Epidemiology and Social
Decreased bone mineral density and increased fracture risk in aging men with or at risk for HIV infection
Arnsten, Julia Ha,b,c; Freeman, Rutha,d; Howard, Andrea Aa,b; Floris-Moore, Michellea,b; Lo, Yungtaib; Klein, Robert Sa,b
From the aDepartments of Medicine, USA.
bEpidemiology & Population Health, USA.
cPsychiatry & Behavioral Sciences, USA.
dObstetrics & Gynecology, Albert Einstein College of Medicine, Montefiore Medical Center, Bronx, New York, New York, USA.
Received 16 August, 2006
Revised 30 September, 2006
Accepted 23 November, 2006
Correspondence to Julia H. Arnsten, MD, MPH, Montefiore Medical Center, 111 East 210th Street, Bronx, New York, NY 10467, USA. E-mail: email@example.com
Background: Osteopenia has been described in HIV-infected persons, but most studies have not focused on aging men, have not included an HIV-negative comparison group with similar risks to those of the HIV-infected men, or lacked data on fracture rates.
Methods: We analyzed bone mineral density (BMD) and incident fractures in 559 men who were ≥ 49 years old with or at-risk for HIV, including 328 with and 231 without HIV infection.
Results: Median age was 55 years, 56% were black and 89% had used illicit drugs. In unadjusted analysis, BMD was lower in HIV-infected compared with HIV-uninfected men at the femoral neck (0.97 ± 0.14 versus 1.00 ± 0.15 g/cm2; P < 0.05) and lumbar spine (1.17 ± 0.20 versus 1.20 ± 0.21 g/cm2; P = 0.06); both differences were significant (P < 0.05) after adjusting for age, weight, race, testosterone level, and prednisone and illicit drug use. Non-black race and body weight were independently associated with BMD at both measurement sites and methadone therapy was independently associated with spine BMD. Among HIV-infected men, 87% had taken antiretrovirals and 74% had taken protease inhibitors, but their use was not associated with BMD. Among men who had at least one subsequent study visit (94%), incident fracture rates per 100 person-years differed among men with normal BMD, osteopenia and osteoporosis (1.4 versus 3.6 versus 6.5; P < 0.01). A 38% increase in fracture rate among HIV-infected men was not statistically significant.
Conclusions: HIV infection is independently associated with modestly reduced BMD in aging men, and decreased BMD is associated with increased fracture risk.
Broad use of highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART) has decreased HIV-associated mortality, but because mortality is declining while incidence is remaining stable, a greater number of older adults are living with HIV infection. These trends suggest that increasing numbers of persons with HIV will experience the sequelae of aging, including osteoporosis and fractures.
Osteoporotic fractures are associated with significant morbidity. Whereas bone mass is largely genetically determined, certain life-style and hormonal factors that are prevalent among HIV-infected persons are associated with low peak bone mass and disordered bone metabolism [1,2]. These include physical inactivity , decreased intake of calcium and vitamin D , cigarette smoking [5–7], alcohol use, depression [8–10], opiate use  and low testosterone levels [12,13]. Increased levels of pro-inflammatory cytokines associated with HIV infection, including interleukin-1, interleukin-6 and tumor necrosis factor, may also contribute directly to accelerated bone loss .
Several studies have reported an increased prevalence of reduced bone mineral density (BMD) among HIV-infected persons [14–21]. Although an association between reduced BMD and protease inhibitor therapy has been suggested , a number of studies have not confirmed this association [17,19,20,22–26] or have suggested that other antiretrovirals such as tenofovir may be important etiologic agents . Other risk factors for osteoporosis, such as low body weight, physical inactivity, cigarette smoking and opiate use, may be particularly prevalent in HIV-infected persons . HIV infection may also affect lean body mass , which may alter the effects of body composition on BMD . To date, most studies of bone density in HIV-infected men have focused on younger men, have lacked an HIV-negative comparison group with similar drug-using and other behaviors to those of HIV-infected men, or have lacked follow-up data to assess incident osteoporotic fractures.
