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Clinical Science

Cardiovascular disease risk factors in HIV patients – association with antiretroviral therapy. Results from the DAD study

Friis-Møller, Nina; Weber, Rainera; Reiss, Peterb; Thiébaut, Rodolphec; Kirk, Oled; Monforte, Antonella d'Arminioe; Pradier, Christianf; Morfeldt, Lindag; Mateu, Silviah; Law, Matthewi; El-Sadr, Wafaaj; De Wit, Stephank; Sabin, Caroline Al; Phillips, Andrew Nl; Lundgren, Jens D; for the DAD study group

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From the DAD Coordinating Centre, Copenhagen HIV Programme, Hvidovre University Hospital, Copenhagen, Denmark, the aSwiss HIV Cohort Study (SHCS), Division of Infectious Diseases and Hospital Epidemiology, University Hospital Zurich, Zurich, Switzerland, bATHENA, Department of Medicine and Infectious Diseases, Academic Medical Center, University of Amsterdam, Amsterdam, The Netherlands, cAquitaine, Institut de Santé Publique, d'Epidémiologie et de Développement – Inserm U330, Bordeaux University Hospital, Bordeaux, France, dEuroSIDA, Copenhagen HIV Programme, Hvidovre University Hospital, Copenhagen, Denmark, eICONA, Department of Infectious Diseases, L Sacco Hospital, University of Milan, Milan, Italy, fNice Cohort, Service des Maladies Infectieuses et Tropicales et Medicine Interne, C.H.U. Nice Hopital de l'Archet, Nice, France, gHivBivus, Department of Infectious Diseases, Karolinska Hospital, Stockholm, Sweden, hBASS, Department of Clinical Pharmacology and Therapeutics, Autonomous University of Barcelona, Barcelona, Spain, iAHOD, National Centre in HIV Epidemiology and Clinical Research, Sydney, Australia, jCPCRA, Division of Epidemiology, Columbia University School of Public Health, New York, USA, the kBrussels St. Pierre Cohort, Department of Infectious Diseases, C.H.U. Saint Pierre Hospital, Brussels, Belgium, and the lRoyal Free Centre for HIV Medicine and Department of Primary Care and Population Sciences, Royal Free and University College, London, UK. *See Appendix.

Correspondence to N. Friis-Møller, DAD Coordinating Centre, Copenhagen HIV Programme, Section 044, Hvidovre University Hospital, 2650 Copenhagen, Denmark. e-mail:

Received: 14 March 2002; revised: 20 November 2002; accepted: 13 January 2003.

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Objective: To determine the prevalence of risk factors for cardiovascular disease (CVD) among HIV-infected persons, and to investigate any association between such risk factors, stage of HIV disease, and use of antiretroviral therapies.

Design: Baseline data from 17 852 subjects enrolled in DAD, a prospective multinational cohort study initiated in 1999.

Methods: Cross-sectional analyses of CVD risk factors at baseline. The data collected includes data on demographic variables, cigarette smoking, diabetes mellitus, hypertension, dyslipidaemia, body mass index, stage of HIV infection, antiretroviral therapy.

Results: Almost 25% of the study population were at an age where there is an appreciable risk of CVD, with those receiving a protease inhibitor (PI) and/or non-nucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitor (NNRTI) tending to be older. 1.4% had a previous history of CVD and 51.5% were cigarette smokers. Increased prevalence of elevated total cholesterol (≥ 6.2 mmol/l) was observed among subjects receiving an NNRTI but no PI [odds ratio (OR), 1.79; 95% confidence interval (CI), 1.45–2.22], PI but no NNRTI (OR, 2.35; 95% CI, 1.92–2.87), or NNRTI + PI (OR, 5.48; 95% CI, 4.34–6.91) compared to the prevalence among antiretroviral therapy (ART)-naive subjects. Subjects who have discontinued ART as well as subjects receiving nucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitors had similar cholesterol levels to treatment-naive subjects. Higher CD4 cell count, lower plasma HIV RNA levels, clinical signs of lipodystrophy, longer exposure times to NNRTI and PI, and older age were all also associated with elevated total cholesterol level.

Conclusion: HIV-infected persons exhibit multiple known risk factors for CVD. Of specific concern is the fact that use of the NNRTI and PI drug classes (alone and especially in combination), particularly among older subjects with normalized CD4 cell counts and suppressed HIV replication, was associated with a lipid profile known to increase the risk of coronary heart disease.

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The combination of three or four drugs from any of the three available classes that can inhibit the replication of HIV [nucleoside analogue reverse transcriptase inhibitors (NRTI), non-nucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitors (NNRTI) and protease inhibitors (PI)], has lead to a dramatically improved outcome from this chronic infection [1–6].

While the benefits of highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART) have revolutionized the care of HIV-infected patients, frequent and sometimes severe treatment-associated metabolic side effects have been observed [7]. Several well known important risk factors for cardiovascular disease (CVD) can be induced and/or enhanced by PI-containing HAART [8]. These include increases in serum total cholesterol (particularly an increase in the atherogenic non-high density lipoprotein (non-HDL) cholesterol [9]) and triglycerides, as well as impaired glucose tolerance/overt diabetes mellitus associated with increased insulin resistance [10], and possibly arterial hypertension [11,12]. However, whether and how soon these antiretroviral therapy-induced abnormalities may result in a clinically detectable increased risk of CVD remains unknown, as does the impact of the underlying HIV infection per se. The available data are largely limited to case reports of myocardial infarctions in young PI-treated HIV- infected patients [13–17]. A meta-analysis of the immediate risk of myocardial infarction in randomized trials comparing PI and non-PI containing regimens, demonstrated no significant differences between the regimens [18], and presented retrospective studies have provided conflicting evidence [19–24].

To gain further insight into the risk of treatment-associated CVD, a multinational, tri-continental collaboration between ongoing HIV cohort studies was initiated in December 1999 (the DAD study, Data collection on Adverse events of anti-HIV Drugs [25]) with the objectives of detecting the incidence of myocardial infarction and stroke, and of identifying whether exposure time to the agents contained in antiretroviral drug regimens is independently associated with the risk of developing these cardiovascular events. The working hypothesis of the study is that anti-HIV drugs may accelerate the atherosclerotic process and, by doing so, increase the risk of CVD including myocardial infarction. The study is powered to detect a twofold increased risk of myocardial infarction, and will follow a cohort of more than 20 000 HIV-infected patients at various stages of infection and therapy prospectively for a minimum of 2 years.

The objectives of the present analyses were to determine the proportion of patients with an elevated risk profile for CVD at the time of inclusion into the DAD study, and to identify factors associated with these increased risk profiles, particularly with regards to the type and duration of antiretroviral therapy.

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The DAD study is an observational study formed by the collaboration of previously established HIV cohorts. Eleven cohorts [26–36] participate and contribute data on more than 20 000 HIV infected patients followed at 188 clinics in 20 countries situated in Europe, USA and Australia (Table 1 and Appendix).

Table 1
Table 1
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Data collection

Patients are followed prospectively during visits to out-patient clinics scheduled as part of regular medical care. Eligible patients are all under active follow-up at the time of initiation of the DAD protocol, irrespective of antiretroviral treatment status. Patients were enrolled into DAD consecutively as they were seen in the clinic from the time the DAD study was implemented in each of the participating cohorts. The first cohorts started to include patients in December 1999, and all patients were included prior to 1 April 2001.

At enrolment and at least every 8 months thereafter standardized data collection forms are completed at the sites providing information from physical examination, patient interview and patient case notes, concerning family history of coronary heart disease, patients’ prior history of CVD and diabetes, cigarette smoking, blood pressure, therapy for diabetes mellitus, lipid-lowering and anti-hypertensive therapy, the presence of clinical signs of lipodystrophy and serum lipid levels (including total- and HDL-cholesterol, triglycerides, and information on fasting conditions). Further, all cumulative data characterizing the patient's underlying HIV infection since inclusion in any of the individual cohorts are collected, including information on demography, antiretroviral therapy, CD4 cell counts and HIV viral loads. Dates of diagnosis of all AIDS-defining diseases are recorded, using the 1993 clinical definition of AIDS from the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention [37]. All collected information is transformed into a standardized format and merged into a central data-set.

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HIV laboratory parameters

In various analyses, CD4 cell count was stratified in strata of 100 × 106 (cells/l) or assessed as a continuous variable (log2 transformed). Similarly, HIV RNA was stratified in strata of: ≤ 500, 501–10 000, 10 001–100 000, and > 100 000 copies/ml, and also assessed as a continuous variable (log10 transformed).

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Antiretroviral therapy

Six categories were predefined based on current use of antiretroviral therapy regimen at the time of enrolment into the DAD study. These are: (i) naive; (ii) treatment-experienced, but not currently receiving antiretroviral therapy; (iii) currently receiving only NRTI; (iv) currently receiving NNRTI and NRTI but not PI; (v) currently receiving PI and NRTI but not NNRTI; or (vi) currently receiving PI, NNRTI and NRTI.

Previous antiretroviral therapy exposure was modelled as cumulative time spent using each of the three drug classes.

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CVD risk factors

The grouping of the risk factors assessed was defined prior to the initiation of the analysis. CVD risk factors were assessed as dichotomous categorical variables, where the cut-off levels chosen were conservative estimates of ‘high risk’ based on levels used for risk scoring in the background population [38–41]. The specification of risk factors is as follows. (i) Dyslipidaemia: defined as elevated total cholesterol ≥ 6.2 mmol/l (240 mg/dl), and/or decreased HDL-cholesterol ≤ 0.9 mmol/l (35 mg/dl), and/or elevated triglycerides ≥ 2.3 mmol/l (200 mg/dl). [The cut-offs applied are based on cut-offs for high risk for CVD in the NCEP guidelines.] (ii) Older age: age ≥ 45 years for men and ≥ 55 for women. (iii) Family history of coronary heart disease: first-degree relative with myocardial infarction before age 50. (iv) Previous CVD: patients’ own previous experience of myocardial infarction and/or stroke. (v) Hypertension: elevated systolic blood pressure ≥ 150 mmHg and/or elevated diastolic blood pressure ≥ 100 mmHg, or usage of anti-hypertensive drugs. (vi) Diabetes: history of diabetes or usage of anti-diabetic therapy. (vii) Body mass index (BMI) was stratified in four categories: underweight (BMI, < 18 kg/m2), normal weight (BMI, 18–26 kg/m2), overweight (BMI, 26.1–30 kg/m2) and obesity (BMI, > 30 kg/m2). Obesity was considered a cardiovascular risk factor. (viii) Smoking: current cigarette smoking at inclusion in the DAD study. (ix) Presence of clinical lipodystrophy was defined as either characteristic fat loss (from the face and/or extremities), central fat gain (abdominal and/or cervicodorsal) or mixed (at least one sign each of fat loss and central fat gain), as judged by the treating physician.

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Statistical analyses

Prevalence of single risk factors was calculated for the groups of patients for which data were available. Based on the observed prevalence, dyslipidaemia, diabetes, hypertension and lipodystrophy were further assessed as outcome variables in logistic models.

Univariable chi-squared and Kruskal–Wallis tests were used to compare categorical and continuous baseline demographic, clinical and laboratory characteristics between antiretroviral regimen categories. Association of CVD risk factors with antiretroviral therapy, demographic, clinical and laboratory parameters were tested in univariable logistic regression models. Multivariable logistic regression was then performed to identify parameters independently associated with the presence of CVD risk factors. The multivariable model included all parameters significantly associated with the risk factor assessed, at a level of P < 0.05 in the univariable model. For the main associations, the outcomes of the logistic models were tested in linear models, where the outcome variables were modelled as continuous variables.

From the literature it is known that total cholesterol levels are not significantly influenced by fasting status and HDL-cholesterol is influenced only slightly [42–44]. Although triglycerides are influenced by fasting, their daily fluctuation does not have a simple relationship with intake of meals [45]. In order to consider the impact of fasting status on the results, sensitivity analyses were repeated separately for fasting and non-fasting triglyceride measurements. Similarly, and for all lipid measurements, sensitivity analyses were performed to assess associations among the cohorts with less missing data. The associations of the primary analyses were reproduced by the sensitivity analyses; these results have generally not been included in this report.

All analyses were performed using Statistical Analysis System (SAS) version 6.12 (SAS Institute Inc, Cary, North Carolina, USA).

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By April 2001, the central database contained information on 17 852 patients enrolled in DAD from nine of 11 participating cohorts. The patient characteristics are shown in Tables 1, 2 and 3. Seventy-six percent were male, the median age was 39 years [inter quartile range (IQR), 34–45], 25% previously had AIDS. Mode of HIV acquisition was homosexual contacts in 43%, heterosexual contacts in 28% and injecting drug use in 23%. The median CD4 cell count was 430 × 106 cells/l (IQR, 270–621 × 106 cells/l) and median plasma HIV RNA was below 500 copies/ml (IQR, < 500–4800 copies/ml). These variables varied by cohort (Table 1).

Table 2
Table 2
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Table 3
Table 3
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Two cohorts (CPCRA and the Brussels St. Pierre cohort) were included later in the DAD study and their patient characteristics at baseline not analysed in this manuscript.

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Antiretroviral therapy

At enrolment, 13% of the study population were antiretroviral therapy naive, 6% were previously exposed, but not currently receiving any antiretroviral therapy, 11% were receiving a regimen containing NRTI only, 20% were receiving NNRTI-based therapy, 43% PI-based therapy and 7% were on a regimen containing all three drug classes. Overall, 72% of the study population had at any one time been exposed to PI with a median exposure time of 2.5 years (IQR, 1.5–3.2 years), 36% had ever been exposed to NNRTI with a median exposure time of 0.9 years (IQR, 0.5–1.5 years) and 87% had ever been exposed to NRTI with a median exposure of 3.2 years (IQR, 2.0–4.7 years) (Table 2).

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CVD risk factors and association with antiretroviral drugs and duration of therapy

CVD risk factors were prevalent in the study population (Table 3). Almost 25% of the study population was in an age group constituting a CVD risk factor by our definition, with the highest prevalence among patients receiving PI, NNRTI or both of these drug classes. 11.4 % had a family history of coronary heart disease with no significant difference between the antiretroviral therapy groups, and 1.4% had a previous history of CVD, with the highest prevalence in the group of patients receiving a regimen containing both PI and NNRTI. More than half of the study population were current cigarette smokers, with the highest prevalence among the naive patients and patients not currently receiving antiretroviral therapy.

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More than 8% of the study population had hypertension. In a univariable logistic model, using the antiretroviral therapy-naive group as reference, regimens containing NNRTI, PI or both drug classes were associated with an increased risk of being hypertensive (Table 4). But after adjustment for other factors which univariably were associated with the presence of hypertension, the associations with antiretroviral therapy disappeared or were reversed (Table 4). This was explained mainly by a strong correlation of hypertension with other factors (age, sex and BMI).

Table 4
Table 4
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The overall prevalence of diabetes was 2.5%. In a univariable model, all regimens were associated with an increased risk of diabetes when compared with naive patients (Table 4). After adjustment for other factors, current therapy with a regimen containing NNRTI or NNRTI + PI remained marginally independently associated with the presence of diabetes.

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Serum total cholesterol

The association of antiretroviral therapy with lipid levels is shown in Table 3. Assessed from median cholesterol levels (Table 3) and in univariable models (Table 4), patients currently using regimens containing NNRTI + NRTI, PI + NRTI or all three drug classes combined were at increased risk of having a high total cholesterol when compared with naive patients, with the highest risk among patients receiving a regimen containing all three drug classes. This pattern remained unchanged after controlling for other risk factors (Table 4). Subjects receiving NRTI only as well as subjects who had discontinued antiretroviral therapy have similar total cholesterol levels to naive subjects (regardless of duration of previous exposure to any of the drug classes), the latter suggestive of a reversible drug effect on total cholesterol level.

We further examined the effect of duration of exposure to the drug classes. As current and previous antiretroviral therapy exposures were highly correlated, these parameters were fitted in separate models. In a univariable logistic model for cumulative antiretroviral therapy exposure time, the OR for elevated total cholesterol was 1.00 (IQR, 0.98–1.02; P = 0.81), 1.39 (IQR, 1.31–1.47; P < 10−4) and 1.42 (IQR, 1.38–1.47; P < 10−4) per year of exposure to NRTI, NNRTI and PI, respectively. After controlling for other risk factors for dyslipidaemia, these associations remained essentially unchanged (data not shown; the model included sex, age, smoking, family history of coronary heart disease, previous cardiovascular disease, BMI, HIV transmission category, CD4 cell count, HIV RNA and duration of NRTI, NNRTI and PI therapy).

