Skip Navigation LinksHome > February 20, 2004 - Volume 18 - Issue 3 > Functionally active HLA-G polymorphisms are associated with...
AIDS:
Basic Science: Concise Communications

Functionally active HLA-G polymorphisms are associated with the risk of heterosexual HIV-1 infection in African women

Matte, Claudinea,b; Lajoie, Juliea,b; Lacaille, Juliea; Zijenah, Lynn Sc; Ward, Brian Jd; Roger, Michela,b

Free Access
Article Outline
Collapse Box

Author Information

From the aLaboratory of Immunogenetics, Centre de Recherche du Centre Hospitalier de l'Université de Montréal, Montreal General Hospital Research Institute and the bDepartment of Microbiology and Immunology, Montréal University, Montréal, Canada, the cDepartment of Immunology, University of Zimbabwe, Harare, Zimbabwe and the dResearch Institute of the McGill University Hospital Complex, Montréal, Canada.

Correspondence to Dr M. Roger, Département de microbiologie, Hôpital Notre-Dame du CHUM, 1560 Sherbrooke Est, Montréal, Québec, Canada H2L 4M1.

Received: 22 May 2003; revised: 7 July 2003; accepted: 15 July 2003.

Collapse Box

Abstract

Background: Heterosexual transmission of HIV-1 is the major route of infection worldwide. HLA-G molecules are involved in the inhibition of cell-mediated immune responses and could permit or even promote the propagation of infection in the female reproductive tract.

Objective: To examine whether HLA-G genetic variants are associated with the risk of heterosexual HIV-1 infection.

Methods: HLA-G polymorphism in DNA samples from 431 (228 HIV-positive and 203 HIV-negative) Zimbabwean women was determined by amplified-restriction fragment length polymorphism and DNA sequencing analyses.

Results: Six HLA-G alleles were identified in the study population. HLA-G*0105N, which does not encode functional HLA-G1 proteins, was significantly associated with protection from HIV-1 infection [odds ratio (OR), 0.51; 95% confidence interval (CI), 0.31–0.85; P = 0.0083). The HLA-G*010108 allele was associated with a 2.5-fold increased risk of HIV-1 infection (OR, 2.47; 95% CI, 1.32–4.64; P = 0.0038). In addition, two HLA-G*010108-containing genotypes were associated with elevated risk of HIV-1 infection: HLA-G*010108/010401 (OR, 23.6; 95% CI, 1.39–401.7; P = 0.0009) and G*010101/010108 (OR, 5.6; 95% CI, 1.24–25.3; P = 0.012).

Conclusion: This study demonstrates that functionally active HLA-G polymorphisms are associated with altered risk of HIV-1 infection in African women. This provides evidence to support the hypothesis that modulation of HLA-G expression by HIV-1 can contribute to the risk of infection. Targeted interventions to reduce or block HLA-G expression in genital tissues could lead to novel strategies for the prevention of heterosexual HIV-1 transmission.

Back to Top | Article Outline

Introduction

Although female-to-male transmission of HIV-1 can occur, the vast majority of cases involve transmission of the virus from males to females. It is well documented that HIV-1 can be isolated from the cervix and the vagina as cell-free and cell-associated virus [1–5]. HIV-1 can infect macrophage, dendritic and epithelial cells from female genital tissues [6,7], suggesting that these cells may be targets for initial infection by the virus. However, the precise molecular mechanism whereby virus-infected cells can spread across the female genital tissue remains largely unknown.