The objective of this study was to determine the associations of HIV infection, HAART and other lifestyle factors, with BMD and incident bone fractures in a cohort of aging men with or at risk for HIV infection.
We studied BMD in 559 participants from the Cohort of HIV at-risk Aging Men's Prospective Study (CHAMPS), an ongoing longitudinal study of selected medical outcomes in men at least 49 years old with or at risk for HIV. Participant recruitment and study design have been described previously . In brief, between August 2002 and December 2003 community-dwelling men aged 49 or older who either had documented HIV infection or were at risk for HIV through injection drug use or high-risk sexual behavior were enrolled in this prospective cohort study. Participants attended semi-annual research visits, which included a standardized interview, blood collection for HIV serology, T-lymphocyte subsets, serum testosterone levels, and weight and height measurements. The CHAMPS study was approved by the Institutional Review Boards of Montefiore Medical Center and Albert Einstein College of Medicine, and all participants provided written informed consent.
Interview data included sociodemographic characteristics, medical history including fractures, antiretroviral and other medication use, exercise habits, drug (tobacco, heroin and cocaine) and alcohol use and substance abuse treatment. For antiretroviral therapy use, we collected self-reported data about the total duration of any antiretroviral use, and about the total duration of protease inhibitor use. Regular exercise was defined as moderate or strenuous exercise for at least 20 min on one or more days per week.
Bone mineral density
The BMD of the femoral neck, lumbar spine (L2–L4) and total body were measured by dual X-ray absorptiometry (DEXA) using a GE Lunar Prodigy densitometer with version 6.8 software (Madison, Wisconsin, USA). The DEXA scans were performed a median of 3 days (range, 0–18 days) after the baseline interview. Osteopenia was defined as a T-score > 1.0 SD and ≤ 2.5 SD below the average peak bone mass in young adult men, and osteoporosis was defined as a T-score > 2.50 SD below the young adult mean.
Men who had at least one interview following their DEXA scan during the period 2002–2006 were included in our analysis of fracture risk. Time to first incident fracture was censored at loss to follow up or final study visit. Fracture incidence rates were calculated per 100 person-years of follow-up and the factors associated with the occurrence of fractures were analyzed.
Associations of BMD at the femoral neck and lumbar spine with sociodemographic characteristics, drug and alcohol use, and clinical variables, including HIV serostatus and HAART use, were determined using Student's t-tests and Pearson's correlation coefficients for normally distributed data. P-values were corrected for multiple comparisons using the Bonferroni method. Factors independently associated with BMD were assessed using linear regression models, including in the model all factors with P < 0.2 in univariate analysis. Separate regression models were constructed for the whole study population and for the HIV-infected men only. As there were unequal proportions of lean/normal weight men in the HIV-infected and uninfected groups, we constructed additional multivariate linear regression models stratified by body mass index (BMI) as lean/normal versus overweight/obese. Multivariate Cox proportional hazards models were used to determine independent risk factors for incident fractures.
The characteristics of the participant are listed in Table 1. Of the 559 participants, 59% were HIV-infected. In comparison with HIV-uninfected men, the HIV-infected men were younger, more likely to be unemployed, and less likely to be current smokers, to have hypertension, or to be overweight or obese. The HIV-infected men were also less likely to have recently used heroin or cocaine, or to be treated with methadone. Among HIV-infected men, 53% had been diagnosed with HIV infection more than 10 years previously and 87% were antiretroviral experienced.
