Epidemiology and Social: Concise Communication
Evidence of a previously undocumented epidemic of HIV infection among men who have sex with men in Bangkok, Thailand
van Griensven, Fritsa,b; Thanprasertsuk, Sombatc; Jommaroeng, Rapeepund,e; Mansergh, Gordonb; Naorat, Sathapanaa; Jenkins, Richard Ab; Ungchusak, Kamnuanc; Phanuphak, Praphand; Tappero, Jordan Wa,b; the Bangkok MSM Study Group
From the aThailand Ministry of Public Health-US Centers for Disease Control and Prevention Collaboration, Nonthaburi, Thailand
bCenters for Disease Control and Prevention, Atlanta, GA, USA
cMinistry of Public Health, Nonthaburi
dAIDS Research Centre, Thai Red Cross Society, Bangkok
eRainbow Sky Organization, Bangkok, Thailand.
Received 18 October, 2004
Revised 15 November, 2004
Accepted 16 December, 2004
Correspondence to Dr Frits van Griensven, Thailand MOPH – US CDC Collaboration, DDC 7 Building, Soi 4, Ministry of Public Health, Nonthaburi 11000, Thailand. E-mail: firstname.lastname@example.org
Background: The HIV prevalence and associated risk behaviours in Thai men who have sex with men (MSM) are unknown. This information is crucial to inform and implement targeted preventive interventions for this population.
Methods: A cross-sectional assessment, using venue–day–time sampling, was conducted. Participants were 1121 Thai men who were 18 years or older, were residents of Bangkok, and reported anal or oral sex with a man during the past 6 months. Oral fluid specimens were tested for HIV antibody. Demographic and behavioural data were collected using an interviewer-administered Palm based automated questionnaire.
Results: HIV prevalence was 17.3% (194 of 1121). Mean age was 26.9 years (median 25 years), and university education was completed by 42.5%. Sex with men and women during the past 6 months was reported by 22.3%; sex with a woman ever, 36%; and unprotected sexual intercourse during the past 3 months, 36.0%. Alcohol use during the past 3 months was common (73.7%); drug use was rare (2.5%). Multivariate logistic regression analyses showed lower education, recruitment from a park, self-identification as homosexual, receptive and insertive anal intercourse, more years since first anal intercourse, and more male sex partners to be significantly and independently associated with HIV prevalence.
Conclusions: HIV infection is common among MSM in Bangkok. HIV prevention programs are urgently needed to prevent further spread of HIV in this young and sexually active population.
Thailand has been widely recognized as an example of effective HIV control [1,2]. After HIV infection was found spreading rapidly among female sex workers and their clients in the early 1990s, the Thai government implemented its ‘100% condom use in commercial sex programme’ which successfully targeted these populations [3,4]. A few years later, HIV prevalence indicators in the general population started to fall, as indicated by the decline in prevalent HIV infection among military recruits from 4% in 1993 to 0.5% in 2001, and among pregnant women from 2.3% in 1995 to 1.2% in 2003 [5,6]. Consequently, the number of new HIV infections decreased from an estimated 143 000 cases in 1991 to 19 000 cases in 2003 .
Despite these successes, concern exists that HIV is spreading in other at-risk populations in Thailand, such as men who have sex with men (MSM). Research among young Thai males has shown varying percentages (3.3 to 16.0%) of men reporting same-sex experience and the number of MSM may therefore be large [8–12]. However, no sentinel HIV surveillance has been conducted for MSM and because of the stigmatized nature of homosexuality in Thailand, AIDS cases among MSM may be under-reported. Indeed, of the 236 099 AIDS cases reported up to March 2004, only 2280 (1%) were categorized as in homo- or bisexual men . Some sentinel HIV surveillance data are available for male sex workers and prevalence rates of up to 20% have been observed . However, these men mostly identify as heterosexual  and may not be representative of the spread of HIV among MSM. The only population-based data have come from studies of Royal Thai Army conscripts. These young men provide relatively representative samples of all but the most socially advantaged sectors of Thai society, but are constrained by their limited range of age. These studies have suggested an increased risk for HIV infection among men reporting male sex partners, particularly during the middle of the 1990s, but less so in more recent years, when injecting drug use became the main risk factor for HIV infection [9,12]. Therefore, in this assessment we aimed to assess the HIV prevalence and associated risk behaviours in a community-based sample of Thai MSM. These data are essential to inform preventive interventions, services, and research among MSM.