Viruses that infect humans have evolved a myriad of mechanisms for avoiding the immune system [8,9]. Some viral proteins regulate cell surface expression of HLA class I proteins to permit infected cells to resist cytotoxic T lymphocyte killing. However, the removal of HLA class I proteins can expose the infected cell to attack by natural killer (NK) cells, since these cells preferentially lyse targets that lack HLA class I expression. NK cells can be prevented from killing cells by interaction of specific NK inhibitory receptors with HLA-C, HLA-G and HLA-E [10,11]. HIV-1 Nef proteins selectively downregulate HLA-A and HLA-B, without affecting cell surface expression of HLA-E and HLA-C on lymphoid cells [12]. Similarly, infection of macrophage by human cytomegalovirus leads to upregulated cell surface expression of HLA-G while HLA-A and HLA-B are downregulated [13]. The selective regulation of HLA expression may permit HIV-infected cells to escape from cytotoxic T lymphocyte-mediated killing while avoiding NK cell-mediated lysis [14–16].

HLA-G is a non-classical major histocompatibility complex (MHC) class I antigen that is predominantly expressed on invasive trophoblastic cells [17] and is postulated to be an important mediator of maternal–fetal tolerance through inhibition of lysis by maternal NK cells [18]. HLA-G transcripts are also expressed at low level in a variety of normal human adult tissues, including thymic epithelial cells [19] and peripheral blood mononuclear cells [20]. Recent studies indicate that HLA-G expression is upregulated in inflammatory and neoplastic tissues [21–25]. HLA-G molecules are detected in activated macrophages and dentritic cells infiltrating lung carcinomas in infectious pulmonary diseases but not in normal tissue [22]. Macrophage surface expression of HLA-G is strongly induced in HIV-1-positive patients [26]. In addition to the actions of HIV-1 Nef proteins, the HIV-1 envelope protein gp41 upregulates the synthesis of interleukin-10 production in monocytes [27]. Interleukin-10 selectively enhances HLA-G expression in these cells while downregulating the expression of other HLA class I and II molecules [28]. Taken together, these observations suggest that HIV-1 uses both direct and indirect mechanisms to enhance the cell surface expression of HLA-G while downregulating the expression of other HLA class I proteins. This selective induction of HLA-G may permit HIV-1 to escape the mucosal immune response and facilitate the establishment of the infection in the female genital tract. The present study examines whether HLA-G is a good candidate gene for susceptibility to HIV-1 infection.

Back to Top | Article Outline

Methods

Participants

DNA extracts were obtained from 431 unrelated women enrolled in the ZVITAMBO project in Zimbabwe, Africa. This is a randomized placebo-controlled clinical trial of 14 000 mother–child pairs with the main objective of investigating the impact of immediate postpartum vitamin A supplementation on vertical transmission of HIV-1. All eligible participants were recruited immediately postpartum from one of seven recruitment sites (maternity clinics and hospitals) in Greater Harare. Written informed consent was obtained from all participating mothers. Samples were drawn consecutively from two groups: 228 HIV-1-seropositive women and 203 HIV-1-seronegative women (as controls). The patients’ serological status was determined by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) and confirmed by Western blot. The majority (90%) of the subjects in the study are of the Shona ethnic group. HIV-1 infection was reported to be solely via heterosexual transmission.

Back to Top | Article Outline
Protocol

Genomic DNA was extracted from whole peripheral blood using Qiagen DNA extraction kit (Qiagen, Mississauga, Ontario, Canada). HLA-G polymorphism was defined by nucleotide sequence variations in exons 2 and 3 that encode α-1 and α-2 domains of the protein, which interact with bound peptides on T cell receptors [29]. Consequently, allelic designations are based on nucleotide sequence variants at codons 31 (ACG←TCG), 57 (CCG←CCA), 69 (GCC←GCT), 93 (CAC←CAT), 107 (GGA←GGT), 110 (CTC← ATC) and 130 (CTG←–TG). Of these variants, only three result in amino acid substitutions at the protein level: codon 31 (Thr←Ser), codon 110 (Leu←Ile) and codon 130 (Leu←Cys). Genotyping of these HLA-G exon 2 and 3 variants was performed on isolated genomic DNA by amplified-restriction fragment length polymorphism and DNA sequencing methods as previously described [30,31]. These methods allow the characterization of all possible HLA-G polymorphic sites. Significance of allelic and genotypic differences between groups was assessed by the chi-square test.