Known risk factors for low BMD were common among both HIV-infected and HIV-uninfected men; 90% were current or former cigarette smokers, 47% were in a methadone program, 30% had used heroin in the past 5 years, 52% exercised less than once per week and 54% had serum testosterone levels < 300 ng/dl. Low body weight was uncommon, with 59% of participants having BMI in the overweight or obese range (≥ 25 kg/m2). Among HIV-infected men, however, nearly one-half were in the lean/normal range (< 25 kg/m2). In unadjusted analyses, HIV-infected men had lower BMD and T-scores at both the femoral neck (P = 0.05) and lumbar spine (P = 0.06) than men without HIV infection (Table 1).
Factors associated with low bone mineral density
Factors associated in univariate analysis with lower BMD at both the femoral neck and lumbar spine were non-black (white or Hispanic) race (P < 0.001), lower body weight (P < 0.0001) and low testosterone (P < 0.05 for the femoral neck and P < 0.0001 for the lumbar spine). HIV infection was associated (P < 0.05) with lower BMD at the femoral neck, and marginally associated (P < 0.06) at the lumbar spine. Heroin use (P = 0.01), current methadone maintenance treatment (P < 0.001) and ever use of prednisone (P = 0.01) were associated with lower BMD at the lumbar spine only, and older age (P < 0.0001) and pack-years of cigarette smoking (P = 0.03) were associated at the femoral neck only. Current or former cigarette smoking, which were both highly prevalent in this cohort, were not associated with BMD at either site.
Independent associations with lower BMD are shown in Table 2. At both of the measurement sites, non-black race, lower body weight, HIV infection and low testosterone were associated with lower BMD. Older age was associated at the femoral neck only, and current methadone maintenance treatment was associated at the lumbar spine only.
Among HIV-infected men, lower BMD was associated with non-black race, lower body weight, low testosterone (at the lumbar spine only) and longer duration of HIV infection (at the lumbar spine only), but not with lower CD4 cell counts or duration of antiretroviral therapy or protease inhibitor use (Table 3). Substituting ever use of antiretroviral drugs or protease inhibitors for duration of therapy did not significantly alter these results.
Prevalence of osteopenia or osteoporosis
Among 559 participants, 299 (54%) had osteopenia or osteoporosis including 222 (40%) with osteopenia and 77 (14%) with osteoporosis. A higher prevalence of osteopenia or osteoporosis among HIV-infected men than HIV-uninfected men was not statistically significant (55 versus 51%; P = 0.4).
As body weight was strongly associated with BMD and there were unequal proportions of lean/normal weight men in the HIV-infected and uninfected groups, we calculated the prevalence of osteopenia or osteoporosis in lean/normal weight and overweight/obese men separately; 139 lean/normal weight men (61%) and 160 overweight/obese men (48%) had osteopenia or osteoporosis of the femoral neck or lumbar spine. We then constructed unique models for the femoral neck and lumbar spine for each of these two BMI strata, including the same variables as in the combined models. Among lean/normal weight men, factors independently associated with osteopenia or osteoporosis of the femoral neck were age (β = 0.004 per year; P = 0.03), non-Black race (β = 0.06; P < 0.01), weight (β = −0.004 per kg; P < 0.001) and HIV infection (β = 0.04; P = 0.03). Factors independently associated with osteopenia or osteoporosis of the lumbar spine were only non-black race (β = 0.09; P < 0.001) and weight (β = −0.008 per kg; P < 0.0001).
In contrast, in the models including only overweight/obese men, HIV infection was not associated with osteopenia or osteoporosis at either site. Among overweight/obese men, factors independently associated with femoral neck osteopenia or osteoporosis were age (β = 0.004 per year; P = 0.02), non-Black race (β = 0.08; P < 0.0001), weight (β = −0.002 per kg; P < 0.001) and low testosterone (β = 0.05; P < 0.01) and factors independently associated with lumbar spine osteopenia or osteoporosis were non-black race (β = 0.06; P = 0.02), low testosterone level (β = 0.06; P < 0.01) and ever use of prednisone (β = 0.11; P = 0.05).