Among patients who currently or previously were exposed to antiretroviral therapy, level of immunodeficiency and plasma HIV RNA were independently associated with elevated total cholesterol after adjustment for other factors, including duration of antiretroviral therapy. The association was present within each antiretroviral therapy regimen group (Fig. 1). Overall, the adjusted risk of having elevated total cholesterol increased by 24% per twofold increase in CD4 cell count [OR, 1.24 (IQR, 1.18–1.30) per log2CD4, P < 10−4], thus the highest risk of elevated cholesterol is among patients with preserved or regained immunity (Fig. 1a). Of note, there was no association of CD4 cell count with total cholesterol in treatment-naive patients. In all antiretroviral therapy groups, and also in the group of antiretroviral therapy-naive patients, higher HIV viral load was associated with a decreased risk of elevated total cholesterol (Fig. 1b), overall the adjusted OR was 0.70 (IQR, 0.65–0.75), P < 10−4, per 1 log10 increase in HIV RNA.

Fig. 1
Fig. 1
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Serum triglycerides

The prevalence of elevated triglycerides was 28.4% among patients with fasting values and 35.4% for the non-fasting measurements (36% of measurements were fasting values, 24% non-fasting and the remaining lacked information regarding fasting status). The associations of antiretroviral treatment with elevated triglycerides resembled the associations seen with total cholesterol (Table 4), and were also similar within each group, when fasting and non-fasting measurements were tested separately (data not shown).

In a univariable logistic model for cumulative antiretroviral drug exposure time, the OR for elevated triglycerides was 1.05 (IQR, 1.03–1.07), 1.28 (IQR, 1.21–1.35) and 1.38 (IQR, 1.34–1.42) per year of exposure to NRTI, NNRTI and PI respectively (all, P < 10−4). In the multivariable model these associations remained essentially unchanged (data not shown).

The association with CD4 cell count and HIV viral load differed between regimens. Among patients who were antiretroviral therapy-naive, previously exposed, but not currently receiving any antiretroviral therapy, or currently receiving a regimen containing NRTI only, the adjusted risk of elevated triglycerides increased with increasing HIV RNA [OR, 1.18 (IQR, 1.07–1.31) per 1 log10 increase; P = 0.001], whereas there was no significant association with CD4 cell count [OR, 1.06 (IQR, 0.99–1.13) per twofold increase; P = 0.12].

Among patients receiving NNRTI, PI or a regimen containing both drug classes, the risk of elevated triglycerides increased with increasing HIV viral load [adjusted OR, 1.13 (IQR, 1.06–1.21) per 1 log10 increase; P < 10−4] and also increased with increasing CD4 cell count [OR, 1.20 (IQR, 1.15–1.26) per twofold increase in CD4 cell count; P < 10−3].

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Serum high density lipoprotein (HDL)-cholesterol

All regimens were associated with an increased risk of low HDL-cholesterol except regimens containing NNRTI, when compared to naive subjects (Table 4). In a univariable logistic model for cumulative antiretroviral drug exposure time, the OR for decreased HDL-cholesterol per year of exposure to NRTI, NNRTI and PI respectively, was 1.08 (IQR, 1.05–1.11; P < 10−4), 0.87 (IQR, 0.80–0.95; P < 0.002) and 1.01 (IQR, 0.97–1.06; P = 0.53). The multivariable model showed similar associations.

The associations of CD4 cell count and HIV viral load were similar for the absolute value of HDL-cholesterol as for total cholesterol, i.e., the risk of having decreased HDL-cholesterol is highest among patients with low CD4 cell count and high HIV viral load.

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Body composition

In all regimen groups there were few obese patients (Table 3), with a slightly higher prevalence among treatment-naive (4.8%) patients than in other groups. As would be expected, antiretroviral therapy was highly associated with the presence of clinical lipodystrophy, with the highest risk among patients receiving a regimen containing all three drug classes (Tables 3 and 4). Patients exposed for a longer time to the antiretroviral drug classes tended to have a higher prevalence of lipodystrophy at baseline (data not shown). Using the composite definition of lipodystrophy, there was no association between BMI and lipodystrophy (data not shown).

When assessed as an explanatory variable, lipodystrophy was associated with the presence of several of the CVD risk factors discussed above. In a multivariable model including the total study population, and adjusting for co-variables as listed in Table 4, the adjusted OR for the association of lipodystrophy with elevated total cholesterol was 1.56 (IQR, 1.41–1.72; P < 10−4), elevated triglycerides 2.16 (IQR, 1.98–2.37; P < 10−4) and decreased HDL 1.53 (IQR, 1.35–1.73; P < 10−4). The presence of lipodystrophy was associated with an increased risk of hypertension and diabetes [OR, 1.34 (IQR, 1.17–1.54) and 2.05 (IQR, 1.63–2.58), respectively; both P < 10−4].

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In the DAD population we have observed a high prevalence of multiple risk factors for CVD, particularly among patients currently receiving an antiretroviral therapy regimen containing all three drug classes. DAD has the strength of having included more than 20 000 patients with details concerning CVD risk factors and thereby is by far the largest study conducted to date which addresses CVD risk factors in HIV infection. A novel finding was that regimens containing drugs from both the PI and NNRTI classes were associated with the highest prevalence of dyslipidaemia, suggestive of a possibly additive effect of combinations of drugs from these drug classes. Furthermore, we observed that hypercholesterolaemia was associated with a higher CD4 cell count (in antiretroviral-treated people), a lower HIV plasma viral load, the presence of clinical signs of lipodystrophy and older age.

Dyslipidaemia was most strongly correlated with antiretroviral regimens currently being used, and less with a history of previous exposure to the different drug classes. This finding corresponds with previous reports, in which the dyslipidaemia associated with PI occurred shortly after beginning therapy (in the fraction of patients prone to develop this adverse effect) [8,46] and the rate of increase in lipid levels abated within months of initiation of the drugs. It is also consistent with studies that have shown that switch from PI to NNRTI-based or NRTI-only regimens is associated with attenuation or resolution of dyslipidaemia [47] within a short period of time (i.e., a few months). However, the cumulative time of exposure to various antiretroviral drug classes (with the concomitant risk of raised lipid levels) is likely to be relevant when predicting the risk of future CVD.

The association between PI therapy and elevated levels of total cholesterol and serum triglycerides has been noted previously in smaller cohort studies. The average increases in lipid levels in the largest series published to date [9,10,48,49], comparing levels during PI therapy with either pre-therapy levels or levels in PI-naive HIV-infected patients, were 28% for total cholesterol and 96% for triglycerides. We observed no difference in risk of low HDL-cholesterol among patients treated with PI, NRTI or not currently receiving antiretroviral therapy, and patients in these groups all had lower HDL-cholesterol levels than treatment-naive individuals. Consistent with most other studies, duration of PI therapy did not influence the level of HDL-cholesterol [49], whereas duration of NRTI was associated with a higher risk of low HDL-cholesterol.

An increase in total cholesterol with no increase in the HDL fraction is of particular concern, because it implies an elevation of the atherogenic non-HDL-cholesterol. The risk of elevated total cholesterol was increased per additional drug included in the regimen, and for longer exposure time to PI. Additional analysis to assess possible differences between individual PI is underway to examine these associations in more detail [50].

In contrast with previous observations of an association of PI use and dyslipidaemia, our finding of an association between NNRTI-containing regimens and dyslipidaemia has not been widely investigated. Phase I studies of efavirenz in HIV-uninfected subjects revealed increases in total cholesterol levels of 10–20% in some subjects [51], and no differences between different NNRTI were reported in HIV-infected individuals [52]. In concordance with our results, an increase in (protective) HDL-cholesterol with NNRTI has recently been reported [53,54]. More detailed analyses to assess possible differences between individual NNRTI are ongoing [55].

Consistent with previous reports, NRTI-only therapy was not associated with elevated cholesterol [52,56]. With regards to triglycerides, recent studies have indicated differences among drugs in the NRTI drug class, with a higher propensity for high triglyceride levels associated with stavudine use [56,57]. Future analyses from the DAD study will further assess differences between individual drugs within the NRTI drug class.

So far, few studies have examined factors which predispose HIV-infected patients to treatment-associated lipid abnormalities [58–60]. We have identified several factors that are significantly associated with the presence of dyslipidaemia in HIV infected subjects receiving antiretroviral therapy. We found a strong association between elevated total cholesterol level and higher CD4 cell counts, which was present within each treatment category but not in the antiretroviral therapy-naive group. Nevertheless, within each CD4 cell count stratum, the effect of antiretroviral therapy was clearly observed, which indicates that the effect of antiretroviral substances certainly cannot solely be explained by a reversal to ‘normal’ pre-disease cholesterol levels as a result of improved cellular immunity. The CD4 cell count level remained independently associated with elevated total cholesterol also after adjustment for duration of treatment. This does not rule out, however, that the observed association may still – at least in part – be due to residual confounding of the effect of antiretroviral therapy, either directly via a dose–response effect (i.e., higher CD4 cell count and lower plasma viral load are surrogates of better adherence and hence higher exposure to causative drugs) or indirectly via lowering HIV-RNA levels (see below).

The level of HDL-cholesterol, although to a lesser extent, likewise increased with more conserved cellular immunity, consistent with observations in the pre-HAART era [61], while no clear association was observed for levels of triglycerides after adjusting for therapy.

For total cholesterol, the association with HIV viral load was the inverse of the association with CD4 cell count. Thus we found increasing levels of total cholesterol with lower HIV RNA, and similarly for HDL-cholesterol. The latter has also been reported from other studies [62]. Conversely, overall and after adjustment for other factors, levels of triglycerides increased with increasing HIV viral load, consistent with the findings in the pre-PI era of elevated triglycerides linked to HIV disease progression [63].

Subjects already exposed to other risk factors for CVD are likely to have an accelerated course of atherosclerosis and the clinical complications hereof, given the known synergistic effects of different CVD risk factors [38]. In the DAD study, we have observed a high prevalence of other known and potential CVD risk factors among patients receiving either PI or NNRTI, including cigarette smoking, diabetes, hypertension and altered body composition.

The overall prevalence of diabetes mellitus in the DAD study was 2.5% and varied between regimens, from 1.1% in patients not currently receiving antiretroviral therapy to 4.3% in patients receiving PI and NNRTI. This is consistent with other studies which have shown an association between impaired glucose tolerance, diabetes mellitus and use of PI [8,9,48]. The prevalence of diabetes in PI-treated HIV patients has been reported to be in the range of 2–8%, with the highest detection rate in studies based on performance of oral glucose tolerance testing. In the setting of our observational study, in which oral glucose tolerance testing is not mandated and the diagnosis will mainly rely on measuring repeated elevated fasting blood sugar, the prevalence of diabetes is likely to be underestimated.

Data on the prevalence of hypertension in HIV patients are limited. A few studies have reported an increased prevalence of hypertension in PI treated patients [11,12] or in conjunction with lipodystrophy [64]. In our study, the associations between antiretroviral drug regimens and hypertension in univariable logistic models were no longer present after adjustment for other factors associated with hypertension. Thus, our data do not support a concern that HIV treatment per se is likely to induce hypertension.

Consistent with current knowledge [10], the use of antiretroviral therapy was strongly associated with the presence of lipodystrophy. Furthermore, there was a marked association between dyslipidaemia and several of the other CVD risk factors on the one hand and clinical lipodystrophy on the other. Such associations do not necessarily suggest a particular aetiology of lipodystrophy, but rather describe a clinical phenomenon, as the definition of lipodystrophy in the present analyses includes all clinical presentation of the syndrome, when in fact the various fat re-distribution patterns may represent separate entities with different aetiology [65]. Clinical lipodystrophy – i.e., fat redistribution – is associated with presence of several known metabolic risk factors for CVD, and therefore the lipodystrophy syndrome would also be expected to be associated with an increased risk of CVD.

Whether the presence of fat redistribution in itself – by way of abnormal fat loss and/or gain – represents an independent risk for CVD remains unresolved. A large collaboration is ongoing with the purpose of establishing a case definition for the lipodystrophy syndrome [66], which will facilitate the evaluation of the different clinical patterns and their possible influence on risk of CVD.

Compared with antiretroviral therapy-naive subjects, those treated with antiretroviral drugs tended to be less obese. Whether this observation is causally related to adverse events caused by the antiretroviral drugs should be investigated further. Obesity is an independent risk factor for CVD in the background population [40,67].

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Strengths and limitations

The strength of our results is primarily related to the substantial size of the study population. The diversity of the study population, including patients from a variety of geographical areas and a substantial number of women and minorities, ensures that the study is representative of the HIV infected population in industrialized countries.

The limitations are mainly related to the observational design of the study and the cross-sectional nature of the current analyses. Firstly, the results presented are only associations from which no conclusions regarding causality can or should be drawn. Secondly, due to the observational design of the study, many measurements are expected not to be always conducted in a uniform manner. This includes measurement of blood pressure and laboratory analyses of lipid levels. However, even in the absence of uniform standards for this study, national and international standardization of serum lipid measurements have been accomplished through collaboration of the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention and the World Health Organization, and comparable results can be obtained globally because of these standardization efforts [68]. Thirdly, the relatively high proportion of missing data should be noted (Table 3), which amongst other things implies that the prevalence of the individual risk factors is imprecise. Measures have been taken to complete the collection of pending baseline data during follow-up. Finally, information concerning certain other potential risk factors for CVD was not collected in our study, including genetic factors, physical activity, diet and alcohol consumption.

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The present analysis shows that, especially among older patients, the use of potent antiretroviral therapy resulting in more profound virus suppression and more preserved immunity, was associated with a high both relative and absolute risk of exhibiting risk factors for coronary heart disease.

Using these results, work is in progress to model the estimated risk of CVD based on validated algorithms [69]. Such projections assume that the induced risk factors can be directly transposed, which is likely to be a simplification as there presumably will be a time lag from when factors known to accelerate the atherosclerotic process are induced (i.e., when PI and/or NNRTI are started) and until clinical manifestations of atherosclerotic vascular disease will occur. As many of these factors are likely to act synergistically, and as the underlying HIV infection itself and its various manifestations may also contribute, current knowledge does not permit reliable assessment of the duration of the above mentioned time-lag. However, comparison of the estimated expected with the observed CVD event rate in the DAD study may provide some understanding.

The question as to whether antiretroviral therapy-associated metabolic disorders contribute to premature cardiovascular disease is of major importance for the way HIV infection is clinically managed. If current treatment of HIV infection would indeed be shown to be associated with an increased risk of CVD, such risk of course would need to be balanced against the proven major benefits of therapy. It would likely have implications for considerations concerning the composition of regimens, the timing of initiation of therapy, as well as for the evaluation and use of various pharmaceutical and non-pharmaceutical measures directed at reducing CVD risk. Last but not least it stresses the continued need for developing less toxic and better tolerated effective treatments for HIV infection.

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Sponsorship: The ATHENA study was supported by a grant (CURE/97-46486) from the Health Insurance Fund Council, Amstelveen, the Netherlands. The Aquitaine Cohort was supported by a grant from the ‘Agence Nationale de Recherches sur le SIDA’ (ANRS, Action Coordonnée no.7, Cohortes). The BASS study was supported by grants from the ‘Fondo de Investigación Sanitaria’ (FIS 99/0887) and ‘Fundación para la Investigación y la Prevención del SIDA en Espanã’ (FIPSE 3171/00). The EuroSIDA study was supported by grants from the European Commission BIOMED 1 (CT94-1637) and BIOMED 2 (CT97-2713) programs, from Pharmacia & Upjohn, GlaxoSmithKline, Roche and Merck. The ICONA network was supported by an unrestricted educational grant from Glaxo Wellcome, Italy. The Swiss HIV Cohort Study was supported by a grant (3345-062041) from the Swiss National Science Foundation. Support for the DAD study was provided by the ‘Oversight Committee for The Evaluation of Metabolic Complications of HAART', a collaborative committee with representation from academic institutions, the EMEA, the FDA and all pharmaceutical companies with licensed anti-HIV drugs in the US marked, i.e., Abbott, Agouron, Boehringer Ingelheim, Bristol-Myers Squibb, GlaxoSmithKline, Merck, Pfizer, Pharmacia & Upjohn, Hoffman-La Roche.

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DAD Steering Committee: Persons with * below (#: chair) and F. Houyez, T. Mertenskoetter, I. Weller.

DAD Central Coordination: N. Friis-Møller, C. Sabin, J.D. Lundgren.