Back to Top | Article Outline

Results

Six different alleles were detected in HLA-G in 431 Zimbabwean women. In the overall study population, regardless of HIV status, HLA-G*010101 was the predominant allele, with a frequency of 42.3% followed by G*010401 (20.7%), G*010102 (18.8%), G*0105N (8.0%), G*010108 (5.9%) and G*0103 (4.3%). The HLA-G*010101 allele corresponds to the wild-type sequence originally described by Geraghty et al. [32]. HLA-G*010102 and G*010108 are two alleles from the G*010101 lineage that are defined by synonymous and conservative mutations at codons 57 and 93, respectively. HLA-G*0103 and G*010401 are defined by non-synonymous mutations at codons 31 and 110, respectively. HLA-G*0105N has a single base deletion at codon 130 that causes a shift in the reading frame, resulting in a truncated non-functional HLA-G1 protein [33]. Nevertheless, other HLA-G isoforms are still produced in HLA-G*0105N homozygous individuals [33].

The distribution of HLA-G alleles among HIV-positive and HIV-negative groups is shown in Table 1. There were no significant differences between the groups with respect to HLA-G* 010101, G*010102, G*0103, and G*010401. However, there were significant differences in the distribution of the HLA-G*0105N and G*010108 alleles between groups. HLA-G*0105N was observed less frequently in HIV-positive women (5.7%) than in HIV-negative women (10.6%; P = 0.0083). This observation strongly suggests that the presence of the G*0105N allele is a protection factor [odds ratio (OR), 0.51; 95% confidence interval (CI), 0.31–0.85) for HIV infection. By comparison, the HLA-G*010108 allele was observed more frequently in HIV-positive women (8.1%) than in HIV-negative women (3.5%) (P = 0.0038), representing a 2.5-fold increased risk of HIV infection (OR, 2.47; 95% CI, 1.32–4.64). The latter result is reflected in the analysis of the distribution of HLA-G genotypes between groups (data not shown) showing two HLA-G*010108-containing genotypes associated with elevated risk of HIV infection. HLA-G*010108/010401 and G*010101/010108 genotypes were observed more frequently in the HIV-positive women than in the HIV-negative women (P = 0.0009 and P = 0.012, respectively) and were associated with substantially increased risk of HIV infection (OR, 23.6; 95% CI, 1.39–401.7 and OR 5.6; 95% CI, 1.24–25.3, respectively).

Table 1
Table 1
Image Tools
Back to Top | Article Outline

Discussion

Recent studies have suggested that the selective induction of HLA-G molecules may be used by viruses and tumours to evade host immunosurveillance [13,21–23,26]. In this study, we have established that functionally active HLA-G polymorphisms are associated with altered risk of HIV-1 infection in African women. Although we did not have access to sera from sexual partners of the women in our study, the vast majority of Shona women are infected through heterosexual contacts. As a result, we believe that our findings of increased or decreased HIV-1 infection rates reflect facilitation or inhibition of heterosexual transmission. The validation of theses associations in a relatively large cohort provides strong evidence supporting the role of HLA-G molecules in such transmission. There was a highly significant correlation between HLA-G*0105N allele and protection from HIV-1 infection. This allele does not encode functional soluble or membrane-bound HLA-G1 proteins [33]. HLA-G1 is the major ligand by which HLA-G inhibits NK cell-mediated lysis [34–36]. We propose, therefore, that the absence or reduced expression of HLA-G1 in individuals carrying HLA-G*0105N would allow NK cells to destroy HIV-infected cells, leading to protection from infection.