A total of 317 (97%) HIV-infected men and 209 (90%) HIV-uninfected men had at least one interview following their DEXA scan during 1140 person-years of follow-up. Among HIV-infected men, there were 21 incident fractures during 686 person-years of follow-up (3.1/100 person-years), compared with 12 incident fractures during 453 person-years of follow-up among HIV-uninfected men (2.6/100 person-years; P = 0.69). Fracture incidence rates per 100 person-years were 1.4 for men with normal BMD, 3.6 for men with osteopenia and 6.5 for men with osteoporosis (P < 0.01).
Factors associated with incident fractures are shown in Table 4. After adjusting for age, BMI, HIV infection and presence of osteopenia or osteoporosis on baseline DEXA, black men were significantly less likely to report a fracture than non-black men. Although there was an increased hazard of 38% for HIV-infected men, this did not represent a statistically significant increase in fracture risk. Men with osteopenia or osteoporosis had nearly triple the risk for fracture compared with men with normal BMD. Replacing low BMD in the model by osteopenia and osteoporosis as separate variables, there was a progressively increasing hazard ratio with more severe BMD loss. In comparison with men with normal BMD, the adjusted hazard ratio was 2.6 (95% confidence interval, 0.99–6.7; P = 0.05) for men with osteopenia and 4.0 (95% confidence interval, 1.3–11.9; P = 0.01) for men with osteoporosis.
A majority of the men in their sixth decade of life had low bone mineral density, with lower levels among HIV-infected men than uninfected men with similar risk behaviors. After adjustment for other risk factors, the effect of HIV infection was statistically significant but modest. HIV infection also increased fracture risk by approximately one-third, but this finding was not significant. It is not clear whether an effect of HIV infection on BMD might become more pronounced as men reach even older ages, or whether the increased risk of fracture due to HIV would be significant with longer follow-up or a larger sample size.
Neither any antiretroviral therapy nor protease inhibitor therapy were associated with BMD among HIV-infected men. Other factors independently associated with BMD (older age, non-black race, lower body weight and low testosterone) are generally well-known risk factors for osteopenia. The prevalence of osteopenia and osteoporosis in this cohort was slightly higher among HIV-infected than uninfected men (55 versus 51%), but similar to national estimates among white men aged 50 years and older . However, the proportion of men with osteoporosis was substantially higher in this study (14%; 95% confidence interval 0.11–0.17) than in the general population. Previous studies among mostly younger male and female patients with HIV disease have estimated the prevalence of low BMD at 39 to 76% (33 to 65% with osteopenia and 6 to 16% with osteoporosis), [16,17,19,21,32] consistent with our findings among older HIV-infected and uninfected men.
Previous studies of BMD in HIV-infected cohorts have included primarily subjects with lean or normal body mass [15,17,19,21]. In this study, among the 52% of HIV-infected and 70% of HIV-uninfected men who were overweight or obese, HIV infection was not associated with BMD. This suggests that increased BMI, previously associated with slower HIV disease progression [33,34], may also lessen the effect of HIV infection on BMD. As the association between HIV infection and BMD was much stronger in lean/normal weight than overweight/obese men, it further suggests that this association is not confounded by low body weight among the HIV-infected men.
Our findings also highlight the important problem of obesity among HIV-infected and drug-using men. Although HIV infection pre-HAART was characterized by wasting, advances in treatment may now be contributing to increasing obesity among HIV-infected persons in this country. Excess weight may be desirable for some HIV-infected men, suggesting a healthy immune system. Obesity may also mask opiate or cocaine addiction, which are frequently associated with weight loss. Among obese HIV-infected and drug-using men, weight loss may not be a priority for patients or their health care providers.