Venue–day–time sampling (VDTS) was used to access and recruit participants. VDTS establishes a set of venues where hard-to-reach populations congregate, from which individuals are sampled on various days of the week and times of the day . In brief, we used four distinct and consecutive phases: (1) venue identification and mapping; (2) counting of male venue attendees; (3) determination of eligibility and willingness to participate in the assessment among venue attendees; and (4) recruitment of participants. We identified and mapped 225 MSM venues in metropolitan Bangkok, of which 64 were excluded because they lacked proprietor support for the assessment, were considered too unsafe or logistically too difficult to access. To ensure that we recruited a community-based sample of native Thai MSM, a further 119 venues were excluded because they provided commercial sex services or were frequented by large numbers of foreign MSM. Of the 42 venues that were selected for enumeration of attendees, 18 were eliminated because few MSM attended them. Enumeration of eligibility and willingness to participate was conducted at 24 venues, of which 10 were eliminated due to ineligibility and unwillingness among venue attendees to participate, leaving 14 venues (six saunas, four parks and four bars) for our assessment. A detailed description of VDTS procedures applied in our assessment can be found elsewhere .
Between April and May 2003, trained peer-interviewers approached venue attendees to screen for eligibility and recruitment. Eligible participants were male, at least 18 years old, Thai citizens, residents of Bangkok, and had oral or anal sex with a man in the past 6 months. After verbal informed consent and pre-test counselling, participants completed a Palm-based (Model Palm 500; Palm, Inc., Milpitas, California, USA) interviewer-administered questionnaire about demographics and sexual and drug use behaviours. An oral fluid specimen was then collected for HIV testing (Orasure Salivary Collection Device; Epitope Inc, Beaverton, Oregon, USA). Participants received a soft-drink, a written copy of the informed consent script, HIV prevention materials, a bar-coded identification card for getting their HIV test results and post-test counselling, and 350 baht (US$ 8.50) for their time and costs of travel to the HIV testing clinic to collect their HIV test results. The interviews and oral specimens were linked through the bar code, but data collection was otherwise anonymous.
Of the 1243 men who were screened, 1121 (90.2%) were enrolled and completed the assessment; 79 (6.4%) did not meet eligibility criteria, 35 (2.8%) were eligible but unwilling to participate, and 8 (0.6%) did not complete the interview. Accrual rates did not significantly vary by venue type or location. The assessment protocol was determined to be a surveillance activity by the US Centers for Disease Control and Prevention which, consequently, did not require an IRB review. It was reviewed and approved by the Research in Human Subjects Committee of the Thailand Ministry of Public Health.
Specimens were tested for HIV antibodies with an enzyme immunoassay test for oral fluids (Oral Fluid Vironostika HIV Microelisa System; Organon Teknika Corporation, Durham, North Carolina, USA). Specimens testing positive were retested using enzyme immunoassay and confirmed with Western blot (Orasure HIV-1 Western Blot; Organon Teknika Corporation). A specimen was considered HIV-positive if it reacted in two out of the three tests. Testing of oral fluid for the detection of HIV antibodies has shown results similar to the testing of serum, with a sensitivity and specificity of 99.8 to 100% [18,19].
Risk factors for HIV prevalence were analyzed by allowing independent variables with bivariate P-values of 0.1 or less to be further evaluated in generalized estimating equation logistic regression analysis, adjusting for clusters of venues and calendar dates using Stata (Version 8.1, 2003; Stata Corp., College Station, Texas, USA).