Our results also showed that HLA-G*010108 is significantly associated with increased risk of HIV-1 infection. This allele is defined by a synonymous substitution (Pro) at codon 57. Although HLA-G codon 57 variant discordance between a mother and her child has been reported to reduce the risk of perinatal HIV-1 transmission [37], we were unable to confirm this finding in our African population [38]. Because the polymorphism at codon 57 does not change the amino acid composition, it can be presumed that it does not affect the protein's function. It is, therefore, difficult to envisage the mechanism by which such a silent mutation could have a direct influence on transmission. However, it is conceivable that the variant at codon 57 is closely linked to a functional polymorphism elsewhere in the gene. In fact, the codon 57 variant is present on the HLA-G*010401 allele together with a non-synonymous substitution at codon 110 (Leu←Ile). Our analysis of the genotypic distribution between groups revealed that the HLA-G*010108/010401 genotype is associated with a substantial increased risk of HIV infection (OR, 23.6; 95% CI, 1.39–401.7; P = 0.0009). The mean soluble HLA-G plasma levels in individuals carrying the HLA-G*0101401 allele are significantly higher than in those with the HLA-G*010101 wild-type allele [39]. Therefore, it is tempting to speculate that the relatively high level of HLA-G expression in subjects with the HLA-G*010108/010401 genotype may permit HIV-infected cells to inhibit NK-mediated cytolysis and promote viral transmission. Although the HLA-G*0101401 allele exhibits an amino acid variation at codon 110 (Leu←Ile), this replacement would not be predicted to have any drastic effect on the structure or function of HLA-G, because both amino acids are small hydrophobic residues. Interestingly, all of the individuals with the HLA-G*010108/01041 genotype are homozygous for the variant at codon 57. The mechanism by which the polymorphism at codon 57 in association with codon 110 variant would affect HLA-G production remains to be identified.

In conclusion, our results show that HLA-G polymorphisms are associated with heterosexual HIV-1 infection. Importantly, our findings not only provide convincing support for a plausible mechanism by which HLA-G might help HIV-1 to evade cell-mediated immune response but also may be utilized in designing novel preventive interventions. Further studies aimed at investigating the impact of downregulation or inhibition of HLA-G expression in genital tissues on prevention of HIV-1 transmission in high-risk populations may provide useful information. This approach is not limited to HIV-1 infection but may be relevant for the prevention or therapy of other viral pathogens and cancers.

Back to Top | Article Outline

Acknowledgements

The authors would like to thank all the participants in this study, co-principal investigators K. Nathoo and J. Humphrey and the ZVITAMBO Study Group: H. Chidawanyika, P. Iliff, A. Mahomva, F. Majo, L. Malaba, M. Mbizvo, L. Moulton, K. Mutasa, J. Mutsambi, M. Ndhlovu, L. Propper, A. Ruff, N. Tavengwa, C. Zunguza, P. Zvandasara.

Sponsorship: This work was supported in part by grant PG-50917 from the Elizabeth Glaser Pediatric AIDS Foundation. M. Roger is supported by career award from Fonds de la Recherche en Santé du Québec (FRSQ). The ZVITAMBO project is supported by the Canadian International Development Agency (R/C Project 690/M3688), Cooperative Agreement DAN 0045-A-005094-00 between the US Agency for International Development and the Johns Hopkins School of Hygiene and Public Health, and the Rockefeller Foundation. Note: The ZVITAMBO project is a collaborative project of the University of Zimbabwe, the Harare City Health Department, the Johns Hopkins School of Hygiene and Public Health, and the Montreal General Hospital Research Institute, McGill University.

Back to Top | Article Outline

References

1. Barkan SE, Melnick SL, Preston-Martin S, Weber K, Kalish LA, Miotti P, et al. The Women's Interagency HIV Study. Epidemiology 1998, 9:117–125.

2. Hart CE, Lennox JL, Pratt-Palmore M, Wright TC, Schinazi RF, Evans-Strickfaden T, et al. Correlation of human immunodeficiency virus type 1 RNA levels in blood and the female genital tract. J Infect Dis 1999, 179:871–882.