The independent association between HIV infection and BMD suggests that HIV may exert a direct effect on bone metabolism. Hormones, cytokines and body composition contribute to low BMD in HIV-infected women and men [15–17,19,21] Hypogonadally-mediated alterations of bone metabolism may lead to increased bone resorption, while pro-inflammatory cytokines (e.g. interleukin-1, interleukin-6, tumor necrosis factor) act to increase bone resorption and decrease bone formation. We did not assess biochemical markers of bone turnover or cytokines to explain mechanistically how HIV infection might adversely affect BMD. Previous smaller cross-sectional studies have noted an association between increased visceral adiposity and reduced bone density, independent of BMI [15,25], but prospective studies are needed to better describe the relationship between HIV-associated changes in body composition and BMD.
An independent association of current methadone therapy with reduced BMD of the lumbar spine in men has not previously been reported. Opiate use has been associated with central hypogonadism, leading to low BMD through reduced levels of circulating luteinizing hormone, estrogen and testosterone . However, studies demonstrating this association have been small and not controlled for confounding variables, such as body weight and comorbid illness. Further research is needed to determine whether HIV-infected men on methadone are at particular risk for osteopenia or osteoporosis.
The advantages of this study include the large and ethnically diverse cohort, enrollment of aging men, an HIV-negative comparison group with similar risk behaviors to those of HIV-infected men and follow-up for incident fractures. Smaller studies enrolling primarily younger men also demonstrate low BMD, but have not recruited simultaneous controls with similar drug-use behaviors. Our study, because it included both HIV-infected and HIV-uninfected men with similar risk behaviors, permitted identification of HIV infection as a risk factor for low BMD after controlling for lifestyle variables.
The study limitations include a cross-sectional design, which precludes the assessment of causal relationships between BMD, HIV infection and opiate use. The absence of biochemical or cytokine levels also precludes conclusions about the mechanism underlying observed associations. Abdominal visceral fat was not measured to determine its relationship to BMD. Finally, although HIV infection was associated with a 38% increase in fracture rate after adjustment for low BMD, this finding was not statistically significant. Further study is necessary to determine whether HIV infection affects fracture rates after adjustment for low BMD.
In conclusion, among aging HIV-infected men, low BMD was common and HIV infection was significantly associated with modestly lower BMD after adjusting for body weight. Non-black HIV-infected men with lower BMI may be at particular risk for osteopenia or osteoporosis. Among older men with or at risk for HIV infection, decreased BMD is associated with increased fracture risk.
We thank Goli Adel, BS and Nanette Santoro, MD for performing the hormonal assays, and all the participants who gave their time.
Sponsorship: This study was supported by the National Institute on Drug Abuse (R01 DA14998), and a Center for AIDS Research grant (P30 AI51519) awarded to the Albert Einstein College of Medicine of Yeshiva University from the National Institutes of Health.
1. Slemenda C, Hui SL, Longcope C, Johnson CC. Sex steroids and bone mass: A study of changes about the time of menopause. J Clin Invest 1987; 80:1261–1269.
2. Manolagas SC, Jilka RL. Mechanisms of disease: Bone marrow, cytokines, and bone remodeling – emerging insights into the pathophysiology of osteoporosis. N Engl J Med 1995; 332:305–311.
3. Cummings SR, Kelsey JL, Nevitt MC, O'Dowd KJ. Epidemiology of osteoporosis and osteoporotic fractures. Epidemiol Rev 1985; 7:178–208.
4. Rizzoli R, Bonjour JP. Determinants of peak bone mass and mechanisms of bone loss. Osteoporosis Intl 1999; 9(Suppl 2):S17–S23.
5. Law MR, Hackshaw AK. A meta-analysis of cigarette smoking, bone mineral density and risk of hip fracture: recognition of a major effect. BMJ 1997; 315:841–846.
6. Willett W, Stampfer MJ, Bain C, Lipnick R, Speizer FE, Rosner B, et al
. Cigarette smoking, relative weight, and menopause. Am J Epidemiol 1983; 117:651–658.
7. Michnovicz JJ, Naganuma H, Hershcopf RJ, Bradlow HL, Fishman J. Increased urinary catechol estrogen excretion in female smokers. Steroids 1998; 52:69–83.