HIV prevalence and demographic and behavioural characteristics of participants
Of the 1121 participants 194 (17.3%) were HIV infected. The mean age of the overall sample was 26.9 years (median 25 years), 474 (42.5%) had completed university education, 548 (48.9%) lived with family and 423 (37.3%) were born in Bangkok (Table 1). During the 6 months prior to the assessment, 249 (22.3%) reported having had sex with both men and women; 404 (36.0%) reported having ever had sexual intercourse with a woman. Having ever had a steady sex partner was reported by 582 (51.9%), and having ever had one or more casual partners was reported by 838 (74.8%). Having had male, female, and transgender steady partners during the 3 months prior to the assessment was reported by 514 (45.9%), 106 (9.5%) and 15 (1.3%) participants, respectively. Having had male, female, and transgender casual partners during the previous 3 months was reported by 732 (65.3%), 93 (8.3%), and 21 (1.9%) participants, respectively. Having had unprotected sexual intercourse with steady or casual partners during the previous 3 months was reported by 404 (36.0%) participants. Alcohol consumption during the past 3 months was reported by 826 (73.7%), and any illegal drug use [methamphetamine, MDMA (ecstasy), ketamine, sedatives, marijuana or inhalants] during this period by 40 (3.6%); 145 (12.9%) reported having ever used any of these drugs. One participant reported having ever injected drugs. Of the 491 (43.8%) who ever had an HIV test, none reported themselves to be HIV infected. Sixty (5.4%) participants returned to get their HIV test results, of whom eight (13.3%) were HIV positive.
Bivariate and multivariate analyses of risk factors for prevalent HIV infection
Lower education, being born outside Bangkok, being recruited at a park (versus an entertainment venue), having sex with men only (versus having sex with men and women), self-identifying as homosexual or gay (versus bisexual, heterosexual or transgender), practicing both insertive and receptive intercourse (versus insertive or receptive only), having ever received money for sex, having ever had a genital sore or ulcer, being unwilling to reveal the result of a prior HIV test, being older, having more years since first anal intercourse, and having a higher number of lifetime male anal sex partners were significantly associated with increased HIV prevalence (Table 1).
In multivariate analyses, lower education, being recruited at a park, self-identifying as homosexual, practising both insertive and receptive anal intercourse, more years since first anal intercourse and having a higher number of lifetime male anal sex partners were significantly and independently associated with increased HIV prevalence (Table 1).
Our assessment shows that despite Thailand's remarkable success in controlling the HIV epidemic among the general population, the HIV prevalence among MSM was found to be surprisingly high. Although Thailand's status as an enlightened example of effective HIV control remains, the characterization of the epidemic in smaller population groups poses new challenges. The first step, to document the HIV prevalence among MSM, has now been completed. Next steps should include increased HIV/AIDS prevention services, creation of community awareness and support, mobilization of resources and political commitment and a research and surveillance infrastructure for MSM. The Thai government is now actively working with its partners to realize these steps.
The results of our assessment may be helpful in this respect. Consistent with research conducted in the Western world , anal intercourse and increased sexual activity were the main risk factors for HIV infection. Low levels of injection or other illegal drug use were found, suggesting that among Bangkok MSM, HIV is predominantly transmitted through sexual activity. However, some under-reporting of drug use may have been likely, probably as a consequence of the central government's ongoing law-enforcement and suppression of drug use and trafficking. Alcohol consumption appeared to be slightly protective against HIV infection in bivariate analysis and was not a significant factor in multivariate analyses. The lower background HIV prevalence in entertainment venues (where alcohol is typically consumed) in comparison with the HIV prevalence in parks and saunas may account for some of this counter-intuitive finding. Prevention activities should therefore focus on sexual behaviour, such as reduction of sex partners, increased condom use, and increasing awareness of risk associated with specific practices.
The significant proportion of men reporting sex with men and women can potentially spread HIV into the general population. Targeted efforts are needed to increase condom use in this group, as women may not be aware of the homosexual activities of their male partners.