3. Iversen AK, Larsen AR, Jensen T, Fugger L, Balslev U, Wahl S, et al. Distinct determinants of human immunodeficiency virus type 1 RNA and DNA loads in vaginal and cervical secretions. J Infect Dis 1998, 177:1214–1220.

4. Cu Uvin S, Caliendo AM, Reinert SE, Mayer KH, Flanigan TP, Carpenter CC. HIV-1 in the female genital tract and the effect of antiretroviral therapy. AIDS 1998, 12:826–827.

5. Baron P, Brewer J, Wasserman SS, Nowicki M, Driscoll B, Polsky B, et al. Detection and quantification of human immunodeficiency virus type 1 in the female genital tract. J Clin Microbiol 2000, 38:3822–3824.

6. Yeamen GR, White HD, Howell A, Prabhala R, Wira CR. The mucosal immune system in the human female reproductive tract: potential insights into the heterosexual transmission of HIV. AIDS Res Hum Retroviruses 1998, 14:S57–S62.

7. Howell AL, Edkins RD, Rier SE, Yeamen GR, Stern JE, Fanger MW, et al. Human immunodeficiency virus type 1 infection of cells and tissues from the upper and lower human female reproductive tract. J Virol 1997, 71:3498–3506.

8. Ploegh HL. Viral strategies of immune evasion. Science 1998, 280:248–253.

9. Hengel H, Koszinowski UH. Interference with antigen processing by viruses. Curr Opin Immunol 1977, 9:470–476.

10. Borrego F, Kabat J, Kim DK, Lieto L, Maasho K, Pena J, et al. Structure and function of major histocompatibility complex (MHC) class I specific receptors expressed on human natural killer (NK) cells. Mol Immunol 2002, 38:637–660.

11. King A, Hiby SE, Gardner L, Joseph S, Bowen JM, Verma S, et al. Recognition of trophopblast HLA class I molecules by decidual NK cell receptors: a review. Placenta 2000, 21:S81–S85.

12. Cohen GB, Gandhi RT, Davis DM, Mandelboim O, Chen BK, Strominger JL, et al. The selective downregulation of class I major histocompatibility complex protein by HIV-1 protects HIV-infected cells from NK cells. Immunity 1999, 10:661–671.

13. Onno M, Pangault C, Le Friec G, Guilloux V, André P, Fauchet R. Modulation of HLA-G antigens expression by human cytomegalovirus: specific induction in activated macrophages harboring human cytomegalovirus infection. J Immunol 2000, 164:6426–6434.

14. Schwartz O, Marechal V, Le Gall S, Lemonnier F, Heard JM. Endocytosis of MHC class I molecules is induced by the HIV-1 Nef protein. Nat Med 1996, 2:338–342.

15. Collins KL, Chen BK, Kalams SA, Walker BD, Baltimore D. HIV-1 Nef protein protects infected primary cells against killing by cytotoxic T lymphocytes. Nature, 1998, 391:397–401.

16. Yang O, Nguyen PT, Kalams SA, Dorfman T, Gottlinger HG, Stewart S, et al. Nef-mediated resistance of human immunodeficiency cirus type 1 to antiviral cytotoxic T lymphocytes. J Virol 2002, 76:1626–1631.

17. Kovats S, Main EK, Librach C, Stubblebine M, Fisher SJ, de Mars R. A class I antigen, HLA-G, expressed in human trophoblasts. Science 1990, 248:220–223.

18. Rouas-Freiss N, Goncalves RM, Menier C, Dausset J, Carosella ED. Direct evidence to support the role of HLA-G in protecting the fetus from maternal uterine natural killer cytolysis. Proc Natl Acad Sci USA 1997, 94:11520–11525.

19. Crisa L, McMaster MT, Ishii JK, Fisher SJ, Salomon DR. Identification of thymic epithelial cell subset sharing expression of the class Ib HLA-G molecule with fetal trophoblasts. J Exp Med 1997, 186:289–298.