DAD data managers: A. Sawitz and P. Ricks (coordination), M. Rickenbach, P. Pezzotti, E. Krum, R. Meester, V. Lavignolle, A. Sundström, B. Poll, E. Fontas, F. Torres, K. Petoumenos, J. Kjœr.

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The members of the 11 Cohorts
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ATHENA (AIDS Therapy Evaluation Project Netherlands)

Coordinating centre: F. de Wolf, J. Lange, E. van der Ven, H. Tissing, T. Hantke, R. Meester.

Participating physicians (city): W. Bronsveld (Alkmaar); H. Weigel, K. Brinkman, P. Frissen, J. ten Veen, M. Hillebrand, P. van Dam, S. Schieveld, J. Mulder, E. van Gorp, P. Meenhorst, A. van Eeden, S. Danner, F. Claessen, R. Perenboom, D. Blanckenberg, S. Blank, J. K. Eeftinck Schattenkerk, M. Godfried, S. Lowe, J. van der Meer, F. Nellen, K. Pogany, T. van der Poll, J. Prins, P. Reiss*, T. Ruys, M. van der Valk, A. Verbon, F. Wit (Amsterdam); C. Richter, R. van Leusen (Arnhem); R. Vriesendorp, F. Jeurissen (Den Haag); R. Kauffmann, E. Koger (Den Haag); B. Bravenboer (Eindhoven); C. ten Napel (Enschede); H.G. Sprenger, G. Law (Groningen); R.W. ten Kate (Haarlem); M. Leemhuis (Leeuwarden); F. Kroon, E. Schippers (Leiden); G. Schrey, S. van der Geest, A. van der Ven (Maastricht); P. Koopmans, M. Keuter, D. Telgt (Nijmegen); M. van der Ende, I. Gyssens, S. de Marie (Rotterdam); J. Juttmann, C. van der Heul (Tilburg); M. Schneider, J. Borleffs, L. Hoepelman, C. Jaspers, A. Matute, C. Schurink (Utrecht); W. Blok (Vlissingen).

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Aquitaine (France)

Scientific committee: R. Salamon (chair), J. Beylot, M. Dupon, M. Le Bras, J.L. Pellegrin, J.M. Ragnaud; Coordinating centre staff: F. Dabis*, G. Chêne, N. Bernard, D. Lacoste, D. Malvy, D. Neau, M. Dupon, J.-F. Moreau, P. Morlat, P. Mercié, J.L. Pellegrin, J.M. Ragnaud, D. Commenges, H. Jacqmin-Gadda, R. Thiébaut, S. Lawson-Ayayi, V. Lavignolle, M.J. Blaizeau, M. Decoin, A.M. Formaggio, S. Delveaux, S. Labarerre, B. Uwamaliya, E. Vimard, L. Merchadou, G. Palmer, D. Touchard, D. Dutoit, F. Pereira, B. Boulant; Participating physicians (city): J. Beylot, P. Morlat, N. Bernard, M. Bonarek, F. Bonnet, B. Coadou, P. Gelie, D. Jaubert, C. Nouts, D. Lacoste, M. Dupon, H. Dutronc, G. Cipriano, S. Lafarie, J.Y. Lacut, J.L. Pellegrin, P. Mercie, J.F. Viallard, I. Faure, P. Rispal, C. Cipriano, B. Leng, M. Le Bras, F. Djossou, D. Malvy, J.P. Pivetaud, J.M. Ragnaud, C. De La Taille, D. Neau, T. Galperine, A. Ochoa, D. Chambon (Bordeaux).

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AHOD (Australian HIV Observational Database, Australia)

Coordinating centre: M. Law*, K. Petoumenos (Sydney, New South Wales).

Participating sites (city, state): J. Anderson, J. Bal (Melbourne, Victoria), D. Austin, A. Gowers, D. Baker, R. McFarlane, A. Carr, D. Cooper (Sydney, New South Wales), J. Chuah, W. Fankhauser (Gold Coast, Queensland), S. Mallal, J. Skett (Perth, Western Australia), A. Mijch, K. Watson (Melbourne, Victoria), N. Roth, H. Wood (Melbourne, Victoria).

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BASS (Spain)

Coordinating centre: G Calvo*, F Torres, S Mateu (Barcelona).

Participating physicians: P. Domingo, M.A. Sambeat, J. Gatell, E. Del Cacho (Barcelona), G. Sirera, G. Viñas (Badalona).

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The Brussels St Pierre Cohort (Belgium)

N. Clumeck, S. De Wit*, M. Gerard, P. Hermans, M. Hildebrand, K. Kabeya, D. Konopnicki, M.C. Payen, B. Sommereijns, Y. Van Laethem.

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Central coordination: J. Neaton, G. Bartsch*, W. El-Sadr, E. Krum, D. Wentworth.

Participating physicians (city, state): R. Luskin-Hawk (Chicago, Illinois), E. Telzak (Bronx, New York), D.I. Abrams (San Francisco, California), D. Cohn (Denver, Colorado), N. Markowitz (Detroit, Michigan), R. Arduino (Houston, Texas), D. Mushatt (New Orleans, Louisiana), G. Friedland (New Haven, Connecticut), G. Perez (Newark, New Jersey), E. Tedaldi (Philadelphia, Pennsylvania), E. Fisher (Richmond, Virginia), F. Gordin (Washington, DC), L.R. Crane (Detroit, Michigan), J. Sampson (Portland, Oregon), J. Baxter (Camden, New Jersey).

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EuroSIDA Study Group (Multinational)

Central coordination: O Kirk*, A Mocroft, AN Phillips*, JD Lundgren*#.

Participating countries and physicians (city): Austria, N. Vetter (Vienna); Belgium, N. Clumeck, P. Hermans (Brussels), R. Colebunders (Antwerp); Czech Republic, L. Machala (Prague); Denmark, J. Nielsen, T. Benfield, J. Gerstoft, T. Katzenstein, B. Røge, P Skinhøj (Copenhagen), C. Pedersen (Odense); France, C. Katlama, J.-P. Viard (Paris), T. Saint-Marc, P. Vanhems (Lyon); Germany, M. Dietrich, C. Manegold, J. van Lunzen (Hamburg); V. Miller, S. Staszewski, M. Bieckel (Frankfurt), F.D. Goebel (Munich), B. Salzberger (Cologne), J. Rockstroh (Bonn); Greece, J. Kosmidis, P. Gargalianos, H. Sambatakou, J. Perdios, G. Panos, I. Karydis, A. Filandras (Athens); Hungary, D. Banhegyi (Budapest); Ireland, F. Mulcahy (Dublin); Israel, I Yust, D. Turner (Tel Aviv), S. Pollack, Z. Ben-Ishai (Haifa), Z. Bentwich (Rehovot), S. Maayan (Jerusalem); Italy, S. Vella, A. Chiesi (Rome), C. Arici (Bergamo), R. Pristerá (Bolzano), F. Mazzotta, A. Gabbuti (Florence), R. Esposito, A. Bedini (Modena), A. Chirianni, E. Montesarchio (Naples), V. Vullo, P. Santopadre, P. Narciso, A. Antinori, P. Franci, M. Zaccarelli (Rome), R. Finazzi (Milan); Luxembourg, R. Hemmer, T. Staub (Luxembourg); Norway, J. Bruun, A. Maeland, V. Ormaasen (Oslo); Poland, B. Knysz, J. Gasiorowski (Wroclaw), A. Horban (Warsaw), D. Prokopowicz (Bialystok), A. Boron-Kaczmarska, M. Pynka (Szczecin), M. Beniowski (Chorzow), H. Trocha (Gdansk); Portugal, F. Antunes, K. Mansinho, R. Proenca (Lisbon); Spain, J. González-Lahoz, B. Diaz, T. García-Benayas, L. Martin-Carbonero, V. Soriano (Madrid), B. Clotet, A. Jou, J. Conejero, C. Tural (Badalona), J.M. Miró (Barcelona); Sweden, A. Blaxhult, B. Heidemann, P. Pehrson (Stockholm); United Kingdom, M. Fisher (Brighton), R. Brettle (Edinburgh), S. Barton, A.M. Johnson, D. Mercey, C. Loveday, M.A. Johnson, A. Pinching, J. Parkin, J. Weber, G. Scullard (London).

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HivBivus (Sweden)

Central coordination: L. Morfeldt*, G. Thulin, A. Sundström.

Participating physicians (city): B. Åkerlund (Huddinge), K. Koppel, A. Karlsson (Stockholm), L. Flamholc, C. Håkangård (Malmö).

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ICONA (Italy)

Central coordination: A. D'Arminio Monforte*, P. Pezzotti.

Participarting physicians: M. Moroni, A. d'Arminio Monforte, A. Cargnel, S. Merli, G.M. Vigevani, C. Pastecchia, A. Lazzarin, R. Novati, L. Caggese, C. Moioli (Milano), M.S. Mura, G. Madeddu (Sassari), F. Suter, C. Arici (Bergamo), P.E. Manconi (Cagliari), F. Mazzotta (Firenze), A. Poggio, G. Bottari (Verbania), G. Pagano, A. Alessandrini (Genova), A. Scasso, A. Vincenti (Lucca), V. Abbadesse, S. Mancuso (Palermo), F. Alberici, M. Sisti (Piacenza), M. Arlotti, P. Ortolani (Rimini), F. De Lalla, G. Tositti (Vicenza), N. Piersantelli, R. Piscopo (Genova), E. Raise, S. Pasquinucci (Venezia), F. Soscia, L. Tacconi (Latina), U. Tirelli, G. Nasti (Aviano) E. Rinaldi, L. Pusterla (Como), G. Carosi, F. Castelli (Brescia), G. Cadeo, D. Vangi (Brescia), G. Carnevale, D. Galloni (Cremona), G. Filice, R. Bruno (Pavia), A. Sinicco, M. Sciandra, P. Caramello, L. Gennero, M.L. Soranzo, A. Macor (Torino), G. Rizzardini, C. Abeli (Busto Arsizio), F. Chiodo, V. Colangeli (Bologna), L. Bonazzi, M. Ursitti (Reggio Emilia), F. Menichetti, A. Smorfa (Pisa), R. Esposito, C. Mussini (Modena), F. Ghinelli, L. Sighinolfi (Ferrara), F. Gritti, O. Coronado (Bologna), T. Zauli, G. Ballardini (Ravenna), M. Montroni, A. Costantini (Ancona), E. Petrelli, A. Cioppi (Pesaro), L. Ortona, A. De Luca, N. Petrosillo, P. Noto, P. Narciso, G. D'Offizi, A. Antinori, P. De Longis, V Vullo, M. Lichtner (Roma), G. Pastore, M.L. Perulli (Bari), A. Chirianni, L. Loiacono, M. Piazza, S. Nappa, N. Abrescia, M. De Marco (Napoli), A. Colomba, T. Prestileo (Palermo), C. De Stefano, A. La Gala (Potenza), T. Ferraro, A. Scerbo (Catanzaro), P. Grima, P. Tundo (Lecce), E. Pizzigallo, F. Ricci (Chieti), B. Grisorio, S. Ferrara (Foggia).

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Nice Cohort (France)

Central coordination: C. Pradier*, E. Fontas, C. Caissotti.

Participating physicians: P. Dellamonica, L. Bentz, E. Bernard, S. Chaillou, F. De Salvador-Guillouet, J. Durant, R. Guttman, L. Heripret, V. Mondain-Miton, I. Perbost, B. Prouvost-Keller, P. Pugliese, V. Rahelinirina, P.M. Roger, F. Vandenbos.

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SHCS (The Swiss HIV Cohort Study, Switzerland)

Scientific Committee: R. Amiet, M. Battegay (chair), E. Bernasconi, H. Bucher, P. Bürgisser, M. Egger, P. Erb, W. Fierz, M. Flepp, P. Francioli, H. J. Furrer, M. Gorgievski, H. Günthard, P. Grob, B. Hirschel, C. Kind, T. Klimkait, B. Ledergerber, U. Lauper, M. Opravil, F. Paccaud, G. Pantaleo, L. Perrin, W. Pichler, J. C. Piffaretti, M. Rickenbach, C. Rudin, P. Sudre, V. Schiffer, J. Schupbach, A. Telenti, P. Vernazza, R. Weber*.

Participating physicians (city): H. C. Bucher, M. Battegay (Basel), H. J. Furrer, M. Egger (Bern), A. Calmy, B. Hirschel (Geneve), A. Telenti (Lausanne), E. Bernasconi, L. Magenta (Lugano), T. Wagels, P. Vernazza (St. Gall), M. Flepp, R. Weber (Zürich). Cited Here...

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The emerging role of cardiovascular risk factor-induced mitochondrial dysfunction in atherogenesis
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Medecine Et Maladies Infectieuses
Cardiovascular preoccupations
Leclercq, P
Medecine Et Maladies Infectieuses, 39(): 10-14.

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Visnegarwala, F; Shlay, JC; Barry, V; Gibert, CL; Xiang, Y; Wang, J; Kotler, D; Raghavan, S; Ei-Sadr, WM; Beirn, T
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AIDS in childhood: Cardiac involvement with and without triple combination antiretroviral therapy
Cunha, MDSA; de Siqueira, AG; dos Santos, SR; de Abreu, TF; de Oliveira, RHS; Baptista, DM; Dantas, MCF; Carvalho, MF; Guedes, LG
Arquivos Brasileiros De Cardiologia, 90(1): 11-17.

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Calza, L; Manfredi, R; Pocaterra, D; Chiodo, F
Journal of Infection, 57(1): 16-32.
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Current and future treatments of HIV-associated dyslipidemia
Bennett, MT; Johns, KW; Bondy, GP
Future Lipidology, 3(2): 175-188.
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Cardiovascular disease prevention and treatment in patients with human immunodeficiency virus
Magen, E; Elbirt, D; Sthoeger, Z
Israel Medical Association Journal, 7(4): 252-256.

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Jerico, C; Knobel, H; Montero, M; Sorli, ML; Guelar, A; Gimeno, JL; Saballs, P; Lopez-Colomes, JL; Pedro-Botet, J
American Journal of Hypertension, 18(): 1396-1401.
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Effects of highly active antiretroviral therapy on paediatric metabolite levels
Rhoads, MP; Smith, CJ; Tudor-Williams, G; Kyd, P; Walters, S; Sabin, CA; Lyall, EGH
HIV Medicine, 7(1): 16-24.

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Sequencing antiretroviral drugs for long-lasting suppression of HIV replication
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New Microbiologica, 28(4): 281-297.

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Noor, MA; Flint, OP; Maa, JF; Parker, RA
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Medical Journal of Australia
Ten years of highly active antiretroviral therapy for HIV infection
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Medical Journal of Australia, 186(3): 146-151.

HIV Medicine
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HIV Medicine, 10(2): 79-87.
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The Association Between the Receipt of Lipid Lowering Therapy and HIV Status Among Veterans Who Met NCEP/ATP III Criteria for the Receipt of Lipid Lowering Medication
Freiberg, MS; Leaf, DA; Goulet, JL; Goetz, MB; Oursler, KK; Gibert, CL; Rodriguez-Barradas, MC; Butt, AA; Justice, AC
Journal of General Internal Medicine, 24(3): 334-340.
International Journal of Epidemiology
Mortality of HIV-infected patients starting potent antiretroviral therapy: comparison with the general population in nine industrialized countries
Zwahlen, M; Harris, R; May, M; Hogg, R; Costagliola, D; de Wolf, F; Gill, J; Fatkenheuer, G; Lewden, C; Saag, M; Staszewski, S; Monforte, AD; Casabona, J; Lampe, F; Justice, A; von Wyl, V; Egger, M; Casabona, J; Chene, G; Costagliola, D; Dabis, F; Monforte, AD; de Wolf, F; Egger, M; Fatkenheuer, G; Gill, J; Hogg, R; Justice, A; Kitahata, M; Lampe, F; Ledergerber, B; Leport, C; May, M; Mocroft, A; Phillips, A; Reiss, P; Saag, M; Sabin, C; Staszewski, S; Sterne, J; Harris, R; Beckthold, B; Yip, B; Dauer, B; Fusco, J; Darney, E; Rickenbach, M; Lavignolle, V; van Leth, F; Pereira, E; Pezzotti, P; Phillips, A; Sabin, C
International Journal of Epidemiology, 38(6): 1624-1633.
American Journal of Cardiology
Long-term cardiovascular risk with protease inhibitors and management of the dyslipidemia
Kannel, WB; Giordano, M
American Journal of Cardiology, 94(7): 901-906.
HIV Clinical Trials
Coronary heart disease risk, dyslipidemia, and management in HIV-infected persons
Fichtenbaum, CJ
HIV Clinical Trials, 5(6): 416-433.