8. Schweiger U, Deuschle M, Korner A, Lammers CH, Schmider J, Gotthardt U, et al
. Low lumbar bone mineral density in patients with major depression. Am J Psychiatry 1994; 151:1691–1693.
9. Avis NE, Brambilla D, McKinlay SM, Vass K. A longitudinal analysis of the association between menopause and depression. Results from the Massachusetts Women's Health Study. Ann Epidemiol 1994; 4:214–220.
10. Michelson D, Stratakis C, Hill L, Reynolds J, Galliven E, Chrousos G, et al
. Bone mineral density in women with depression. N Engl J Med 1996; 335:1176–1181.
11. Cooper OB, Brown TT, Dobs AS. Opiate drug use: a potential contributor to the endocrine and metabolic complications in human immunodeficiency virus disease. Clin Infect Dis 2003; 37(suppl 2):S132–S136.
12. Grinspoon S, Corcoran C, Miller K, Biller BMK, Askari H, Wang E, et al
. Body composition and endocrine function in women with acquired immunodeficiency syndrome wasting. J Clin Endocrinol Metab 1997; 82:1332–1337.
13. Cofrancesco J Jr, Whalen JJ III, Dobs AS. Testosterone replacement treatment options for HIV-infected men. J Acquir Immune Defic Syndr Hum Retrovirol 1997; 16:254–265.
14. Loiseau-Peres S, Delaunay C, Poupon S, Lespessailles E, Ballouche N, Arsac P, et al
. Osteopenia in patients infected by the human immunodeficiency virus. A case control study. Joint Bone Spine 2002; 69:482–485.
15. Brown TT, Ruppe MD, Kassner R, Kumar P, Kehoe T, Dobs AS, et al
. Reduced bone mineral density in human immunodeficiency virus-infected patients and its association with increased central adiposity and post-load hyperglycemia. J Clin Endocrinol Metab 2004; 89:1200–1206.
16. Vescini F, Borderi M, Buffa A, Sinicropi G, Tampellini L, Chiodo F, et al
. Bone mass in HIV-infected patients: focus on the role of therapy and sex. J Acquir Immune Defic Syndr 2003; 33:405–407.
17. Amiel C, Ostertag A, Slama L, Baudoin C, N'Guyen T, Lajeunie E, et al
. BMD is reduced in HIV-infected men irrespective of treatment. J Bone Miner Res 2004; 19:402–409.
18. Moore AL, Vashisht A, Sabin CA, Mocroft A, Madge S, Phillips AN, et al
. Reduced bone mineral density in HIV-positive individuals. AIDS 2001; 15:1731–1733.
19. Bruera D, Luna N, David DO, Bergoglio LM, Zamudio J. Decreased bone mineral density in HIV-infected patients is independent of antiretroviral therapy. AIDS 2003; 17:1917–1923.
20. Landonio S, Quirino T, Bonfanti P, Gabris A, Boccassini L, Gulisano C, et al
. Osteopenia and osteoporosis in HIV+ patients, untreated or receiving HAART. Biomed Pharmacother 2004; 58:505–508.
21. Dolan SE, Huang JS, Killilea KM, Sullivan MP, Aliabadi N, Grinspoon S. Reduced bone density in HIV-infected women. AIDS 2004; 18:475–483.
22. Tebas P, Powderly WG, Claxton S, Marin D, Tantisiriwat W, Teitelbaum SL, et al
. Accelerated bone mineral loss in HIV-infected patients receiving potent antiretroviral therapy. AIDS 2000; 14:F63–F67.
23. Knobel H, Guelar A, Vallecillo G, Nogues X, Diez A. Osteopenia in HIV-infected patients: is it the disease or is it the treatment? AIDS 2001; 15:807–808.
24. Nolan D, Upton R, McKinnon E, John M, James I, Adler B, et al
. Stable or increasing bone mineral density in HIV-infected patients treated with nelfinavir or indinavir. AIDS 2001; 15:1275–1280.