20. Onno M, Guillaudeux T, Arniot L, Renard I, Drenou B, Hirel B, et al. The HLA-G gene is expressed at a low mRNA level in different human cells and tissues. Hum Immunol 1994, 41:79–86.

21. Wiendl H, Mitsdoerffer M, Hormeister V, Wischhusen J, Bornemann A, Meyermann R, et al. A functional role of HLA-G expression in human gliomas: an alternative strategy of immune escape. J Immunol 2002, 168:4772–4780.

22. Pangault C, Le Friec G, Caulet-Maugendre S, Lena H, Amiot L, Guilloux V, et al. Lung macrophages and dentritic cells express HLA-G molecules in pulmonary diseases. Hum Immunol 2002, 63:83–90.

23. Urosevic M, Kurrer MO, Kamarashev J, Mueller B, Weder W, Burg G, et al. Human leukocyte antigen G up regulation in lung cancer associates with high-grade histology, human leukocyte antigen class I loss and interleukin-10 production. Am J Pathol 2001, 159:817–824.

24. Aractingi S, Briand N, Le Danff C, Viguier M, Bachelez H, Michel L, et al. HLA-G and NK receptor are expressed in psoriatic skin. Am J Pathol 2001, 159:71–77.

25. Wiendl H, Behrens L, Maier S, Johnson MA, Weiss EH, Hohlfeld R. Muscle fibers in inflammatory myopahties and cultured Myoblasts express the nonclassical major histocompatibility antigen HLA-G. Ann Neurol 2000, 48:679–684.

26. Lozano JM, Gonzalez R, Kindelan JM, Rouas-Freiss N, Caballos R, Dausset J, et al. Monocytes and T lymphocytes in HIV-1–positive patients express HLA-G molecule. AIDS 2002, 16:347–351.

27. Barcova M, Kacani L, Speth C, Dierich MP. Gp41 envelope protein of human immunodeficiency virus induces interleukin (IL)-10 in monocytes but not in B, T, or NK cells, leading to reduced IL-2 and interferon-γ production. J Infect Dis 1998, 177:905–913.

28. Moreau P, Adrian-Cabestre F, Menier C, Guiard V, Gourand L, Dausset J, et al. IL-10 selectively induces HLA-G expression in human trophoblasts and monocytes. Int Immunol 1999, 11: 803–811.

29. Ober C, Aldrich CL. HLA-G polymorphisms: neutral evolution or novel function? J Reprod Immunol 1997, 36:1–21.

30. Matte C, Lacaille J, Zijenah L, Ward B, Roger M for the ZVITAMBO Study Group. HLA-G and HLA-E polymorphisms in an indigenous African population. Hum Immunol 2000, 61: 1150–1156.

31. Matte C, Lacaille J, Zijenah L, Ward B, Roger M for the ZVITAMBO Study Group. HLA-G exhibits low level of polymorphism in indigenous East Africans. Hum Immunol 2002, 63:495–501.

32. Geraghty DE, Koller BH, Orr HT. A human major histocompatibility complex class I gene that encodes a protein with a shortened cytoplasmic segment. Proc Natl Acad Sci USA 1987, 84:9145–9149.

33. Ober C, Aldrich C, Rosinsky B, Robertson A, Walker MA, Willadsen S, et al. HLA-G1 protein expression is not essential for fetal survival. Placenta 1998, 19:127–132.

34. Ponte M, Cantoni C, Biassoni R, Tradori-Cappai A, Bentivoglio G, Vitale C, et al. Inhibitory receptors sensing HLA-G1 molecules in pregnancy: decidua-associated natural killer cells express LIR-1 and CD94/NKG2A and acquire p49, an HLA-G1-specific receptor. Proc Natl Acad Sci USA 1999, 96:5674–5679.

35. Navarro F, Llano M, Bellon T, Colonna M, Geraghty DE, Lopez-Botet M. The ILT2 (LIR1) and CD94/NKG2A NK cell receptors respectively recognize HLA-G1 and HLA-E molecules co- expressed on target cells. Eur J Immunol 1999, 29:277–283.