Xv International AIDS Conference: Clinical Research, Treatment, and Care
An extremely different dysmetabolism between the two available HIV non-nucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitors
Manfredi, R; Calza, L; Chiodo, F
Xv International AIDS Conference: Clinical Research, Treatment, and Care, (): 279-282.

HIV Medicine
The use of the Framingham equation to predict myocardial infarctions in HIV-infected patients: comparison with observed events in the D : A : D Study
Law, MG; Friis-Moller, N; El-Sadr, WM; Weber, R; Reiss, P; Monforte, AD; Thiebaut, R; Morfeldt, L; De Wit, S; Pradier, C; Calvo, G; Kirk, O; Sabin, CA; Phillips, AN; Lundgren, JD
HIV Medicine, 7(4): 218-230.

HIV Clinical Trials
Lipid profile during pregnancy in HIV-infected women
Floridia, M; Tamburrini, E; Ravizza, M; Tibaldi, C; Probizer, MFR; Anzidei, G; Sansone, M; Mori, F; Rubino, E; Meli, M; Dalzero, S; Guaraldi, G
HIV Clinical Trials, 7(4): 184-193.
Infectious Disease Clinics of North America
Management of antiretroviral treatment-related complications
Hoffman, RM; Currier, JS
Infectious Disease Clinics of North America, 21(1): 103-+.
Journal of Medical Virology
Soluble urokinase plasminogen activator receptor is a marker of dysmetabolism in HIV-infected patients receiving highly active antiretroviral therapy
Andersen, O; Eugen-Olsen, J; Kofoed, K; Iversen, J; Haugaard, SB
Journal of Medical Virology, 80(2): 209-216.
Wiener Klinische Wochenschrift
Myocardial disease in human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection: a review
Sani, MU
Wiener Klinische Wochenschrift, 120(): 77-87.
Journal of Antimicrobial Chemotherapy
HIV-associated lipodystrophy: a review of underlying mechanisms and therapeutic options
Mallewa, JE; Wilkins, E; Vilar, J; Mallewa, M; Doran, D; Back, D; Pirmohamed, M
Journal of Antimicrobial Chemotherapy, 62(4): 648-660.
European Journal of Vascular and Endovascular Surgery
Pseudoaneurysm of the femoral artery in a HIV-infected man
Bongiovanni, M; Pisacreta, M; Ortu, M; Tordato, E; Codemo, R; Gervasoni, C; Gornati, R; Trovati, S; Piolini, R; Chiesa, E; Porretta, T; Bini, T
European Journal of Vascular and Endovascular Surgery, 28(4): 451-453.
Atherosclerosis in patients infected with HIV is influenced by a mutant monocyte chemoattractant protein-1 allele
Alonso-Villaverde, C; Coll, B; Parra, S; Montero, M; Calvo, N; Tous, M; Joven, J; Masana, L
Circulation, 110(): 2204-2209.
Wiener Klinische Wochenschrift
Lipodystrophy and metabolic abnormalities in Slovenian HIV-infected patients
Tomazic, J; Silic, A; Karner, P; Vidmar, L; Maticic, M; Poljak, M; Ihan, A; Janez, A
Wiener Klinische Wochenschrift, 116(): 755-759.

Netherlands Journal of Medicine
Antiretroviral therapy adults infected in previously untreated with the human immunodeficiency virus type I: established and potential determinants of virological outcome
Lowe, SH; Prins, JM; Lange, JMA
Netherlands Journal of Medicine, 62(): 424-440.

HIV Clinical Trials
Atherosclerotic cardiovascular disease risk in the HAART-treated HIV-1 population
Mehta, N; Reilly, M
HIV Clinical Trials, 6(1): 5-24.

Antiviral Therapy
Predictors of hypertension and changes of blood pressure in HIV-infected patients
Thiebaut, R; El-Sadr, WM; Friis-Moller, N; Rickenbach, M; Reiss, P; Monforte, AD; Morfeldt, L; Fontas, E; Kirk, O; De Wit, S; Calvo, G; Law, MG; Dabis, F; Sabin, CA; Lundgren, JD
Antiviral Therapy, 10(7): 811-823.

The challenge of an ageing haemophilic population
Dolan, G
Haemophilia, 16(): 11-16.

Cardio- and cerebrovascular events in HIV-infected persons
Monforte, AD; Sabin, CA; Phillips, AN; Reiss, P; Weber, R; Kirk, O; El-Sadr, W; De Wit, S; Mateu, S; Petoumenos, K; Dabis, F; Pradier, C; Morfeldt, FL; Lundgren, JD; Friis-Moller, N; Collins, S; Loeliger, E; Tressler, R; Weller, I; Sawitz, A; Rickenbach, M; Pezzotti, P; Krum, E; Zaheri, S; Lavignolle, V; Sundstrom, A; Poll, B; Fontas, E; Torres, F; Kjaer, J
AIDS, 18(): 1811-1817.

Mechanism of highly active anti-retroviral therapy-induced hyperlipidemia in HIV-infected individuals
Carpentier, A; Patterson, BW; Uffelman, KD; Salit, I; Lewis, GF
Atherosclerosis, 178(1): 165-172.
Clinical Therapeutics
An open-label, prospective, observational study of the incidence of coronary artery disease in patients with HIV infection receiving highly active antiretroviral therapy
Barbaro, G; Di Lorenzo, G; Cirelli, A; Grisorio, B; Lucchini, A; Hazra, C; Barbarini, G
Clinical Therapeutics, 25(9): 2405-2418.

American Journal of Clinical Nutrition
Evaluation of high-protein supplementation in weight-stable HIV-positive subjects with a history of weight loss: a randomized, double-blind, multicenter trial
Sattler, FR; Rajicic, N; Mulligan, K; Yarasheski, KE; Koletar, SL; Zolopa, A; Alston, B; Zackin, SR; Bistrian, B
American Journal of Clinical Nutrition, 88(5): 1313-1321.
Experimental Biology and Medicine
Ritonavir Increases CD36, ABCA1 and CYP27 Expression in THP-1 Macrophages
Pou, J; Rebollo, A; Roglans, N; Sanchez, RM; Vazquez-Carrera, M; Laguna, JC; Pedro-Botet, J; Alegret, M
Experimental Biology and Medicine, 233(): 1572-1582.
HIV Medicine
Association between HIV infection and attenuated diurnal blood pressure rhythm in untreated hypertensive individuals
Baekken, M; Os, I; Stenehjem, A; Sandvik, L; Oektedalen, O
HIV Medicine, 10(1): 44-52.
Revista Da Associacao Medica Brasileira
Cardiovascular Complications in the Acquired Immunodeficiency Syndrome
Barbaro, G; da Silva, EFR
Revista Da Associacao Medica Brasileira, 55(5): 621-630.

Carotid artery disease and human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection
Serna-Candel, C; Portilla, J; Matias-Guiu, J
Neurologia, 24(5): 318-330.

Plos One
Increasing Rates of Obesity among HIV-Infected Persons during the HIV Epidemic
Crum-Cianflone, N; Roediger, MP; Eberly, L; Headd, M; Marconi, V; Ganesan, A; Weintrob, A; Barthel, RV; Fraser, S; Agan, BK
Plos One, 5(4): -.
ARTN e10106
HIV Medicine
Impact of antiretroviral choice on hypercholesterolaemia events: the role of the nucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitor backbone
Jones, R; Sawleshwarkar, S; Michailidis, C; Jackson, A; Mandalia, S; Stebbing, J; Bower, M; Nelson, M; Gazzard, BG; Moyle, GJ
HIV Medicine, 6(6): 396-402.

Journal of Clinical Pharmacology
Practical perspectives on the use of tipranavir in combination with other medications: Lessons learned from pharmacokinetic studies
Boffito, M; Maitland, D; Pozniak, A
Journal of Clinical Pharmacology, 46(2): 130-139.
International Journal of Tuberculosis and Lung Disease
HIV infection and tobacco smoking behaviour: prospects for prevention? ANRS CO3 Aquitaine Cohort, 2002
Benard, A; Tessier, JF; Rambeloarisoa, J; Bonnet, F; Fossoux, H; Neau, D; Dutronc, H; Lazaro, E; Dabis, F; Chene, G
International Journal of Tuberculosis and Lung Disease, 10(4): 378-383.

Medecine Et Maladies Infectieuses
Medical care for HIV infection in France in 2005, the NADIS cohort study on 7416 patients
Poizot-Martin, I; Pugliese, P; Enel, P; Cuzin, L; Billaud, E; Duvivier, C; Yazdanpanah, Y
Medecine Et Maladies Infectieuses, 36(9): 454-459.
Annals of Clinical Biochemistry
The basis and management of metabolic abnormalities associated with cardiovascular risk in human immunodeficiency virus infection and its treatment
Crook, M
Annals of Clinical Biochemistry, 44(): 219-231.

Clinical Infectious Diseases
Endothelial adhesion molecules are associated with inflammation in subjects with HIV disease
Melendez, MM; McNurlan, MA; Mynarcik, DC; Khan, S; Gelato, MC
Clinical Infectious Diseases, 46(5): 775-780.
Toxicologic Pathology
The Role of Protease Inhibitors in the Pathogenesis of HIV-Associated Lipodystrophy: Cellular Mechanisms and Clinical Implications
Flint, OP; Noor, MA; Hruz, PW; Hylemon, PB; Yarasheski, K; Kotler, DP; Parker, RA; Bellamine, A
Toxicologic Pathology, 37(1): 65-77.
Plos One
Respiratory Symptoms and Airway Obstruction in HIV-Infected Subjects in the HAART Era
George, MP; Kannass, M; Huang, L; Sciurba, FC; Morris, A
Plos One, 4(7): -.
ARTN e6328
American Journal of Psychiatry
Suicide in HIV-Infected Individuals and the General Population in Switzerland, 1988-2008
Keiser, O; Spoerri, A; Brinkhof, MWG; Hasse, B; Gayet-Ageron, A; Tissot, F; Christen, A; Battegay, M; Schmid, P; Bernasconi, E; Egger, M
American Journal of Psychiatry, 167(2): 143-150.
Revista De Investigacion Clinica
Metabolic abnormalities in patients with HIV infection
Rodriguez-Carranza, SI; Aguilar-Salinas, CA
Revista De Investigacion Clinica, 56(2): 193-208.

Journal of Endovascular Therapy
Multiple HIV-related aneurysms: Open and endovascular treatment
Heikkinen, MA; Dake, MD; Alsac, JM; Zarins, CK
Journal of Endovascular Therapy, 12(3): 405-410.

Heart and Vessels
Rapid progression of atherosclerotic coronary artery disease in patients with human immunodeficiency virus infection
Spieker, LE; Karadag, B; Binggeli, C; Corti, R
Heart and Vessels, 20(4): 171-174.
Journal of Antimicrobial Chemotherapy
The role of efavirenz compared with protease inhibitors in the body fat changes associated with highly active antiretroviral therapy
Perez-Molina, JA; Domingo, P; Martinez, E; Moreno, S
Journal of Antimicrobial Chemotherapy, 62(2): 234-245.
HIV Medicine
British HIV Association guidelines for the treatment of HIV-1-infected adults with antiretroviral therapy 2008
Gazzard, BG
HIV Medicine, 9(8): 563-608.
HIV Medicine
Ankle-branch index and HIV: the role of antiretrovirals
Olalla, J; Salas, D; Del Arco, A; De la Torre, J; Prada, JL; Machin-Hamalainen, S; Garcia-Alegria, J
HIV Medicine, 10(1): 1-5.
Expert Review of Anti-Infective Therapy
Trends in the European HIV/AIDS epidemic: a perspective from Italy
Madeddu, G; Rezza, G; Mura, MS
Expert Review of Anti-Infective Therapy, 7(1): 25-36.
AIDS Reader
HIV-Related Lipodystrophy in Africa and Asia
Womack, J
AIDS Reader, 19(4): 131-+.

Journal of Hepatology
Hepatocellular carcinoma in HIV-infected patients comes of age: The convergence of epidemiology and treatment effectiveness
Sulkowski, M
Journal of Hepatology, 50(4): 655-658.
International Journal of Immunopathology and Pharmacology
Metabolic syndrome and cardiovascular risk in HIV-infected patients with lipodystrophy
Falasca, K; Ucciferri, C; Manzoli, L; Mancino, P; Pizzigallo, E; Conti, P; Vecchiet, J
International Journal of Immunopathology and Pharmacology, 20(3): 519-527.

Antiviral Therapy
The effect of depressive symptoms at ART initiation on HIV clinical progression implications in clinical and mortality: implications in clinical practice
Villes, V; Spire, B; Lewden, C; Perronn, C; Besnier, JM; Garre, M; Chene, G; Leport, C; Carrieri, MP; Le Moing, V
Antiviral Therapy, 12(7): 1067-1074.

Archives of Medical Research
No evidence of increased risk for certain highly atherogenic lipoprotein phenotypes in HIV-infected patients
Catzin-Kuhlmann, A; Castillo-Martinez, L; Colin-Ramirez, E; Valles, V; Aguilar-Salinas, CA; Sierra, J; Calva, JJ
Archives of Medical Research, 39(1): 84-91.
Clinical Infectious Diseases
Changes over time in risk factors for cardiovascular disease and use of lipid-lowering drugs in HIV-infected individuals and impact on myocardial infarction
Sabin, CA; Monforte, AD; Friis-Moller, N; Weber, R; El-Sadr, WM; Reiss, P; Kirk, O; Mercie, P; Law, MG; De Wit, S; Pradier, C; Phillips, AN; Lundgren, JD
Clinical Infectious Diseases, 46(7): 1101-1110.
Use of nucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitors and risk of myocardial infarction in HIV-infected patients enrolled in the D : A : D study: a multi-cohort collaboration
Sabin, CA; Worm, SW; Weber, R; Reiss, P; El-Sadr, W; Dabis, F; De Wit, S; Law, M; Monforte, AD; Friis-Moller, N; Kirk, O; Pradier, C; Weller, I; Phillips, AN; Lundgren, JD
Lancet, 371(): 1417-1426.

Statistics in Medicine
Mixed modeling and multiple imputation for unobservable genotype clusters
Foulkes, AS; Yucel, R; Reilly, MP
Statistics in Medicine, 27(): 2784-2801.
HIV Clinical Trials
Pilot study of saquinavir and lopinavir/ritonavir twice daily in protease inhibitor-naive HIV-positive patients
Hellinger, J; Cohen, C; Morris, A; Sheble-Hall, S; Gordon, D; Foy, C; Jackson-Pope, L; Shevitz, A; van Schaic, E
HIV Clinical Trials, 6(2): 107-117.

HIV Medicine
Antiretroviral therapy in HIV-positive men is associated with increased apolipoprotein CIII in triglyceride-rich lipoproteins
Rimland, D; Guest, JL; Hernandez, I; del Rio, C; Le, NA; Brown, WV
HIV Medicine, 6(5): 326-333.

Enfermedades Infecciosas Y Microbiologia Clinica
Bupropion use for smoking cessation in HIV-infected patients receiving antiretroviral therapy
Pedrol-Clotet, E; Deig-Comerma, E; Ribell-Bachs, M; Vidal-Castell, I; Garcia-Rodriguez, P; Soler, A
Enfermedades Infecciosas Y Microbiologia Clinica, 24(8): 509-511.

The side effects of antiretroviral therapy
Hartmann, M
Hautarzt, 57(): 969-974.
New England Journal of Medicine
Class of antiretroviral drugs and the risk of myocardial infarction
Friis-Moller, N; Reiss, P; Sabin, CA; Weber, R; Monforte, AD; El-Sadr, W; De Wit, S; Kirk, O; Fontas, E; Law, MG; Phillips, A; Lundgren, JD
New England Journal of Medicine, 356(): 1723-1735.

AIDS Reader
Parotid gland enlargement and fat maldistribution syndrome in an HIV-infected man
Pirog, SC; Agoff, SN; Aboulafia, DM
AIDS Reader, 17(1): 26-28.

AIDS Reviews
Disorders of Body Fat Distribution in HIV-1-Infected Patients
Moreno, S; Miralles, C; Negredo, E; Domingo, P; Estrada, V; Gutierrez, F; Lozano, F; Martinez, E
AIDS Reviews, 11(3): 126-134.

