30 AI27767-20), and the Doris Duke Clinical Scientist Development Award (2007061). The clinical program described in this manuscript was supported by a multicountry grant to the Elizabeth Glaser Pediatric AIDS Foundation from the US Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (U62/CCU12354). Data monitoring and quality improvement was supported in part by a Doris Duke Charitable Foundation grant for Operations Research for AIDS Care and Treatment in Africa (2005047).
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© 2008 Lippincott Williams & Wilkins, Inc.
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