Our findings reflect HIV prevalence and risk behaviour among sexually active MSM attending venues in Bangkok. Our sampled venues were not exhaustive and there may be other types of settings (e.g., internet, informal social networks) where risk may differ from what we observed. The risk for HIV infection may also differ for MSM in other areas of the country. However, our analysis suggests that the HIV prevalence among MSM from outside Bangkok may be lower. About two-thirds of our sample had migrated to Bangkok from other parts of the country, which was protective for HIV infection in bivariate analysis.
Given the overall HIV prevalence of 17.3% in our sample, it is remarkable that none of the 491 men who had a previous HIV test, reported to be HIV positive. Given the widespread stigmatization and discrimination against HIV-infected persons in Thailand, some men may have decided not to disclose their positive HIV status. Indeed, non-disclosure of HIV test results appeared to be significantly associated with prevalent HIV infection in our bivariate analysis. On the other hand, HIV testing without returning test results is common place in Thailand (military, health care settings, pre-employment screening) and some of our results may reflect this situation. However, for preventive purposes and because of the increasing availability of highly active antiretroviral therapy in Thailand, voluntary HIV counselling and testing for MSM needs to be increased.
The high HIV prevalence found among MSM in Thailand coincides with reports of previously undocumented epidemics of HIV infection among MSM in China, Cambodia, and Indonesia and of ongoing HIV transmission among MSM in the Western world [20–24]. The continuing spread of HIV among MSM highlights the urgent need for more effective behavioural and biomedical interventions to halt the spread of HIV infection in this population.
We thank the peer interviewers, volunteers, and leaders of the Rainbow Sky Organization of Thailand for their dedication and support; the personnel of the AIDS Research Centre and Anonymous Clinic of the Thai Red Cross Society; the staff of the Thailand MOPH – US CDC collaboration; and Drs Robert Janssen, Ida Onorato, Timothy Mastro, Alan Greenberg, Linda Valleroy, William Levine, Michael Martin, Janet McNicholl, Robert Linkins and Mrs. Lynne Stockton for their help with this assessment. We are greatly indebted to the owners and managers of the assessment venues and to the participants for their support.
1. Valdiserri RO, Ogden LL, McCray E. Accomplishments in HIV prevention science: implications for stemming the epidemic. Nature Med 2003; 9:881–886.
2. UNAIDS. HIV Prevention Needs and Successes: a Tale of Three Countries. An Update on the Prevention Success in Senegal,Thailand and Uganda
. Geneva: UNAIDS; 2001.
3. Weniger B, Limpakarnjanarat K, Ungchusak K, Thanprasertsuk S, Choopanya K, Vanichseni S, et al
. The epidemiology of HIV infection in Thailand. AIDS 1991; 5(suppl 2):S71–S85.
4. Hanenberg RS, Rojanapithayakorn W, Kunasol P, Sokal DC. Impact of Thailand's HIV-control programme as indicated by the decline of sexually transmitted diseases. Lancet 1994; 344:243–245.
5. Nelson KE, Celentano DD, Eiumtrakol S, Hoover DR, Beyrer C, Suprasert S, et al
. Changes in sexual behavior and a decline in HIV infection among young men in Thailand. N Engl J Med 1996; 335:297–303.
7. Ministry of Public Health. Thai Working Group on HIV/AIDS Projection. HIV/AIDS Projections for Thailand 2000–2020
Ministry of Public Health. Nonthaburi, Thailand: Ministry of Public Health; 2001.
8. London AS, VanLandingham MJ, Grandjean N. Socio-demographic correlates, HIV/AIDS related cofactors, and measures of same-sex sexual behavior among Northern Thai male soldiers
. Health Trans Rev
9. Beyrer C, Eiumtrakul S, Celentano DD, Nelson KE, Ruckphaopunt S, Khamboonruang C. Same-sex behavior, sexually transmitted diseases and HIV risks among young northern Thai men. AIDS 1995; 9:171–176.