Journal of the American College of Cardiology
Cardiovascular Disease in Adult and Pediatric HIV/AIDS
McDonald, CL; Kaltman, JR
Journal of the American College of Cardiology, 54(): 1185-1188.
Journal of Infectious Diseases
Risk of Myocardial Infarction in Patients with HIV Infection Exposed to Specific Individual Antiretroviral Drugs from the 3 Major Drug Classes: The Data Collection on Adverse Events of Anti-HIV Drugs (D:A:D) Study
Worm, SW; Sabin, C; Weber, R; Reiss, P; El-Sadr, W; Dabis, F; De Wit, S; Law, M; Monforte, AD; Friis-Moller, N; Kirk, O; Fontas, E; Weller, I; Phillips, A; Lundgren, J
Journal of Infectious Diseases, 201(3): 318-330.
New England Journal of Medicine
Combination antiretroviral therapy and the risk of myocardial infarction
Friis-Moller, N; Sabin, CA; Weber, R; Monforte, AD; El-Sadr, WM; Reiss, P; Thiebaut, R; Morfeldt, L; De Wit, S; Pradier, C; Calvo, G; Law, MG; Kirk, O; Phillips, AN; Lundgren, JD; Lundgren, JD; Weber, R; Monteforte, AD; Bartsch, G; Reiss, P; Dabis, F; Morfeldt, L; De Wit, S; Pradier, C; Calvo, G; Law, MG; Kirk, O; Phillips, AN; Houyez, F; Loeliger, E; Tressler, R; Weller, I; Friis-Moller, N; Sabin, CA; Sjol, A; Lundgren, JD; Sawitz, A; Rickenbach, M; Pezzotti, P; Krum, E; Meester, R; Lavignolle, V; Sundstrom, A; Poll, B; Fontas, E; Torres, F; Petoumenos, K; Kjaer, J; Hammer, S; Neaton, J; Sjol, A; de Wolf, F; van der Ven, E; Zaheri, S; Van Valkengoed, L; Meester, R; Bronsveld, W; Weigel, H; Brinkman, K; Frissen, P; ten Veen, J; Hillbrand, M; van Dam, P; Schieveld, S; Mulder, J; van Gorp, E; Meenhorst, P; van Eeden, A; Danner, S; Claessen, F; Perenboom, R; Schattenkerk, JKE; Godfried, M; Lange, J; Lowe, S; van der Meer, J; Nellen, F; Pogany, K; van der Poll, T; Prins, J; Reiss, R; Ruys, T; van der Valk, M; Wit, F; Richter, C; van Leusen, R; Vriesendorp, R; Jeurissen, F; Kauffmann, R; Koger, E; Brevenboer, B; ten Napel, C; Sprenger, HG; Law, G; ten Kate, RW; Leemhuis, M; Kroon, F; Schippers, E; Schrey, G; van der Geest, S; Verbon, A; Koopmans, P; Keuter, M; Telgt, D; van der Ven, A; van der Ende, M; Gyssens, I; de Marie, S; Juttmann, J; van der Heul, C; Schneider, M; Borleffs, J; Hoepelman, I; Jaspers, C; Matute, A; Schurink, C; Blok, W; Salamon, R; Beylot, J; Dupon, M; Le Bras, M; Pellegrin, JL; Ragnaud, JM; Dabis, F; Chene, G; Jacqmin-Gadda, H; Rhiebaut, R; Lawson-Ayayi, S; Lavignolle, V; Balestre, E; Blaizeau, MJ; Decoin, M; Formaggio, AM; Delveaux, S; Labarerre, S; Uwamaliya, B; Vimard, E; Merchadou, L; Palmer, G; Touchard, D; Dutoit, D; Pereira, F; Boulant, B; Beylot, J; Morlat, P; Bernard, N; Bonarek, M; Bonnet, F; Coadou, B; Gelie, P; Jaubert, D; Nouts, C; Lacoste, D; Dupon, M; Dutronc, H; Cipriano, G; Lafarie, S; Chossat, I; Lacut, JY; Leng, B; Pellegrin, JL; Mercie, P; Viallard, JF; Faure, I; Rispal, P; Cipriano, C; Tchamgoue, S; Le Bras, M; Djossou, F; Malvy, D; Pivetaud, JP; Ragnaud, JM; Chambon, D; De La Taille, C; Galperine, T; Lafarie, S; Neau, D; Ochoa, A; Beylot, C; Doutre, MS; Bezian, JH; Moreau, JF; Taupin, JL; Conri, C; Constans, J; Couzigou, P; Castera, L; Fleury, H; Lafon, ME; Masquelier, B; Pellegrin, I; Trimoulet, P; Moreau, F; Mestre, C; Series, C; Taytard, A; Law, M; Petoumenos, K; Anderson, J; Bal, J; Mijch, A; Watson, K; Roth, N; Wood, H; Austin, D; Gowers, A; Baker, B; McFarlane, R; Carr, A; Cooper, D; Chuah, J; Fankhauser, W; Mallal, S; Skett, J; Calvo, G; Torres, F; Mateau, S; Domingo, P; Sambeat, MA; Gatell, J; Del Cacho, E; Cadafalch, J; Fuster, M; Codina, C; Sirera, G; Vaque, A; Clumeck, N; De Wit, S; Gerard, M; Hildebrand, M; Kabeya, K; Konopnicki, D; Payen, MC; Poll, B; Van Laethem, Y; Neaton, J; Bartsch, G; El-Sadr, WM; Krum, E; Thompson, G; Wentworth, D; Luskin-Hawk, R; Telzak, E; El-Sadr, WM; Abrams, DI; Cohn, D; Markowitz, N; Arduino, R; Mushatt, D; Friedland, G; Perez, G; Tedaldi, E; Fisher, E; Gordin, F; Crane, LR; Sampson, J; Baxter, J; Kirk, O; Mocroft, A; Phillips, AN; Lundgren, JD; Vetter, N; Clumeck, N; Hermans, P; Colebunders, R; Machala, L; Nielsen, J; Benfield, T; Gerstoft, J; Katzenstein, T; Roge, B; Skinhoj, P; Pedersen, C; Katlama, C; Viard, JP; Saint-Marc, T; Vanhems, P; Pradier, C; Dietrich, M; Manegold, C; van Lunzen, J; Miller, V; Staszewski, S; Bieckel, M; Goebel, FD; Salzberger, B; Rockstroh, J; Kosmidis, J; Gargalianos, P; Sambatakou, H; Perdios, J; Panos, G; Karydis, I; Filandras, A; Banhegyi, D; Mulcahy, F; Yust, I; Turner, D; Pollack, S; Ben-Ishai, Z; Bentwich, Z; Maayan, S; Vella, S; Chiesi, A; Arici, C; Pristera, R; Mazzotta, F; Gabbuti, A; Esposito, R; Bedini, A; Chirianni, A; Montesarchio, E; Vullo, V; Santopadre, P; Narciso, P; Antinori, A; Franci, P; Zaccarelli, M; Lazzarin, A; Finazzi, R; Monforte, VO; Hemmer, R; Staub, T; Reiss, P; Bruun, J; Maeland, A; Ormaasen, V; Knysz, B; Gasiorowski, J; Horban, A; Prokopowicz, D; Boron-Kaczmarska, A; Pnyka, M; Beniowski, M; Trocha, H; Antunes, F; Mansinho, K; Proenca, R; Gonzalez-Lahoz, J; Diaz, B; Garcia-Benayas, T; Martin-Carbonero, L; Soriano, V; Clotet, B; Jou, A; Conejero, J; Tural, C; Gatell, JM; Miro, JM; Blaxhult, A; Heidemann, B; Pehrson, P; Ledergerber, B; Weber, R; Francioli, P; Telenti, A; Hirschel, B; Soravia-Dunand, V; Furrer, H; Fisher, M; Brettle, R; Barton, S; Johnson, AM; Mercey, D; Loveday, C; Johnson, MA; Pinching, A; Parkin, J; Weber, J; Scullard, G; Morfeldt, L; Thulin, G; Sunstrom, A; Akerlund, B; Koppel, K; Karlsson, A; Flamholc, L; Hakangard, C; Monforte, AD; Pezzotti, P; Moroni, M; Monforte, AD; Cargnel, A; Merli, S; Vigevani, GM; Pastecchia, C; Lazzarin, A; Novati, R; Caggese, L; Moioli, C; Mura, MS; Mannazzu, M; Suter, F; Arici, C; Manconi, PE; Piano, P; Mazzotta, F; Lo Caputo, S; Poggio, A; Bottari, G; Pagano, G; Alessandrini, A; Scasso, A; Vincenti, A; Abbadesse, V; Mancuso, S; Alberici, F; Ruggieri, A; Arlotti, M; Ortolani, P; De Lalla, F; Tositti, G; Piersantelli, N; Piscopo, R; Raise, E; Pasquinucci, S; Soscia, F; Tacconi, L; Tirelli, U; Nasti, G; Santoro, D; Pusterla, L; Carosi, G; Castelli, F; Cadeo, G; Vangi, D; Carnevale, G; Galloni, D; Filice, G; Bruno, R; Sinicco, A; Sciandra, M; Caramello, P; Gennero, L; Soranzo, ML; Bonasso, M; Rizzardini, G; Migliorino, G; Chiodo, F; Colangeli, V; Magnani, G; Ursitti, M; Menichetti, F; Martinelli, C; Esposito, R; Mussini, C; Ghinelli, F; Sighinolfi, L; Coronado, O; Zauli, T; Ballardini, G; Montroni, M; Zoli, A; Petrelli, E; Cioppi, A; Ortona, L; De Luca, A; Petrosillo, N; Noto, P; Narciso, P; Salcuni, P; Antinori, A; De Longis, P; Vullo, V; Lichtner, M; Pastore, G; Minafra, G; Chiriann, A; Loiacono, L; Piazza, M; Nappa, S; Abrescia, N; De Marco, M; Colomba, A; Prestileo, T; De Stefano, C; La Gala, A; Ferraro, T; Scerbo, A; Grima, P; Tundo, P; Pizzigallo, E; D'Alessandro, M; Grisorio, B; Ferrara, S; Pradier, C; Fontas, E; Caissotti, C; Dellamonica, P; Bentz, L; Bernard, E; Chaillou, S; De Salvador-Guillouet, F; Durant, J; Guttman, R; Heripret, L; Mondain-Miton, V; Perbost, I; Prouvost-Keller, B; Pugliese, P; Rahelinirina, V; Roger, PM; Vandenbos, F; Bernasconi, E; Bucher, H; Burgisser, P; Cattacin, S; Egger, M; Erb, P; Fierz, W; Fischer, M; Flepp, M; Fontana, A; Francioli, P; Furrer, HJ; Gorgievski, M; Gunthard, H; Hirschel, B; Kaiser, L; Kind, C; Klimkait, T; Ledergerber, B; Lauper, U; Opravil, M; Paccaud, F; Pantaleo, G; Perrin, L; Piffaretti, JC; Rickenbach, M; Rudin, C; Schupbach, J; Speck, R; Telenti, A; Trkola, A; Vernazza, P; Weber, R; Yerly, S
New England Journal of Medicine, 349(): 1993-2003.

Jaids-Journal of Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndromes
Do new protease inhibitors offer improved management options? Issues of PI tolerability and safety
Sax, PE
Jaids-Journal of Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndromes, 35(): S22-S34.

Medicina Clinica
Cardiovascular risk and HIV-infection in prison inmates
Mauri, M; Pardo, MV; Sole, R; Garcia-Maurino, L
Medicina Clinica, 124(): 636.

HIV Medicine
Implementing the number needed to harm in clinical practice: risk of myocardial infarction in HIV-1-infected patients treated with abacavir
Kowalska, JD; Kirk, O; Mocroft, A; Hoj, L; Friis-Moller, N; Reiss, P; Weller, I; Lundgren, JD
HIV Medicine, 11(3): 200-208.
Presse Medicale
Metabolic syndrome: A major risk factor for atherosclerosis in HIV-infected patients (SHIVA study)
de Saint Martin, L; Pasquier, E; Roudaut, N; Vandhuick, O; Vallet, S; Bellein, V; Bressollette, L
Presse Medicale, 37(4): 579-584.

Journal of Infection
Association of non-HDL cholesterol with subclinical atherosclerosis in HIV-positive patients
BadioU, S; Thiebaut, R; Aurillac-Lavignolle, V; Dabis, F; Laporte, F; Cristol, JP; Mercie, P
Journal of Infection, 57(1): 47-54.
Journal of Infection
suPAR associates to glucose metabolic aberration during glucose stimulation in HIV-infected patients on HAART
Andersen, O; Eugen-Olsen, J; Kofoed, K; Iversen, J; Haugaard, SB
Journal of Infection, 57(1): 55-63.
European Journal of Nuclear Medicine and Molecular Imaging
Coronary and peripheral endothelial function in HIV patients studied with positron emission tomography and flow-mediated dilation: relation to hypercholesterolemia
Lebech, AM; Kristoffersen, US; Wiinberg, N; Kofoed, K; Andersen, O; Hesse, B; Petersen, CL; Gerstoft, J; Kjaer, A
European Journal of Nuclear Medicine and Molecular Imaging, 35(): 2049-2058.
Diabetes Mellitus, Preexisting Coronary Heart Disease, and the Risk of Subsequent Coronary Heart Disease Events in Patients Infected With Human Immunodeficiency Virus The Data Collection on Adverse Events of Anti-HIV Drugs (D:A:D Study)
Worm, SW; De Wit, S; Weber, R; Sabin, CA; Reiss, P; El-Sadr, W; Monforte, AD; Kirk, O; Fontas, E; Dabis, F; Law, MG; Lundgren, JD; Friis-Moller, N
Circulation, 119(6): 805-U75.
Increased soluble vascular cell adhesion molecule-1 plasma levels and soluble intercellular adhesion molecule-1 during antiretroviral therapy interruption and retention of elevated soluble vascular cellular adhesion molecule-1 levels following resumption of antiretroviral therapy
Papasavvas, E; Azzoni, L; Pistilli, M; Hancock, A; Reynolds, G; Gallo, C; Ondercin, J; Kostman, JR; Mounzer, K; Shull, J; Montaner, LJ
AIDS, 22(): 1153-1161.

Plos One
Increase in Non-AIDS Related Conditions as Causes of Death among HIV-Infected Individuals in the HAART Era in Brazil
Pacheco, AG; Tuboi, SH; Faulhaber, JC; Harrison, LH; Schechter, M
Plos One, 3(1): -.
ARTN e1531
Proinflammatory Markers, Insulin Sensitivity, and Cardiometabolic Risk Factors in Treated HIV Infection
Samaras, K; Gan, SK; Peake, PW; Carr, A; Campbell, LV
Obesity, 17(1): 53-59.
Collegium Antropologicum
Dyslipidemia and Adherence to the Mediterranean Diet in Croatian HIV-Infected Patients during the First Year of Highly Active Antiretroviral Therapy
Turcinov, D; Stanley, C; Canchola, JA; Rutherford, GW; Novotny, TE; Begovac, J
Collegium Antropologicum, 33(2): 423-430.

Current HIV Research
Caring for HIV-Infected Patients in the ICU in The Highly Active Antiretroviral Therapy Era
Corona, A; Raimondi, F
Current HIV Research, 7(6): 569-579.

Increased tissue factor expression on circulating monocytes in chronic HIV infection: relationship to in vivo coagulation and immune activation
Funderburg, NT; Mayne, E; Sieg, SF; Asaad, R; Jiang, W; Kalinowska, M; Luciano, AA; Stevens, W; Rodriguez, B; Brenchley, JM; Douek, DC; Lederman, MM
Blood, 115(2): 161-167.
New England Journal of Medicine
Intensive care of patients with HIV infection
Huang, L; Quartin, A; Jones, D; Havlir, DV
New England Journal of Medicine, 355(2): 173-181.

Medicina Clinica
HIV infection: from Pneumocystis to statins
Munoz, RP; Gonzalez, JS
Medicina Clinica, 127(7): 253-254.

Expert Opinion on Drug Metabolism & Toxicology
Toxic metabolic syndrome associated with HAART
Haugaard, SB
Expert Opinion on Drug Metabolism & Toxicology, 2(3): 429-445.
AIDS Patient Care and Stds
Global cardiovascular risk in patients with HIV infection: Concordance and differences in estimates according to three risk equations (Framingham, SCORE, and PROCAM)
Knobel, H; Jerico, C; Montero, M; Sorli, ML; Velat, M; Guelar, A; Saballs, P; Pedro-Botet, J
AIDS Patient Care and Stds, 21(7): 452-457.
AIDS Patient Care and Stds
Tobacco addiction and HIV infection: Toward the implementation of cessation programs. ANRS CO3 Aquitaine Cohort
Benard, A; Bonnet, F; Tessier, JF; Fossoux, H; Dupon, M; Mercie, P; Ragnaud, JM; Viallard, JF; Dabis, F; Chene, G
AIDS Patient Care and Stds, 21(7): 458-468.
Jaids-Journal of Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndromes
Antiretroviral treatment strategies and immune reconstitution in treatment-naive HIV-infected patients with advanced disease
Soria, A; Lazzarin, A
Jaids-Journal of Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndromes, 46(): S19-S30.