36. Marchal-Bras-Goncalves R, Rouas-Freiss N, Connan F, Choppin J, Dausset J, Carosella ED, et al. A soluble HLA-G protein that inhibits natural killer cell-mediated cytotoxicity. Transpl Proc 2001, 33:2355–2359.

37. Aikhionbare FO, Hodge T, Kuhn L, Bulterys M, Abrams EJ, Bond VC. Mother-to-child discordance in HLA-G exon 2 is associated with a reduced risk of perinatal HIV-1 transmission. AIDS 2001, 15:2196–2198.

38. Matte C, Zijenah LS, Lacaille J, Ward B, Roger M. Mother-to child human leukocyte antigen G concordance: no impact on the risk of vertical transmission of HIV-1. AIDS 2002, 16: 2491–2494.

39. Rebmann V, van der Ven K, Päßler M, Krebs D, Grosse-Wilde H. Association of soluble HLA-G plasma levels with HLA-G alleles. Tissue Antigens 2001, 57:15–21.

Cited By:

This article has been cited 18 time(s).

Clinical & Developmental Immunology
Natural Immunity to HIV: A Delicate Balance between Strength and Control
Poudrier, J; Thibodeau, V; Roger, M
Clinical & Developmental Immunology, (): -.
ARTN 875821
CrossRef
Critical Care
Polymorphic variants in exon 8 at the 3 ' UTR of the HLA-G gene are associated with septic shock in critically ill patients
Graebin, P; Veit, TD; Alho, CS; Dias, FS; Chies, JAB
Critical Care, 16(5): -.
ARTN R211
CrossRef
Infection Genetics and Evolution
HLA-G 3 ' UTR-2 haplotype is associated with Human African trypanosomiasis susceptibility
Courtin, D; Milet, J; Sabbagh, A; Massaro, JD; Castelli, EC; Jamonneau, V; Bucheton, B; Sese, C; Favier, B; Rouas-Freiss, N; Moreau, P; Donadi, EA; Garcia, A
Infection Genetics and Evolution, 17(): 1-7.
10.1016/j.meegid.2013.03.004
CrossRef
Tissue Antigens
Ethnic variation of the HLA-G*0105N allele in two Chinese populations
Lin, A; Li, M; Xu, DP; Zhang, WG; Yan, WH
Tissue Antigens, 73(3): 270-274.
10.1111/j.1399-0039.2008.01196.x
CrossRef
Clinical and Experimental Immunology
Elevated levels of soluble non-classical major histocompatibility class I molecule human leucocyte antigen (HLA)-G in the blood of HIV-infected patients with or without visceral leishmaniasis
Donaghy, L; Gros, F; Amiot, L; Mary, C; Maillard, A; Guiguen, C; Gangneux, JP
Clinical and Experimental Immunology, 147(2): 236-240.
10.1111/j.1365-2249.2006.03268.x
CrossRef
AIDS
The role of human leukocyte antigen E and G in HIV infection
Tripathi, P; Agrawal, S
AIDS, 21(): 1395-1404.