10. Kitsiripornchai S, Markowitz LE, Ungchusak K, Jenkins RA, Leucha W, Limpataks T, et al
. Sexual behavior of young men in Thailand: Regional differences and evidence of behavior change. J Acquir Immune Defic Syndr & Human Retrovirol 1998; 18:282–288.
11. Jenkins RA, Mason CJ, Torugsa K, et al
. Dynamics of HIV risk behavior among young Thai men. AIDS & Behavior 1999:335–346.
12. Nelson KE, Eiumtrakul S, Celentano DD, Beyrer C, Galai N, Khamboonruang C. HIV infection in young men in northern Thailand, 1991–98: Increasing role of injection drug use. J Acquir Immune Defic Syndr & Human Retrovirol 2002; 29:62–68.
13. Ministry of Public Health, Division of Epidemiology, Thailand. Reported AIDS Cases by Transmission Category, 1984–2003. Nonthaburi, 2003
. (Accessed at July 30, 2004 at http://epid.moph.gp.th/epi31.html
14. Ministry of Public Health, Division of Epidemiology, Thailand. HIV Sero-surveillance in Thailand: Result of the 21st Round, June 2003
. Nonthaburi, Thailand: Ministry of Public Health; 2004.
15. Kunawararak P, Beyrer C, Nartpratan C, Feng W, Celentano DD, de Boer M, et al
. The epidemiology of HIV and syphilis among male commercial sex workers in northern Thailand. AIDS 1995; 9:517–521.
16. MacKellar D, Valleroy L, Karon J, Lemp G, Janssen R. The Young Men's Survey: Methods for estimating HIV seroprevalence and risk factors among young men who have sex with men. Public Health Rep 1996; 111(suppl 1):138–144.
17. Mansergh G, Naorat S, Jommaroeng R, Jenkins RA, Jeeyapant S, Rujijanakul W, et al
. Adaptation of Venue-Day-Time Sampling in Southeast Asia to access men who have sex with men for HIV assessment in Bangkok Field Methods
18. Gallo D, George JR, Fitchen JH, Goldstein AS, Hindahl MS. Evaluation of a system using oral mucosal transudate for HIV antibody screening and confirmatory testing. OraSure HIV Clinical Trials Group. JAMA 1997; 277:254–258.
19. Nookai S, Sinthuwattanwibool C, Phanuphak P, George JR. Evaluation of a rapid HIV 1/2 antibody assay that tests either oral fluid, whole blood or serum plasma
. XIIIth International Conference
, Durban, South Africa, July 2000 [abstract MoPeA2096].
20. Caceres C, van Griensven GJP. Editorial review: The male homosexual transmission of the human immunodeficiency virus. AIDS 1994; 8:1051–1061.
21. Choi KH, Lui H, Guo Y, Han L, Mandel JS, Rutherford G. Emerging HIV epidemic in China in men who have sex with men. Lancet 2003; 361:2125–2126.
22. Girault P, Saidel T, Song N, et al
. HIV, STIs and sexual behaviors among men who have sex with men in Phnom Penh, Cambodia. AIDS Educ & Prev 2004; 6:31–44.
23. Pisani, E, Girault P, Gultom M, et al
. HIV, syphilis infection and sexual practices among transgenders, male sex workers and other men who have sex with men in Jakarta, Indonesia
. Sex Transm Inf
24. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. Trends in primary and secondary syphilis and HIV infections in men who have sex with men – San Francisco and Los Angeles, California, 1998–2002
. Morb Mortal Wkly Rep
The Bangkok MSM Study Group: Collaborators
Thailand Ministry of Public Health – US Centers for Disease Control and Prevention Collaboration: Thanyanan Chaowanachan, Supaporn Jeeyapant, Samart Karuchit, Philip A Mock, Wiroj Rujijanakul, Chalinthorn Sinthuwattanawibool, Taweesap Siraprapasiri, Anchalee Varangrat; Punneporn Wasinrapee; Rainbow Sky Association of Thailand: Adisak Jamratlak, Somporn Hongwiangchan, Kamolset Kanggarnrua, Witsanupan Welachoom; Thai Red Cross Society: Somboon Nookai, Somsri Tantipaiboonwut, Usa Tissayakorn; US Centers for Disease Control and Prevention: Ronald A Stall, William Levine; Thailand Ministry of Public Health: Anupong Chitwarakorn, Pachara Sirivongrangson.