Expert Opinion on Pharmacotherapy
HIV protease inhibitors: recent clinical trials and recommendations on use
Fernandez-Montero, JV; Barreiro, P; Soriano, V
Expert Opinion on Pharmacotherapy, 10(): 1615-1629.
Current HIV Research
Cystatin C, Adipokines and Cardiovascular Risk in HIV Infected Patients
Falasca, K; Ucciferri, C; Mancino, P; Di Iorio, A; Vignale, F; Pizzigallo, E; Vecchiet, J
Current HIV Research, 8(5): 405-410.

Metabolic complications of HIV therapy in children
McComsey, GA; Leonard, E
AIDS, 18(): 1753-1768.

HIV Medicine
Impact of highly active antiretroviral therapy on organ-specific manifestations of HIV-1 infection
Torre, D; Speranza, F; Martegani, R
HIV Medicine, 6(2): 66-78.

International Journal of Tuberculosis and Lung Disease
Management of adults living with HIV/AIDS in low-income, high-burden settings, with special reference to persons with tuberculosis
Fujiwara, PI; Clevenbergh, P; Dlodlo, RA
International Journal of Tuberculosis and Lung Disease, 9(9): 946-958.

Subclinical carotid atherosclerosis in HIV-infected patients - Role of combination antiretroviral therapy
Jerico, C; Knobel, H; Calvo, N; Sorli, ML; Guelar, A; Gimeno-Bayon, JL; Saballs, P; Lopez-Colomes, JL; Pedro-Botet, J
Stroke, 37(3): 812-817.
Anales De Medicina Interna
Sex influence in lipodystrophy of HIV-infected patients and its association with cardiovascular risk factors
Redo, MLS; Freud, HK; Montero, M; Alba, CJ; Grimberg, AG; Montoya, JPB
Anales De Medicina Interna, 24(4): 168-172.

Current Medical Research and Opinion
HIV lipodystrophy and its metabolic consequences: implications for clinical practice
Wierzbicki, AS; Purdon, SD; Hardman, TC; Kulasegaram, R; Peters, BS
Current Medical Research and Opinion, 24(3): 609-624.
Diabetes Obesity & Metabolism
Antiretroviral therapy and the human immunodeficiency virus - improved survival but at what cost?
Bradbury, RA; Samaras, K
Diabetes Obesity & Metabolism, 10(6): 441-450.
AIDS Patient Care and Stds
Potential for new antiretrovirals to address unmet needs in the management of HIV-1 infection
Moyle, G; Gatell, J; Perno, CF; Ratanasuwan, W; Schechter, M; Tsoukas, C
AIDS Patient Care and Stds, 22(6): 459-471.
AIDS Reader
Hormonal contraception in HIV-positive women
Womack, J; Williams, A
AIDS Reader, 18(7): 372-+.

HIV Medicine
Effects of HIV status and antiretroviral therapy on blood pressure
Wilson, SL; Scullard, G; Fidler, SJ; Weber, JN; Poulter, NR
HIV Medicine, 10(6): 388-394.
Journal of Infectious Diseases
Lipid profiles in HIV-infected patients receiving combination antiretroviral therapy: Are different antiretroviral drugs associated with different lipid profiles?
Fontas, E; van Leth, F; Sabin, CA; Friis-Moller, N; Rickenbach, M; Monforte, AD; Kirk, O; Dupon, M; Morfeldt, L; Mateu, S; Petoumenos, K; El-Sadr, W; de Wit, S; Lundgren, JD; Pradier, C; Reiss, P
Journal of Infectious Diseases, 189(6): 1056-1074.

Clinical Infectious Diseases
Risk of metabolic abnormalities in patients infected with HIV receiving antiretroviral therapy that contains lopinavir-ritonavir
Martinez, E; Domingo, P; Galindo, MJ; Milinkovic, A; Arroyo, JA; Baldovi, F; Larrousse, M; Leon, A; de Lazzari, E; Gatell, JM
Clinical Infectious Diseases, 38(7): 1017-1023.

International Journal of Epidemiology
Causes of death among human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-infected adults in the era of potent antiretroviral therapy: emerging role of hepatitis and cancers, persistent role of AIDS
Lewden, C; Salmon, D; Morlat, P; Bevilacqua, S; Jougla, E; Bonnet, F; Heripret, L; Costagliola, D; May, T; Chene, G
International Journal of Epidemiology, 34(1): 121-130.

Circulation Research
Mitochondrial dysfunction in atherosclerosis
Madamanchi, NR; Runge, MS
Circulation Research, 100(4): 460-473.
Clinical Physiology and Functional Imaging
Carotid intima-media thickness in HIV patients treated with antiretroviral therapy
Lebech, AM; Wiinberg, N; Kristoffersen, US; Hesse, B; Petersen, CL; Gerstoft, J; Kjaer, A
Clinical Physiology and Functional Imaging, 27(3): 173-179.
Current HIV Research
Correlations between carotid IMT, factor VIII activity level and metabolic disturbances: A cardio-vascular risk factor in the HIV positive persons
de Saint Martin, L; Pasquier, E; Vandhuick, O; Arnaud, B; Vallet, S; Duchemin, J; Bellein, V; Bressollette, L
Current HIV Research, 5(3): 361-364.

Comparison of the risks of atherosclerotic events versus death from other causes associated with antiretroviral use
Kwong, GPS; Ghani, AC; Rode, RA; Bartley, LM; Cowling, BJ; da Silva, B; Donnelly, CA; van Sighem, AI; Cameron, DW; Danner, SA; de Wolf, F; Anderson, RM
AIDS, 20(): 1941-1950.

High-sensitivity C-reactive protein levels in HIV-infected patients treated or not with antiretroviral drugs and their correlation with factors related to cardiovascular risk and HIV infection
Guimaraes, MMM; Greco, DB; de Figueiredo, SM; Foscolo, RB; de Oliveira, AR; Machado, LJD
Atherosclerosis, 201(2): 434-439.
Journal of Neurovirology
NeuroAIDS in the Asia Pacific Region
Wright, EJ; Nunn, M; Joseph, J; Robertson, K; Lal, L; Brew, BJ
Journal of Neurovirology, 14(6): 465-473.
HIV Medicine
The prevalence of metabolic syndrome in Danish patients with HIV infection: the effect of antiretroviral therapy
Hansen, BR; Petersen, J; Haugaard, SB; Madsbad, S; Obel, N; Suzuki, Y; Andersen, O
HIV Medicine, 10(6): 378-387.
Clinical Infectious Diseases
Role of Uncontrolled HIV RNA Level and Immunodeficiency in the Occurrence of Malignancy in HIV-Infected Patients during the Combination Antiretroviral Therapy Era: Agence Nationale de Recherche sur le Sida (ANRS) CO3 Aquitaine Cohort
Bruyand, M; Thiebaut, R; Lawson-Ayayi, S; Joly, P; Sasco, AJ; Mercie, P; Pellegrin, JL; Neau, D; Dabis, F; Morlat, P; Chene, G; Bonnet, F
Clinical Infectious Diseases, 49(7): 1109-1116.
HIV Infection and the Cardiovascular System
Evolution of the involvement of the cardiovascular system in HIV infection
Barbaro, G
HIV Infection and the Cardiovascular System, 40(): 15-22.

AIDS Care-Psychological and Socio-Medical Aspects of AIDS/HIV
Strategies for management and treatment of dyslipidemia in HIV/AIDS
Sax, PE
AIDS Care-Psychological and Socio-Medical Aspects of AIDS/HIV, 18(2): 149-157.
Expert Opinion on Drug Safety
Cardiovascular & renal - Antiretroviral therapy and the kidney: balancing benefit and risk in patients with HIV infection
Wyatt, CM; Klotman, PE
Expert Opinion on Drug Safety, 5(2): 275-287.
HIV Medicine
Increased serum lipids are associated with higher CD4 lymphocyte count in HIV-infected women
Floris-Moore, M; Howard, AA; Lo, Y; Arnsten, JH; Santoro, N; Schoenbaum, EE
HIV Medicine, 7(7): 421-430.

Revista Clinica Espanola
Prevalence of cardiovascular risk factors in HIV-infected patients
Jerico, C; Knobel, H; Sorli, ML; Montero, M; Guelar, A; Pedro-Botet, J
Revista Clinica Espanola, 206(): 556-559.

Antiviral Research
Antiviral effects of mifepristone on human immunodeficiency virus type-1 (HIV-1): Targeting Vpr and its cellular partner, the glucocorticoid receptor (GR)
Schafer, EA; Venkatachari, NJ; Ayyavoo, V
Antiviral Research, 72(3): 224-232.
Enfermedades Infecciosas Y Microbiologia Clinica
Epidemiological and clinical usefulness of HIV/AIDS cohort studies: Towards a global collaboration
Chene, G
Enfermedades Infecciosas Y Microbiologia Clinica, 25(1): 3-4.

Current Therapeutic Research-Clinical and Experimental
Effectiveness and metabolic complications after 96 weeks of a generic fixed-dose combination of stavudine, lamivudine, and nevirapine among antiretroviral-naive advanced HIV-infected patients in Thailand: A prospective study
Manosuthi, W; Sungkanuparph, S; Tansuphaswadikul, S; Prasithsirikul, W; Athichathanabadi, C; Likanonsakul, S; Chaovavanich, A
Current Therapeutic Research-Clinical and Experimental, 69(1): 90-100.
Ultrasound in Medicine and Biology
Comparability of echographic and tomographic assessments of body fat changes related to the hiv associated adipose redistribution syndrome (HARS) in antiretroviral treated patients
Gulizia, R; Vercelli, A; Gervasoni, C; Uglietti, A; Ortu, M; Ferraioli, G; Galli, M; Filice, C
Ultrasound in Medicine and Biology, 34(7): 1043-1048.
Nature Reviews Nephrology
The nephrotoxic effects of HAART
Izzedine, H; Harris, M; Perazella, MA
Nature Reviews Nephrology, 5(): 564-574.
HIV Medicine
Abacavir and risk of myocardial infarction in HIV-infected patients on highly active antiretroviral therapy: a population-based nationwide cohort study
Obel, N; Farkas, DK; Kronborg, G; Larsen, CS; Pedersen, G; Riis, A; Pedersen, C; Gerstoft, J; Sorensen, HT
HIV Medicine, 11(2): 130-136.
Medicina Clinica
Cardiovascular disease in HIV-infected patients on highly active antiretroviral therapy
Jerico, C; Knobel, H; Carmona, A; Sorli, ML; Lopez-Colomes, JL; Pedro-Botet, J
Medicina Clinica, 122(8): 298-300.

Infectious Disease Clinics of North America
Antiretroviral therapy in HIV-infected children: The metabolic cost of improved survival
Leonard, EG; McComsey, GA
Infectious Disease Clinics of North America, 19(3): 713-+.
Antiviral Therapy
Impact of lamivudine on the risk of liver-related death in 2,041 HBsAg- and HIV-positive individuals: results from an inter-cohort analysis
Puoti, M; Cozzi-Lepri, A; Arici, C; Moller, NF; Lundgren, JD; Ledergerber, B; Rickenbach, M; Suarez-Lozanos, I; Garrido, M; Dabis, F; Winnock, M; Milazzo, L; Gervais, A; Raffi, F; Gill, J; Rockstroh, J; Qurishi, N; Mussini, C; Castagna, A; De Luca, A; Monforte, AD
Antiviral Therapy, 11(5): 567-574.

Antiviral Therapy
A smoking cessation programme in HIV-infected individuals: a pilot study
Elzi, L; Spoerl, D; Voggensperger, J; Nicca, D; Simcock, M; Bucher, HC; Spirig, R; Battegay, M
Antiviral Therapy, 11(6): 787-795.

Cardiovascular risk in patients with HIV infection - Impact of antiretroviral therapy
Bergersen, BM
Drugs, 66(): 1971-1987.

AIDS Care-Psychological and Socio-Medical Aspects of AIDS/HIV
Differential improvement in survival among patients with AIDS after the introduction of HAART
Couzigou, C; Semaille, C; Le Strat, Y; Pinget, R; Pillonel, J; Lot, F; Cazein, F; Vittecoq, D; Desenclos, JC
AIDS Care-Psychological and Socio-Medical Aspects of AIDS/HIV, 19(4): 523-531.
Medicina Clinica
Variability in coronary risk assessment in HIV-infected patients
Garcia-Lazaro, M; Roman, AR; Espejo, AC; Perez-Camacho, I; Natera-Kindelan, C; Osorio, JJC; Cisneros, JDLT
Medicina Clinica, 129(): 521-524.

Clinical Infectious Diseases
Long-term cocaine use and antiretroviral therapy are associated with silent coronary artery disease in African Americans with HIV infection who have no cardiovascular symptoms
Lai, SH; Fishman, EK; Lai, H; Moore, R; Cofrancesco, J; Pannu, H; Tong, WJ; Du, JF; Bartlett, J
Clinical Infectious Diseases, 46(4): 600-610.
Antiviral Therapy
A randomized trial comparing initial HAART regimens of nelfinavir/nevirapine and ritonavir/saquinavir in combination with two nucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitors
Kirk, O; Lundgren, JD; Pedersen, C; Mathiesen, LR; Nielsen, H; Katzenstein, TL; Obe, N; Gerstoft, J
Antiviral Therapy, 8(6): 595-602.

Expert Opinion on Pharmacotherapy
Treatment of dyslipidaemia in HIV-infected persons
Manuel, O; Thiebaut, R; Darioli, R; Tarr, PE
Expert Opinion on Pharmacotherapy, 6(): 1619-1645.
What a cardiologist needs to know about patients with human immunodeficiency virus infection
Hsue, PY; Waters, DD
Circulation, 112(): 3947-3957.
Highly active antiretroviral therapy-associated metabolic syndrome and cardiovascular risk
Barbaro, G; Barbarini, G
Chemotherapy, 52(4): 161-165.
American Heart Journal
Cardiovascular disease in HIV infection
Sudano, I; Spieker, LE; Noll, G; Corti, R; Weber, R; Luscher, TF
American Heart Journal, 151(6): 1147-1155.
HIV-infected patients with lipodystrophy have higher rates of carotid atherosclerosis: The role of monocyte chemoattractant protein-1
Coll, B; Parra, S; Alonso-Villaverde, C; de Groot, E; Aragones, G; Montero, M; Tous, M; Camps, J; Joven, J; Masana, L
Cytokine, 34(): 51-55.
Journal of Internal Medicine
HAART and the heart: changes in coronary risk factors and implications for coronary risk in men starting antiretroviral therapy
Sterne, JAC; May, M; Bucher, HC; Ledergerber, B; Furrer, H; Cavassini, M; Bernasconi, E; Hirschel, B; Egger, M
Journal of Internal Medicine, 261(3): 255-267.
Current Opinion in Investigational Drugs
Drug evaluation: Ibalizumab, a CD4-specific mAb to inhibit HIV-1 infection
Dimitrov, A
Current Opinion in Investigational Drugs, 8(8): 653-661.

HIV Clinical Trials
Effectiveness and tolerability of oral administration of low-dose salmon oil to HIV patients with HAART-associated Dyslipidemia
Baril, JG; Kovacs, CM; Trottier, S; Roederer, G; Martel, AY; Ackad, N; Koulis, T; Sampalis, JS
HIV Clinical Trials, 8(6): 400-411.
International Journal of Epidemiology
A coronary heart disease risk model for predicting the effect of potent antiretroviral therapy in HIV-1 infected men
May, M; Sterne, JAC; Shipley, M; Brunner, E; d'Agostino, R; Whincup, P; Ben-Shlomo, Y; Carr, A; Ledergerber, B; Lundgren, JD; Phillips, AN; Massaro, J; Eggerl, M
International Journal of Epidemiology, 36(6): 1309-1318.
HIV Medicine
Protease inhibitor exposure and increased risk of cardiovascular disease in HIV-infected patients
Iloeje, UH; Yuan, Y; L'Italien, G; Mauskopf, J; Holmberg, SD; Moorman, AC; Wood, KC; Moore, RD
HIV Medicine, 6(1): 37-44.