Human Immunology
Blood soluble human leukocyte antigen G levels are associated with human immunodeficiency virus type 1 infection in Beninese commercial sex workers
Lajoie, J; Loembe, MM; Poudrier, J; Guedou, F; Pepin, J; Labbe, AC; Alary, M; Roger, M
Human Immunology, 71(2): 182-185.
10.1016/j.humimm.2009.11.007
CrossRef
Journal of Leukocyte Biology
Antiviral NK cell responses in HIV infection: I. NK cell receptor genes as determinants of HIV resistance and progression to AIDS
Iannello, A; Debbeche, O; Samarani, S; Ahmad, A
Journal of Leukocyte Biology, 84(1): 1-26.
10.1189/jlb.0907650
CrossRef
Cytotherapy
A functional role for soluble HLA-G antigens in immune modulation mediated by mesenchymal stromal cells
Rizzo, R; Campioni, D; Stignani, M; Melchiorri, L; Bagnara, GP; Bonsi, L; Alviano, F; Lanzoni, G; Moretti, S; Cuneo, A; Lanza, F; Baricordi, OR
Cytotherapy, 10(4): 364-375.
10.1080/14653240802105299
CrossRef
Human Genetics
Genetic studies of African populations: an overview on disease susceptibility and response to vaccines and therapeutics
Sirugo, G; Hennig, BJ; Adeyemo, AA; Matimba, A; Newport, MJ; Ibrahim, ME; Ryckman, KK; Tacconelli, A; Mariani-Costantini, R; Novelli, G; Soodyall, H; Rotimi, CN; Ramesar, RS; Tishkoff, SA; Williams, SM
Human Genetics, 123(6): 557-598.
10.1007/s00439-008-0511-y
CrossRef
Trends in Microbiology
KIR-HLA intercourse in HIV disease
Carrington, M; Martin, MP; van Bergen, J
Trends in Microbiology, 16(): 620-627.
10.1016/j.tim.2008.09.002
CrossRef
Vaccine
Immunogenetic basis of HIV-1 infection., transmission and disease progression
Singh, P; Kaur, G; Sharma, G; Mehra, NK
Vaccine, 26(): 2966-2980.
10.1016/j.vaccine.2008.01.012
CrossRef
Journal of Infectious Diseases
Genetic variants in nonclassical major histocompatibility complex class I human leukocyte antigen (HLA)-E and HLA-G molecules are associated with susceptibility to heterosexual acquisition of HIV-1
Lajoie, J; Hargrove, J; Zijenah, LS; Humphrey, JH; Ward, BJ; Roger, M
Journal of Infectious Diseases, 193(2): 298-301.

Journal of Infectious Diseases
HLA-G 3 ' Untranslated Region 14-Base Pair Deletion: Association With Poor Survival in an HIV-1-Infected Zimbabwean Population
Larsen, MH; Zinyama, R; Kallestrup, P; Gerstoft, J; Gomo, E; Thorner, LW; Berg, TB; Erikstrup, C; Ullum, H
Journal of Infectious Diseases, 207(6): 903-906.
10.1093/infdis/jis924
CrossRef
Biomed Research International
HLA-G/C, miRNAs, and Their Role in HIV Infection and Replication
Celsi, F; Catamo, E; Kleiner, G; Tricarico, PM; Vuch, J; Crovella, S
Biomed Research International, (): -.
ARTN 693643
CrossRef
AIDS
Association between HLA-G 3′UTR 14-bp polymorphism and HIV vertical transmission in Brazilian children
Fabris, A; Catamo, E; Segat, L; Morgutti, M; Claudio Arraes, L; de Lima-Filho, JL; Crovella, S
AIDS, 23(2): 177-182.
10.1097/QAD.0b013e32832027bf
PDF (101) | CrossRef
AIDS
HLA-G 3′ UTR haplotypes and HIV vertical transmission
Segat, L; Catamo, E; Fabris, A; Padovan, L; Morgutti, M; Crovella, S
AIDS, 23(14): 1916-1918.
10.1097/QAD.0b013e32832f8104
PDF (502) | CrossRef
AIDS
Persistence of high levels of blood soluble human leukocyte antigen-G is associated with rapid progression of HIV infection
Lajoie, J; Fontaine, J; Tremblay, C; Routy, J; Poudrier, J; Roger, M
AIDS, 23(11): 1437-1440.
10.1097/QAD.0b013e32832d0825
PDF (160) | CrossRef
Back to Top | Article Outline
Keywords:

Africa; HIV-1; HLA-G; heterosexual transmission; virus-cell interaction

© 2004 Lippincott Williams & Wilkins, Inc.

Login

Search for Similar Articles
You may search for similar articles that contain these same keywords or you may modify the keyword list to augment your search.