This article has been cited 49 time(s).
International Journal of Std & AIDSModelling the impact of HIV prevention and treatment for men who have sex with men on HIV epidemic trajectories in low- and middle-income countriesInternational Journal of Std & AIDS
Cold Spring Harbor Perspectives in MedicineThe HIV-1 Epidemic: Low- to Middle-Income CountriesCold Spring Harbor Perspectives in Medicine
Salud Publica De Mexico
Systematic review of HIV prevalence studies among key populations in Latin America and the Caribbean
Salud Publica De Mexico, 55():
AIDS and BehaviorSexual Behavior and Risk Factors for HIV Infection Among Homosexual and Bisexual Men in ThailandAIDS and Behavior
Social Science & MedicineGender and access to HIV testing and antiretroviral treatments in Thailand: Why do women have more and earlier access?Social Science & Medicine
Current HIV Research
What Impact Might the Economic Crisis have on HIV Epidemics in Southeast Asia?
Current HIV Research, 7(6):
Sexually Transmitted InfectionsHIV is hyperendemic among men who have sex with men in San Francisco: 10-year trends in HIV incidence, HIV prevalence, sexually transmitted infections and sexual risk behaviourSexually Transmitted Infections
Sexually Transmitted InfectionsIndicators for sexual HIV transmission risk among people in Thailand attending HIV care: the importance of positive preventionSexually Transmitted Infections
AIDS Education and Prevention
A survey of MSM HIV prevention outreach workers in Chennai, India
AIDS Education and Prevention, 18(4):
AIDS Education and Prevention
Inconsistent Condom Use Among Young Men Who Have Sex With Men, Male Sex Workers, and Transgenders in Thailand
AIDS Education and Prevention, 22(2):
An Asian perspective on HIV/AIDS
Asian Biomedicine, 3(1):
American Journal of Public HealthSTD Prevalence, Risky Sexual Behaviors, and Sex With Women in a National Sample of Chinese Men Who Have Sex With MenAmerican Journal of Public Health
American Journal of Preventive MedicineOpportunities to improve AIDS prevention practice among men who have sex with menAmerican Journal of Preventive Medicine
Sexual HealthTrend in HIV incidence in a cohort of homosexual men in Sydney: data from the Health in Men StudySexual Health
Bmc Public HealthThe characterisation of sexual behaviour in Chinese male university students who have sex with other men: A cross-sectional studyBmc Public Health
Sexually Transmitted InfectionsTesting for HIV and sexually transmissible infections within a mainly online sample of gay men who engage in group sexSexually Transmitted Infections
AIDS and BehaviorMoney Boys, HIV Risks, and the Associations between Norms and Safer Sex: A Respondent-Driven Sampling Study in Shenzhen, ChinaAIDS and Behavior
AIDS and BehaviorRising HIV Prevalence Among Married and Unmarried Among Men Who Have Sex with Men: Jinan, ChinaAIDS and Behavior
Expert Review of VaccinesAIDS vaccine efficacy trials: expand capacity and prioritizeExpert Review of Vaccines
Annals of the Association of American GeographersThe Context and Impact of HIV and AIDS in Chiang Rai, Thailand: A Study of Youth and Young AdultsAnnals of the Association of American Geographers
The invisibility of the HIV epidemic among men who have sex with men in Bangkok, Thailand
Sexually Transmitted InfectionsUnderstanding male sexual behaviour in planning HIV prevention programmes: Lessons from Laos, a low prevalence countrySexually Transmitted Infections
AIDS Care-Psychological and Socio-Medical Aspects of AIDS/HIVCondoms plus pleasure = safer sex? A missing addend in the safer sex messageAIDS Care-Psychological and Socio-Medical Aspects of AIDS/HIV
TuberculosisCo-infection with human immunodeficiency virus and tuberculosis in AsiaTuberculosis
Sexually Transmitted InfectionsCorrelates of paid sex among men who have sex with men in Chennai, IndiaSexually Transmitted Infections
Why has the Thai HIV epidemic in men who have sex with men been so silent?