25. Huang JS, Rietschel P, Hadigan CM, Rosenthal DI, Grinspoon S. Increased abdominal visceral fat is associated with reduced bone density in HIV-infected men with lipodystrophy. AIDS 2001; 15:975–982.
26. Mondy K, Yarasheski K, Powderly WG, Whyte M, Claxton S, DeMarco D, et al
. Longitudinal evolution of bone mineral density and bone markers in human immunodeficiency virus-infected individuals. Clin Inf Dis 2003; 36:482–490.
27. Gallant JE, Staszewski S, Pozniak AL, DeJesus E, Suleiman JM, Miller MD, et al
. Efficacy and safety of tenofovir DF vs stavudine in combination therapy in antiretroviral-naive patients: a 3-year randomized trial. JAMA 2004; 292:191–201.
28. Salomon J, de Truchis P, Melchior JC. Body composition and nutritional parameters in HIV and AIDS patients. Clin Chem Lab Med 2002; 40:1329–1333.
29. Taaffe DR, Cauley JA, Danielson M, Nevitt MC, Lang TF, Bauer DC, et al
. Race and sex effects on the association between muscle strength, soft tissue, and bone mineral density in healthy elders: the health, aging, and body composition study. J Bone Miner Res 2001; 16:1343–1352.
30. Klein RS, Lo Y, Santoro N, Dobs AS. Androgen levels in older men who have or who are at risk of acquiring HIV infection. Clin Infect Dis 2005; 41:1794–1803.
31. Looker AC, Johnston CC Jr, Wahner HW, Dunn WL, Calvo MS, Harris TB, et al
. Prevalence of low femoral bone density in older U.S. women from NHANES III. J Bone Miner Res 1995; 10:796–802.
32. Teichmann J, Stephan E, Lange U, Discher T, Friese G, Lohmeyer J, et al
. Osteopenia in HIV-infected women prior to highly active antiretroviral therapy. J Infect 2003; 46:221–227.
33. Shuter J, Chang CJ, Klein RS. Prevalence and predictive value of overweight in an urban HIV care clinic. J Acquir Immune Defic Syndr 2001; 26:291–297.
34. Jones CY, Hogan JW, Snyder B, Klein RS, Rompalo A, Schuman P, et al
. Overweight and human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) progression in women: associations in HIV disease progression and changes in body mass index in women in the HIV epidemiology research study cohort. Clin Infect Dis 2003; 37(Suppl 2):S69–S80.
This article has been cited 33 time(s).
Journal of Korean Medical SciencePrevalence and Risk Factors of Low Bone Mineral Density in Korean HIV-Infected Patients: Impact of Abacavir and ZidovudineJournal of Korean Medical Science
Mucosal ImmunologyMucosal immunity in human and simian immunodeficiency lentivirus infectionsMucosal Immunology
Injury-International Journal of the Care of the InjuredFracture union following internal fixation in the HIV populationInjury-International Journal of the Care of the Injured
Calcified Tissue InternationalTrabecular and Cortical Microarchitecture in Postmenopausal HIV-Infected WomenCalcified Tissue International
Future VirologyImpact of age on markers of HIV-1 diseaseFuture Virology
Clinical Infectious DiseasesPhysiologic Frailty and Fragility Fracture in HIV-Infected Male VeteransClinical Infectious Diseases
Journal of Bone and Mineral ResearchHIV infection is strongly associated with hip fracture risk, independently of age, gender, and comorbidities: A population-based cohort studyJournal of Bone and Mineral Research
Journal of Bone and Mineral ResearchInterruption or deferral of antiretroviral therapy reduces markers of bone turnover compared with continuous therapy: The SMART body composition substudyJournal of Bone and Mineral Research
European Review for Medical and Pharmacological Sciences
Vitamin D deficiency in HIV infection: an underestimated and undertreated epidemic
European Review for Medical and Pharmacological Sciences, 17(9):
Current Opinion in Infectious DiseasesHIV and bone mineral densityCurrent Opinion in Infectious Diseases