Journal of Antimicrobial Chemotherapy
Current perspectives on HIV-associated lipodystrophy syndrome
Milinkovic, A; Martinez, E
Journal of Antimicrobial Chemotherapy, 56(1): 6-9.
International Journal of Std & AIDS
Atherogenic lipid profile and cardiovascular risk factors in HIV-infected patients (Netar Study)
Santos, J; Palacios, R; Gonzalez, M; Ruiz, I; Marquez, M
International Journal of Std & AIDS, 16(): 677-680.

Glucose metabolism, lipid, and body fat changes in antiretroviral-naive subjects randomized to nelfinavir or efavirenz plus dual nucleosides
Dube, MP; Parker, RA; Tebas, P; Grinspoon, SK; Zackin, RA; Robbins, GK; Roubenoff, R; Shafer, RW; Wininger, DA; Meyer, WA; Snyder, SW; Mulligan, K
AIDS, 19(): 1807-1818.

Plos Medicine
Associations among race/ethnicity, ApoC-III genotypes, and lipids in HIV-1-infected individuals on antiretroviral therapy
Foulkes, AS; Wohl, DA; Frank, I; Puleo, E; Restine, S; Wolfe, ML; Dube, MP; Tebas, P; Reilly, MP
Plos Medicine, 3(3): 337-347.
ARTN e52
Clinical Infectious Diseases
HIV-associated renal diseases and highly active antiretroviral therapy-induced nephropathy
Roling, J; Schmid, H; Fischereder, M; Draenert, R; Goebel, FD
Clinical Infectious Diseases, 42(): 1488-1495.

Age and sex modulate metabolic and cardiovascular risk markers of patients after 1 year of highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART)
Leitner, JM; Pernerstorfer-Schoen, H; Weiss, A; Schindler, K; Rieger, A; Jilma, B
Atherosclerosis, 187(1): 177-185.
Journal of Antimicrobial Chemotherapy
Endothelial function in HIV-infected patients with low or mild cardiovascular risk
Rios Blanco, JJ; Suarez Garcia, I; Gomez Cerezo, J; Pena Sanchez de Rivera, JM; Moreno Anaya, P; Garcia Raya, P; Gonzalez Garcia, J; Arribas Lopez, JR; Barbado Hernandez, FJ; Vasquez Rodriguez, JJ
Journal of Antimicrobial Chemotherapy, 58(1): 133-139.
International Journal of Tuberculosis and Lung Disease
Tobacco use and its determinants in HIV-infected patients on antiretroviral therapy in West African countries
Jaquet, A; Ekouevi, DK; Aboubakrine, M; Bashi, J; Messou, E; Maiga, M; Traore, HA; Zannou, M; Guehi, C; Ba-Gomis, FO; Minga, A; Allou, G; Eholie, SP; Dabis, F; Bissagnene, E; Sasco, AJ
International Journal of Tuberculosis and Lung Disease, 13(): 1433-1439.

Presse Medicale
Epidemiology of atherosclerotic cardiovascular risk in HIV-1 infected patients
Thiebaut, R; Saves, M; Mercie, P; Cipriano, C; Chee, G; Dabis, F
Presse Medicale, 32(): 1419-1426.

HIV Infection and the Cardiovascular System
Pathogenesis of HIV-associated cardiovascular disease
Barbaro, G
HIV Infection and the Cardiovascular System, 40(): 49-70.

New England Journal of Medicine
Medical progress - Cardiovascular risk and body-fat abnormalities in HIV-infected adults
Grinspoon, S; Carr, A
New England Journal of Medicine, 352(1): 48-62.

Danish Medical Bulletin
Effects of highly active antiretroviral therapy among HIV-infected patients - Results from randomised and observational studies
Kirk, O
Danish Medical Bulletin, 51(1): 63-81.

Journal of Clinical Endocrinology & Metabolism
Antiretroviral treatment reduces very-low-density lipoprotein and intermediate-density lipoprotein apolipoprotein B fractional catabolic rate in human immunodeficiency virus-infected patients with mild dyslipidemia
Shahmanesh, M; Das, S; Stolinski, M; Shojaee-Moradie, F; Jackson, NC; Jefferson, W; Cramb, R; Nightingale, P; Umpleby, AM
Journal of Clinical Endocrinology & Metabolism, 90(2): 755-760.
Jaids-Journal of Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndromes
Insulin resistance and diabetes mellitus associated with antiretroviral use in HIV-infected patients: Pathogenesis, prevention, and treatment options
Tebas, P
Jaids-Journal of Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndromes, 49(): S86-S92.

Journal of Antimicrobial Chemotherapy
Platelet-leucocyte adhesion markers before and after the initiation of antiretroviral therapy with HIV protease inhibitors
von Hentig, N; Forster, AK; Kuczka, K; Klinkhardt, U; Klauke, S; Gute, P; Staszewski, S; Harder, S; Graff, J
Journal of Antimicrobial Chemotherapy, 62(5): 1118-1121.
HIV Medicine
Improvement in lipid profiles over 6 years of follow-up in adults with AIDS and immune reconstitution
Williams, PL; Wu, JW; Cohn, SE; Koletar, SL; McCutchan, JA; Murphy, RL; Currier, JS
HIV Medicine, 10(5): 290-301.
HIV Clinical Trials
Baseline Lipid Levels Rather Than the Presence of Reported Body Shape Changes Determine the Degree of Improvement in Lipid Levels After Switching to Atazanavir
van Vonderen, MGA; Gras, L; Wit, F; Brinkman, K; van der Ende, ME; Hoepelman, AIM; de Wolf, F; Reiss, P
HIV Clinical Trials, 10(3): 168-180.
Arquivos Brasileiros De Cardiologia
Lipid Profile, Cardiovascular Risk Factors and Metabolic Syndrome in a Group of AIDS Patients
da Silva, EFR
Arquivos Brasileiros De Cardiologia, 93(2): 107-111.

Metabolic Syndrome and Related Disorders
Human Immunodeficiency Virus and Highly Active Antiretroviral Therapy-Associated Metabolic Disorders and Risk Factors for Cardiovascular Disease
Anuurad, E; Semrad, A; Berglund, L
Metabolic Syndrome and Related Disorders, 7(5): 401-409.
Journal of the American Dietetic Association
Position of the American Dietetic Association and Dietitians of Canada: Nutrition intervention in the care of persons with human immunodeficiency virus infection
Fields-Gardner, C; Fergusson, P; Hayes, CR; Sanders, M; Kelley, C; Brison, CM; Knoll, LL; Rothpletz-Puglia, P; Badenhorst, AM; Kasten, G; De Maio, S; McDermid, JM; Marchand, MJ; McKinney, S; Bloch, A; Fenton, M
Journal of the American Dietetic Association, 104(9): 1425-1441.
Clinical Journal of the American Society of Nephrology
Highly active antiretroviral therapy and the kidney: An update on antiretroviral medications for nephrologists
Berns, JS; Kasbekar, N
Clinical Journal of the American Society of Nephrology, 1(1): 117-129.
AIDS Care-Psychological and Socio-Medical Aspects of AIDS/HIV
Protease inhibitors and cardiovascular disease: analysis of the Los Angeles County adult spectrum of disease cohort
Vaughn, G; Detels, R
AIDS Care-Psychological and Socio-Medical Aspects of AIDS/HIV, 19(4): 492-499.
AIDS Patient Care and Stds
Hepatitis C infection is associated with lower lipids and high-sensitivity C-reactive protein in HIV-infected men
Floris-Moore, M; Howard, AA; Lo, YT; Schoenbaum, EE; Arnsten, JH; Klein, RS
AIDS Patient Care and Stds, 21(7): 479-491.
Annual Review of Medicine
The challenge of hepatitis C in the HIV-infected person
Thomas, DL
Annual Review of Medicine, 59(): 473-485.
AIDS Research and Human Retroviruses
Interarm blood pressure differences in the women's interagency HIV study
Lazar, J; Holman, S; Minkoff, HL; Dehovitz, JA; Sharma, A
AIDS Research and Human Retroviruses, 24(5): 695-700.
Clinical Infectious Diseases
Clinical inertia in the management of low-density lipoprotein abnormalities in an HIV clinic
Willig, JH; Jackson, DA; Westfall, AO; Allison, J; Chang, PW; Raper, J; Saag, MS; Mugavero, MJ
Clinical Infectious Diseases, 46(8): 1315-1318.
Antiviral Therapy
Living with HIV, antiretroviral treatment experience and tobacco smoking: results from a multisite cross-sectional study
Duval, X; Baron, G; Garelik, D; Villes, V; Dupre, T; Leport, C; Lert, F; Peretti-Watel, P; Ravoud, P; Spire, B
Antiviral Therapy, 13(3): 389-397.

Medicina Clinica
Prevalence of arterial hypertension and lipid profile in HIV patients
Conde, AGC; Albarran, MA; Coll, ARC; Pedrol, PD; Campmany, MP
Medicina Clinica, 131(): 681-684.

Clinical Lipidology
Risk and progression of dyslipidemia in patients with HIV who have recovered from severe immunosuppression
Bennett, MT; Bondy, GP
Clinical Lipidology, 4(3): 287-289.
Nephrologie & Therapeutique
Kidney diseases in HIV-infected patients
Tourret, J; Tostivint, I; Deray, G; Isnard-Bagnis, C
Nephrologie & Therapeutique, 5(6): 576-591.
Arquivos Brasileiros De Cardiologia
Metabolic Abnormalities, Antiretroviral Therapy and Cardiovascular Disease in Elderly Patients with HIV
Kramer, AS; Lazzarotto, AR; Sprinz, E; Manfroi, WC
Arquivos Brasileiros De Cardiologia, 93(5): 519-526.

Janac-Journal of the Association of Nurses in AIDS Care
The nurse practitioner's role in managing dyslipidemia and other cardiovascular risk factors in HIV-infected patients: Impact of antiretroviral therapy
Willard, S
Janac-Journal of the Association of Nurses in AIDS Care, 17(1): 7-17.
Archives of Internal Medicine
Liver-related deaths in persons infected with the human immunodeficiency virus - The D : A : D study
Weber, R
Archives of Internal Medicine, 166(): 1632-1641.

Metabolism-Clinical and Experimental
Impaired proinsulin secretion before and during oral glucose stimulation in HIV-infected patients who display fat redistribution
Haugaard, SB; Andersen, O; Halsall, I; Iversen, J; Hales, CN; Madsbad, S
Metabolism-Clinical and Experimental, 56(7): 939-946.
Nature Clinical Practice Endocrinology & Metabolism
Therapy Insight: body-shape changes and metabolic complications associated with HIV and highly active antiretroviral therapy
Falutz, J
Nature Clinical Practice Endocrinology & Metabolism, 3(9): 651-661.
AIDS Research and Human Retroviruses
Cross-sectional study of endothelial function in HIV-infected patients in Brazil
Andrade, ACO; Ladeia, AM; Netto, EM; Mascarenhas, A; Cotter, B; Benson, CA; Badaro, R
AIDS Research and Human Retroviruses, 24(1): 27-33.
Current HIV Research
Dietary intake and physical activity in a Canadian population sample of male patients with HIV infection and metabolic abnormalities
Arendt, BM; Aghdassi, E; Mohammed, SS; Fung, LY; Jalali, P; Salit, IE; Allard, JP
Current HIV Research, 6(1): 82-90.

AIDS Research and Human Retroviruses
The Association of HIV Infection with Left Ventricular Mass/Hypertrophy
Mansoor, A; Golub, ET; Dehovitz, J; Anastos, K; Kaplan, RC; Lazar, JM
AIDS Research and Human Retroviruses, 25(5): 475-481.
HIV Medicine
Spectrum of chronic kidney disease in HIV-infected patients
Campbell, LJ; Ibrahim, F; Fisher, M; Holt, SG; Hendry, BM; Post, FA
HIV Medicine, 10(6): 329-336.
International Journal of Std & AIDS
Cardiovascular disease risk management in HIV patients, experiences from Greater Manchester
Mallewa, JE; Higgins, SP; Garbett, S; Saxena, N; Vilar, FJ
International Journal of Std & AIDS, 20(6): 425-426.
AIDS Research and Human Retroviruses
Elevated NT-pro-BNP Levels Are Associated with Comorbidities among HIV-Infected Women
Mansoor, A; Althoff, K; Gange, S; Anastos, K; Dehovitz, J; Minkoff, H; Kaplan, R; Holman, S; Lazar, JM
AIDS Research and Human Retroviruses, 25(): 997-1004.
Journal of Clinical Lipidology
A retrospective study of the lipid-lowering efficacy and safety of ezetimibe added to hydroxy methylglutaryl coenzyme A reductase therapy in HIV-infected patients with hyperlipidemia
Chastain, LM; Bain, AM; Edwards, KL; Bedimo, R; Busti, AJ
Journal of Clinical Lipidology, 1(6): 634-639.
Antiretrovirals, Part 1: Overview, history, and focus on protease inhibitors
Wynn, GH; Zapor, MJ; Smith, BH; Wortmann, G; Oesterheld, JR; Armstrong, SC; Cozza, KL
Psychosomatics, 45(3): 262-270.

Journal of Antimicrobial Chemotherapy
Metabolic consequences and therapeutic options in highly active antiretroviral therapy in human immunodeficiency virus-1 infection
Samaras, K
Journal of Antimicrobial Chemotherapy, 61(2): 238-245.
British Medical Bulletin
HIV and HIV treatment: effects on fats, glucose and lipids
Gkrania-Klotsas, E; Klotsas, AE
British Medical Bulletin, 84(): 49-68.
Journal of Thrombosis and Haemostasis
Cardiovascular disease in patients with hemophilia
Tuinenburg, A; Mauser-Bunschoten, EP; Verhaar, MC; Biesma, DH; Schutgens, REG
Journal of Thrombosis and Haemostasis, 7(2): 247-254.
Sexual Health
Rapidly ageing HIV epidemic among men who have sex with men in Australia
Murray, JM; McDonald, AM; Law, MG
Sexual Health, 6(1): 83-86.
Clinical Pharmacology & Therapeutics
Impact of Different Low-Dose Ritonavir Regimens on Lipids, CD36, and Adipophilin Expression
Collot-Teixeira, S; Lorenzo, F; Waters, L; Fletcher, C; Back, D; Mandalia, S; Pozniak, A; Yilmaz, S; McGregor, JL; Gazzard, B; Boffito, M
Clinical Pharmacology & Therapeutics, 85(4): 375-378.
AIDS Patient Care and Stds
Cardiac Diastolic Dysfunction Is Prevalent in HIV-Infected Patients
Nayak, G; Ferguson, M; Tribble, DR; Porter, CK; Rapena, R; Marchicelli, M; Decker, CF
AIDS Patient Care and Stds, 23(4): 231-238.
AIDS Research and Human Retroviruses
Predictive factors of hyperlipidemia in HIV-infected subjects receiving lopinavir/ritonavir
Bongiovanni, M; Bini, T; Cicconi, P; Landonio, S; Meraviglia, P; Testa, L; Di Biagio, A; Chiesa, E; Tordato, F; Biasi, P; Adorni, F; Monforte, AD
AIDS Research and Human Retroviruses, 22(2): 132-138.

Pace-Pacing and Clinical Electrophysiology
Power spectral analysis of heart rate variability in HIV-infected and AIDS patients
Correia, D; De Resende, LAPR; Molina, RJ; Ferreira, BDC; Colombari, F; Barbosa, CJDG; Da Silva, VJD; Prata, A
Pace-Pacing and Clinical Electrophysiology, 29(1): 53-58.

Enfermedades Infecciosas Y Microbiologia Clinica
Lipid alterations and cardiovascular risk associated with antiretroviral therapy
Masia-Canuto, M; Bernal-Morell, E; Gutierrez-Rodero, F
Enfermedades Infecciosas Y Microbiologia Clinica, 24(): 637-648.

Current Pharmaceutical Design
Visceral fat as target of highly active antiretroviral therapy-associated metabolic syndrome
Barbaro, G
Current Pharmaceutical Design, 13(): 2208-2213.

Toxicology and Applied Pharmacology
HIV antiretroviral drug combination induces endothelial mitochondrial dysfunction and reactive oxygen species production, but not apoptosis
Jiang, B; Hebert, VY; Li, Y; Mathis, JM; Alexander, JS; Dugas, TR
Toxicology and Applied Pharmacology, 224(1): 60-71.
Minerva Anestesiologica
Critical care of HIV infected patients in the highly active antiretroviral therapy era
Corona, A; Raimondi, F
Minerva Anestesiologica, 73(): 635-645.