Plos MedicineElevated risk for HIV infection among men who have sex with men in low- and middle-income countries 2000-2006: A systematic reviewPlos Medicine
Sexual HealthTrends in HIV incidence in homosexual men in developed countriesSexual Health
Evidence-based strategies for preventing HIV transmission and the Thailand perspective
Asian Biomedicine, 3(1):
Sexually Transmitted InfectionsEstimating the number of men who have sex with men in low and middle income countriesSexually Transmitted Infections
Reproductive Health MattersBreaking the silence: South African HIV policies and the needs of men who have sex with menReproductive Health Matters
AIDS and BehaviorInconsistent condom use with steady and casual partners and associated factors among sexually-active men who have sex with men in Bangkok, ThailandAIDS and Behavior
Journal of Health Population and Nutrition
Risk Perception and Condom-use among Thai Youths: Findings from Kanchanaburi Demographic Surveillance System Site in Thailand
Journal of Health Population and Nutrition, 27(6):
American Journal of Community PsychologyApplied Roles and the Future of Community PsychologyAmerican Journal of Community Psychology
Clinical Infectious DiseasesHIV epidemiology update and transmission factors: Risks and risk contexts - 16th International AIDS Conference Epidemiology PlenaryClinical Infectious Diseases
Sexually Transmitted InfectionsEpidemiology of male same-sex behaviour and associated sexual health indicators in low- and middle-income countries: 2003-2007 estimatesSexually Transmitted Infections
Nursing Clinics of North AmericaTransmission and epidemiology of HIV/AIDS: a global viewNursing Clinics of North America
Field MethodsAdaptation of venue-day-time sampling in Southeast Asia to access men who have sex with men for HIV assessment in BangkokField Methods
Sexually Transmitted InfectionsHIV prevalence and related risk factors among male sex workers in Shenzhen, China: results from a time-location sampling surveySexually Transmitted Infections
VaccinePreventive HIV vaccine acceptability and behavioral risk compensation among high-risk men who have sex with men and transgenders in ThailandVaccine
Plos OneAre Thai MSM Willing to Take PrEP for HIV Prevention? An Analysis of Attitudes, Preferences and AcceptancePlos One
Journal of VirologyEmergence in Japan of an HIV-1 Variant Associated with Transmission among Men Who Have Sex with Men (MSM) in China: First Indication of the International Dissemination of the Chinese MSM LineageJournal of Virology
JAIDS Journal of Acquired Immune Deficiency SyndromesAnal Sexually Transmitted Infections and Risk of HIV Infection in Homosexual MenJAIDS Journal of Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndromes
JAIDS Journal of Acquired Immune Deficiency SyndromesTrends in HIV Prevalence, Estimated HIV Incidence, and Risk Behavior Among Men Who Have Sex With Men in Bangkok, Thailand, 2003–2007JAIDS Journal of Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndromes
JAIDS Journal of Acquired Immune Deficiency SyndromesIncidence and Characterization of Acute HIV-1 Infection in a High-Risk Thai PopulationJAIDS Journal of Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndromes
HIV; AIDS; homosexuality; sexual behaviour; South-East Asia; Thailand
© 2005 Lippincott Williams & Wilkins, Inc.
What does "Remember me" mean?
By checking this box, you'll stay logged in until you logout. You'll get easier access to your articles, collections,
media, and all your other content, even if you close your browser or shut down your
To protect your most sensitive data and activities (like changing your password),
we'll ask you to re-enter your password when you access these services.
What if I'm on a computer that I share with others?
If you're using a public computer or you share this computer with others, we recommend
that you uncheck the "Remember me" box.
Highlight selected keywords in the article text.
Data is temporarily unavailable. Please try again soon.