AIDSMetabolic bone disease in HIV infectionAIDS
HIV MedicineAbnormal thyroid function in older men with or at risk for HIV infectionHIV Medicine
Journal of Infectious DiseasesLow Bone Mineral Density, Renal Dysfunction, and Fracture Risk in HIV Infection: A Cross-Sectional StudyJournal of Infectious Diseases
Journal of Clinical Endocrinology & MetabolismLow body weight mediates the relationship between HIV infection and low bone mineral density: A meta-analysisJournal of Clinical Endocrinology & Metabolism
Journal of Antimicrobial ChemotherapyUnmet therapeutic needs in the new era of combination antiretroviral therapy for HIV-1Journal of Antimicrobial Chemotherapy
Bone alterations during HIV infection
New Microbiologica, 31(2):
RheumatologyRheumatic conditions in human immunodeficiency virus infectionRheumatology
Journal of Bone and Joint Surgery-British VolumeFracture healing in HIV-positive populationsJournal of Bone and Joint Surgery-British Volume
British Medical BulletinBone health in HIV infectionBritish Medical Bulletin
Osteoporosis InternationalRisk factors for decreased bone density and effects of HIV on bone in the elderlyOsteoporosis International
Journal of Clinical Endocrinology & MetabolismFracture prevalence among human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-infected versus non-HIV-infected patients in a large US healthcare systemJournal of Clinical Endocrinology & Metabolism
American Journal of PathologyWNT/beta-Catenin Signaling Is Involved in Regulation of Osteoclast Differentiation by Human Immunodeficiency Virus Protease Inhibitor Ritonavir Relationship to Human Immunodeficiency Virus-Linked Bone Mineral LossAmerican Journal of Pathology
Metabolic Syndrome and Related DisordersHuman Immunodeficiency Virus and Highly Active Antiretroviral Therapy-Associated Metabolic Disorders and Risk Factors for Cardiovascular DiseaseMetabolic Syndrome and Related Disorders
Journal of Gerontological NursingSuccessful Aging with HIV A Brief Overview for NursingJournal of Gerontological Nursing
Annals of PharmacotherapyValid treatment options for osteoporosis and osteopenia in HIV-infected personsAnnals of Pharmacotherapy
American Journal of MedicineThe Older HIV-Positive Adult: A Critical Review of the Medical LiteratureAmerican Journal of Medicine
Wiener Klinische WochenschriftPrevalence and risk factors for osteopenia/osteoporosis in an HIV-infected male populationWiener Klinische Wochenschrift
Annals of Emergency MedicineCare of the HIV-positive patient in the emergency department in the era of highly active antiretroviral therapyAnnals of Emergency Medicine
Journal of Clinical Endocrinology & MetabolismLow Bone Mass and High Bone Turnover in Postmenopausal Human Immunodeficiency Virus-Infected WomenJournal of Clinical Endocrinology & Metabolism
British Medical JournalHIV infection, antiretroviral treatment, ageing, and non-AIDS related morbidityBritish Medical Journal
osteopenia; osteoporosis; bone mineral density; bone fractures; antiretroviral therapy; opiate dependence
© 2007 Lippincott Williams & Wilkins, Inc.
What does "Remember me" mean?
By checking this box, you'll stay logged in until you logout. You'll get easier access to your articles, collections,
media, and all your other content, even if you close your browser or shut down your
To protect your most sensitive data and activities (like changing your password),
we'll ask you to re-enter your password when you access these services.
What if I'm on a computer that I share with others?
If you're using a public computer or you share this computer with others, we recommend
that you uncheck the "Remember me" box.
Highlight selected keywords in the article text.
Data is temporarily unavailable. Please try again soon.