Journal of Infection and Chemotherapy
Influence of smoking on HIV infection among HIV-infected Japanese men
Oka, F; Naito, T; Oike, M; Saita, M; Inui, A; Uehara, Y; Mitsuhashi, K; Isonuma, H; Hisaoka, T; Shimbo, T
Journal of Infection and Chemotherapy, 19(3): 542-544.
European Journal of Nuclear Medicine and Molecular Imaging
Should HIV-infected patients be screened for silent myocardial ischaemia using gated myocardial perfusion SPECT?
Mariano-Goulart, D; Jacquet, JM; Molinari, N; Bourdon, A; Benkiran, M; Sainmont, M; Cornillet, L; Macia, JC; Reynes, J; Ben Bouallegue, F
European Journal of Nuclear Medicine and Molecular Imaging, 40(2): 271-279.
Alcoholism-Clinical and Experimental Research
Lifetime Drinking Trajectories Among Veterans in Treatment for HIV
Jacob, T; Blonigen, DM; Upah, R; Justice, A
Alcoholism-Clinical and Experimental Research, 37(7): 1179-1187.
HIV Medicine
A critical epidemiological review of cardiovascular disease risk in HIV-infected adults: the importance of the HIV-uninfected comparison group, confounding, and competing risks
Althoff, KN; Gange, SJ
HIV Medicine, 14(3): 191-192.
Bmc Public Health
Metabolic abnormalities in adult HIV infected population on antiretroviral medication in Malaysia: a cross-sectional survey
Hejazi, N; Rajikan, R; Choong, CLK; Sahar, S
Bmc Public Health, 13(): -.
ARTN 758
Journal of the International AIDS Society
Cardiac effects in perinatally HIV-infected and HIV-exposed but uninfected children and adolescents: a view from the United States of America
Lipshultz, SE; Miller, TL; Wilkinson, JD; Scott, GB; Somarriba, G; Cochran, TR; Fisher, SD
Journal of the International AIDS Society, 16(): -.
ARTN 18597
Bmc Infectious Diseases
Risk factors for subclinical atherosclerosis in HIV-infected patients under and over 40 years: a case-control study
Albuquerque, VMG; Zirpoli, JC; Miranda-Filho, DD; Albuquerque, MDPM; Montarroyos, UR; Ximenes, RAD; Lacerda, HR
Bmc Infectious Diseases, 13(): -.
ARTN 274
Toxicological Sciences
Nucleoside Reverse Transcriptase Inhibitors Induce a Mitophagy-Associated Endothelial Cytotoxicity That Is Reversed by Coenzyme Q10 Cotreatment
Xue, SY; Hebert, VY; Hayes, DM; Robinson, CN; Glover, M; Dugas, TR
Toxicological Sciences, 134(2): 323-334.
Annals of Biomedical Engineering
Endothelial Dysfunction, Arterial Stiffening, and Intima-Media Thickening in Large Arteries from HIV-1 Transgenic Mice
Hansen, L; Parker, I; Sutliff, RL; Platt, MO; Gleason, RL
Annals of Biomedical Engineering, 41(4): 682-693.
Arteriosclerosis Thrombosis and Vascular Biology
Impaired Lipoprotein Processing in HIV Patients on Antiretroviral Therapy: Aberrant High-Density Lipoprotein Lipids, Stability, and Function
Gillard, BK; Raya, JL; Ruiz-Esponda, R; Iyer, D; Coraza, I; Balasubramanyam, A; Pownall, HJ
Arteriosclerosis Thrombosis and Vascular Biology, 33(7): 1714-1721.
Bmc Infectious Diseases
The association of high-sensitivity c-reactive protein and other biomarkers with cardiovascular disease in patients treated for HIV: a nested case-control study
De Luca, A; Donati, KD; Colafigli, M; Cozzi-Lepri, A; De Curtis, A; Gori, A; Sighinolfi, L; Giacometti, A; Capobianchi, MR; D'Avino, A; Iacoviello, L; Cauda, R; Monforte, AD
Bmc Infectious Diseases, 13(): -.
ARTN 414
Reviews in Endocrine & Metabolic Disorders
Insulin resistance, lipodystrophy and cardiometabolic syndrome in HIV/AIDS
Galescu, O; Bhangoo, A; Ten, S
Reviews in Endocrine & Metabolic Disorders, 14(2): 133-140.
Bmc Medical Research Methodology
Representativeness of an HIV cohort of the sites from which it is recruiting: results from the Ontario HIV Treatment Network (OHTN) cohort study
Raboud, J; Su, DS; Burchell, AN; Gardner, S; Walmsley, S; Bayoumi, AM; Blitz, S; Cooper, C; Salit, I; Cohen, J; Rourke, SB; Loutfy, MR
Bmc Medical Research Methodology, 13(): -.
Journal of Biomechanics
Azidothymidine (AZT) leads to arterial stiffening and intima-media thickening in mice
Hansen, L; Parker, I; Roberts, LM; Sutliff, RL; Platt, MO; Gleason, RL
Journal of Biomechanics, 46(9): 1540-1547.
Clinical Infectious Diseases
First-line Antiretroviral Therapy and Changes in Lipid Levels Over 3 Years Among HIV-Infected Adults in Tanzania
Liu, E; Armstrong, C; Spiegelman, D; Chalamilla, G; Njelekela, M; Hawkins, C; Hertzmark, E; Li, N; Aris, E; Muhihi, A; Semu, H; Fawzi, W
Clinical Infectious Diseases, 56(): 1820-1828.
Interruption of antiretroviral therapy is associated with increased plasma cystatin C
for the INSIGHT SMART study group, ; Mocroft, A; Wyatt, C; Szczech, L; Neuhaus, J; El-Sadr, W; Tracy, R; Kuller, L; Shlipak, M; Angus, B; Klinker, H; Ross, M
AIDS, 23(1): 71-82.
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High prevalence of the metabolic syndrome in HIV-infected patients: impact of different definitions of the metabolic syndrome
Worm, SW; Friis-Møller, N; Bruyand, M; Monforte, AD; Rickenbach, M; Reiss, P; El-Sadr, W; Phillips, A; Lundgren, J; Sabin, C; for the D:A:D study group,
AIDS, 24(3): 427-435.
PDF (355) | CrossRef
Considerations on the increase in blood pressure among antiretroviral-naive patients starting HAART
Martínez, E; López Bernaldo de Quirós, JC; Miralles, C; Podzamczer, D
AIDS, 21(3): 384-386.
PDF (322) | CrossRef
The nephrologist in the HAART era
Izzedine, H; Deray, G
AIDS, 21(4): 409-421.
PDF (168) | CrossRef
Ritonavir exhibits anti-atherogenic properties on vascular smooth muscle cells
Kappert, K; Caglayan, E; Bäumer, AT; Südkamp, M; Fätkenheuer, G; Rosenkranz, S
AIDS, 18(3): 403-411.

PDF (201)
Risk of all-cause mortality associated with nonfatal AIDS and serious non-AIDS events among adults infected with HIV
Neuhaus, J; Angus, B; Kowalska, JD; Rosa, AL; Sampson, J; Wentworth, D; Mocroft, A; for the INSIGHT SMART and ESPRIT study groups,
AIDS, 24(5): 697-706.
PDF (476) | CrossRef
Effective therapy has altered the spectrum of cause-specific mortality following HIV seroconversion
CASCADE Collaboration,
AIDS, 20(5): 741-749.
PDF (194) | CrossRef
The longer the better? Four years of durable, initially boosted protease treatment
Katzenstein, D
AIDS, 18(5): 811-813.

PDF (59)
Regression of lipodystrophy in HIV-infected patients under therapy with the new protease inhibitor atazanavir
Haerter, G; Manfras, BJ; Mueller, M; Kern, P; Trein, A
AIDS, 18(6): 952-955.

PDF (123)
Antiretroviral medications associated with elevated blood pressure among patients receiving highly active antiretroviral therapy
Crane, HM; Van Rompaey, SE; Kitahata, MM
AIDS, 20(7): 1019-1026.
PDF (140) | CrossRef
The role of adipokines in relation to HIV lipodystrophy
Sweeney, LL; Brennan, AM; Mantzoros, CS
AIDS, 21(8): 895-904.
PDF (155) | CrossRef
Progression of carotid artery intima–media thickening in HIV-infected and uninfected adults
Currier, JS; Kendall, MA; Henry, WK; Alston-Smith, B; Torriani, FJ; Tebas, P; Li, Y; Hodis, HN; for the ACTG 5078 Study Team,
AIDS, 21(9): 1137-1145.
PDF (130) | CrossRef
Traditional risk factors and D-dimer predict incident cardiovascular disease events in chronic HIV infection
Ford, ES; Greenwald, JH; Richterman, AG; Rupert, A; Dutcher, L; Badralmaa, Y; Natarajan, V; Rehm, C; Hadigan, C; Sereti, I
AIDS, 24(10): 1509-1517.
PDF (203) | CrossRef
Preclinical atherosclerosis due to HIV infection: carotid intima-medial thickness measurements from the FRAM study
Grunfeld, C; Delaney, JA; Wanke, C; Currier, JS; Scherzer, R; Biggs, ML; Tien, PC; Shlipak, MG; Sidney, S; Polak, JF; O'Leary, D; Bacchetti, P; Kronmal, RA; for the study of Fat Redistribution and Metabolic Change in HIV Infection (FRAM),
AIDS, 23(14): 1841-1849.
PDF (365) | CrossRef
American Journal of Therapeutics
Antiretroviral Therapy With Heart
Randell, P; Moyle, G
American Journal of Therapeutics, 16(6): 579-584.
PDF (92) | CrossRef
The American Journal of the Medical Sciences
Prevalence of Chronic Kidney Disease in an Urban HIV Infected Population
The American Journal of the Medical Sciences, 335(2): 89-94.
PDF (146) | CrossRef
Critical Care Medicine
Current issues in critical care of the human immunodeficiency virus-infected patient*
Morris, A; Masur, H; Huang, L
Critical Care Medicine, 34(1): 42-49.
PDF (300) | CrossRef
Current Opinion in Infectious Diseases
Should HIV therapy be started at a CD4 cell count above 350 cells/μl in asymptomatic HIV-1-infected patients?
Sabin, CA; Phillips, AN
Current Opinion in Infectious Diseases, 22(2): 191-197.
PDF (119) | CrossRef
JAIDS Journal of Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndromes
Predictive Factors of Hyperhomocysteinemia in HIV-Positive Patients
Bongiovanni, M; Casana, M; Tordato, F; Cicconi, P; Ranieri, R; Monforte, Ad; Bini, T; Pisacreta, M; Russo, U
JAIDS Journal of Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndromes, 44(1): 117-119.
PDF (79) | CrossRef
JAIDS Journal of Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndromes
Racial Differences in Changes of Metabolic Parameters and Body Composition in Antiretroviral Therapy-Naive Persons Initiating Antiretroviral Therapy
Gibert, CL; Shlay, JC; Sharma, S; Bartsch, G; Peng, G; Grunfeld, C; for the Terry Beirn Community Programs for Clinical Research on AIDS and the International Network for Strategic Initiatives in Global HIV Trials,
JAIDS Journal of Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndromes, 50(1): 44-53.
PDF (282) | CrossRef
JAIDS Journal of Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndromes
Life Expectancy After HIV Diagnosis Based on National HIV Surveillance Data From 25 States, United States
Harrison, KM; Song, R; Zhang, X
JAIDS Journal of Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndromes, 53(1): 124-130.
PDF (128) | CrossRef
JAIDS Journal of Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndromes
Managing Cardiovascular Risk in Patients With HIV Infection
Stein, JH
JAIDS Journal of Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndromes, 38(2): 115-123.

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JAIDS Journal of Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndromes
An Extremely Different Dysmetabolic Profile Between the Two Available Nonnucleoside Reverse Transcriptase Inhibitors: Efavirenz and Nevirapine
Manfredi, R; Calza, L; Chiodo, F
JAIDS Journal of Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndromes, 38(2): 236-238.

PDF (120)
JAIDS Journal of Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndromes
Less Lipoatrophy and Better Lipid Profile With Abacavir as Compared to Stavudine: 96-Week Results of a Randomized Study
Podzamczer, D; Ferrer, E; Sanchez, P; Gatell, JM; Crespo, M; Fisac, C; Lonca, M; Sanz, J; Niubo, J; Veloso, S; Llibre, JM; Barrufet, P; Ribas, MA; Merino, E; Ribera, E; Martínez-Lacasa, J; Alonso, C; Aranda, M; Pulido, F; Berenguer, J; Delegido, A; Pedreira, JD; Lérida, A; Rubio, R; Río, L; for the ABCDE (Abacavir vs. d4T (stavudine) plus efavirenz) Study Team,
JAIDS Journal of Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndromes, 44(2): 139-147.
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JAIDS Journal of Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndromes
Lipid Screening in HIV-Infected Veterans
Korthuis, PT; Asch, SM; Anaya, HD; Morgenstern, H; Goetz, MB; Yano, EM; Rubenstein, LV; Lee, ML; Bozzette, SA
JAIDS Journal of Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndromes, 35(3): 253-260.

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JAIDS Journal of Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndromes
Reduction in Triglyceride Level With N-3 Polyunsaturated Fatty Acids in HIV-Infected Patients Taking Potent Antiretroviral Therapy: A Randomized Prospective Study
De Truchis, P; Kirstetter, M; Perier, A; Meunier, C; Zucman, D; Force, G; Doll, J; Katlama, C; Rozenbaum, W; Masson, H; Gardette, J; Melchior, J; and the Maxepa-HIV Group,
JAIDS Journal of Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndromes, 44(3): 278-285.
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JAIDS Journal of Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndromes
Changes in Lipid Profile Over 24 Months Among Adults on First-Line Highly Active Antiretroviral Therapy in the Home-Based AIDS Care Program in Rural Uganda
Brooks, JT; Buchacz, K; Weidle, PJ; Moore, D; Were, W; Mermin, J; Downing, R; Kigozi, A; Borkowf, CB; Ndazima, V
JAIDS Journal of Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndromes, 47(3): 304-311.
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JAIDS Journal of Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndromes
The Influence of Hepatitis C Virus Coinfection on the Risk of Lipid Abnormalities in a Cohort of HIV-1–Infected Patients After Initiation of Highly Active Antiretroviral Therapy
Di Giambenedetto, S; Baldini, F; Cingolani, A; Tamburrini, E; Cauda, R; De Luca, A
JAIDS Journal of Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndromes, 36(1): 641-642.

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JAIDS Journal of Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndromes
The Role of Hydroxyurea in Enhancing the Virologic Control Achieved Through Structured Treatment Interruption in Primary HIV Infection: Final Results From a Randomized Clinical Trial (Pulse)
Bloch, MT; Smith, DE; Quan, D; Kaldor, JM; Zaunders, JJ; Petoumenos, K; Irvine, K; Law, M; Grey, P; Finlayson, RJ; McFarlane, R; Kelleher, AD; Carr, A; Cooper, DA
JAIDS Journal of Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndromes, 42(2): 192-202.
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JAIDS Journal of Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndromes
Antiretroviral Therapy in HIV-Positive Women Is Associated With Increased Apolipoproteins and Total Cholesterol
Rimland, D; Guest, JL; Hernández-Ramos, I; del Rio, C; Le, N; Brown, W
JAIDS Journal of Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndromes, 42(3): 307-313.
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JAIDS Journal of Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndromes
Efficacy and Tolerability of a Nucleoside Reverse Transcriptase Inhibitor-Sparing Combination of Lopinavir/Ritonavir and Efavirenz in HIV-1-Infected Patients
Allavena, C; Ferré, V; Brunet-François, C; Delfraissy, J; Lafeuillade, A; Valantin, M; Bentata, M; Michelet, C; Poizot-Martin, I; Dailly, E; Launay, O; Raffi, F; the Bitherapy Kaletra-Sustiva Study Group,
JAIDS Journal of Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndromes, 39(3): 300-306.

PDF (161)
JAIDS Journal of Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndromes
Recombinant Human Growth Hormone to Treat HIV-Associated Adipose Redistribution Syndrome: 12-Week Induction and 24-Week Maintenance Therapy
on behalf of the Study 24380 Investigators Group, ; Grunfeld, C; Thompson, M; Brown, SJ; Richmond, G; Lee, D; Muurahainen, N; Kotler, DP
JAIDS Journal of Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndromes, 45(3): 286-297.
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JAIDS Journal of Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndromes
Association of C-Reactive Protein and HIV Infection With Acute Myocardial Infarction
Triant, VA; Meigs, JB; Grinspoon, SK
JAIDS Journal of Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndromes, 51(3): 268-273.
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antiretroviral therapy; cardiovascular disease; adverse effects; cohort study; hyperlipidaemia; prevalence; risk factors

© 2003 Lippincott Williams & Wilkins, Inc.


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