Skip Navigation LinksHome > May 23, 2003 - Volume 17 - Issue 8 > Cardiovascular disease risk factors in HIV patients – associ...
AIDS:
Clinical Science

Cardiovascular disease risk factors in HIV patients – association with antiretroviral therapy. Results from the DAD study

Friis-Møller, Nina; Weber, Rainera; Reiss, Peterb; Thiébaut, Rodolphec; Kirk, Oled; Monforte, Antonella d'Arminioe; Pradier, Christianf; Morfeldt, Lindag; Mateu, Silviah; Law, Matthewi; El-Sadr, Wafaaj; De Wit, Stephank; Sabin, Caroline Al; Phillips, Andrew Nl; Lundgren, Jens D; for the DAD study group

Free Access
Article Outline
Collapse Box

Author Information

From the DAD Coordinating Centre, Copenhagen HIV Programme, Hvidovre University Hospital, Copenhagen, Denmark, the aSwiss HIV Cohort Study (SHCS), Division of Infectious Diseases and Hospital Epidemiology, University Hospital Zurich, Zurich, Switzerland, bATHENA, Department of Medicine and Infectious Diseases, Academic Medical Center, University of Amsterdam, Amsterdam, The Netherlands, cAquitaine, Institut de Santé Publique, d'Epidémiologie et de Développement – Inserm U330, Bordeaux University Hospital, Bordeaux, France, dEuroSIDA, Copenhagen HIV Programme, Hvidovre University Hospital, Copenhagen, Denmark, eICONA, Department of Infectious Diseases, L Sacco Hospital, University of Milan, Milan, Italy, fNice Cohort, Service des Maladies Infectieuses et Tropicales et Medicine Interne, C.H.U. Nice Hopital de l'Archet, Nice, France, gHivBivus, Department of Infectious Diseases, Karolinska Hospital, Stockholm, Sweden, hBASS, Department of Clinical Pharmacology and Therapeutics, Autonomous University of Barcelona, Barcelona, Spain, iAHOD, National Centre in HIV Epidemiology and Clinical Research, Sydney, Australia, jCPCRA, Division of Epidemiology, Columbia University School of Public Health, New York, USA, the kBrussels St. Pierre Cohort, Department of Infectious Diseases, C.H.U. Saint Pierre Hospital, Brussels, Belgium, and the lRoyal Free Centre for HIV Medicine and Department of Primary Care and Population Sciences, Royal Free and University College, London, UK. *See Appendix.

Correspondence to N. Friis-Møller, DAD Coordinating Centre, Copenhagen HIV Programme, Section 044, Hvidovre University Hospital, 2650 Copenhagen, Denmark. e-mail: nfm@cphiv.dk. http://www.cphiv.dk/dad/

Received: 14 March 2002; revised: 20 November 2002; accepted: 13 January 2003.

Collapse Box

Abstract

Objective: To determine the prevalence of risk factors for cardiovascular disease (CVD) among HIV-infected persons, and to investigate any association between such risk factors, stage of HIV disease, and use of antiretroviral therapies.

Design: Baseline data from 17 852 subjects enrolled in DAD, a prospective multinational cohort study initiated in 1999.

Methods: Cross-sectional analyses of CVD risk factors at baseline. The data collected includes data on demographic variables, cigarette smoking, diabetes mellitus, hypertension, dyslipidaemia, body mass index, stage of HIV infection, antiretroviral therapy.

Results: Almost 25% of the study population were at an age where there is an appreciable risk of CVD, with those receiving a protease inhibitor (PI) and/or non-nucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitor (NNRTI) tending to be older. 1.4% had a previous history of CVD and 51.5% were cigarette smokers. Increased prevalence of elevated total cholesterol (≥ 6.2 mmol/l) was observed among subjects receiving an NNRTI but no PI [odds ratio (OR), 1.79; 95% confidence interval (CI), 1.45–2.22], PI but no NNRTI (OR, 2.35; 95% CI, 1.92–2.87), or NNRTI + PI (OR, 5.48; 95% CI, 4.34–6.91) compared to the prevalence among antiretroviral therapy (ART)-naive subjects. Subjects who have discontinued ART as well as subjects receiving nucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitors had similar cholesterol levels to treatment-naive subjects. Higher CD4 cell count, lower plasma HIV RNA levels, clinical signs of lipodystrophy, longer exposure times to NNRTI and PI, and older age were all also associated with elevated total cholesterol level.

Conclusion: HIV-infected persons exhibit multiple known risk factors for CVD. Of specific concern is the fact that use of the NNRTI and PI drug classes (alone and especially in combination), particularly among older subjects with normalized CD4 cell counts and suppressed HIV replication, was associated with a lipid profile known to increase the risk of coronary heart disease.

Back to Top | Article Outline

Introduction

The combination of three or four drugs from any of the three available classes that can inhibit the replication of HIV [nucleoside analogue reverse transcriptase inhibitors (NRTI), non-nucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitors (NNRTI) and protease inhibitors (PI)], has lead to a dramatically improved outcome from this chronic infection [1–6].

While the benefits of highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART) have revolutionized the care of HIV-infected patients, frequent and sometimes severe treatment-associated metabolic side effects have been observed [7]. Several well known important risk factors for cardiovascular disease (CVD) can be induced and/or enhanced by PI-containing HAART [8]. These include increases in serum total cholesterol (particularly an increase in the atherogenic non-high density lipoprotein (non-HDL) cholesterol [9]) and triglycerides, as well as impaired glucose tolerance/overt diabetes mellitus associated with increased insulin resistance [10], and possibly arterial hypertension [11,12]. However, whether and how soon these antiretroviral therapy-induced abnormalities may result in a clinically detectable increased risk of CVD remains unknown, as does the impact of the underlying HIV infection per se. The available data are largely limited to case reports of myocardial infarctions in young PI-treated HIV- infected patients [13–17]. A meta-analysis of the immediate risk of myocardial infarction in randomized trials comparing PI and non-PI containing regimens, demonstrated no significant differences between the regimens [18], and presented retrospective studies have provided conflicting evidence [19–24].

To gain further insight into the risk of treatment-associated CVD, a multinational, tri-continental collaboration between ongoing HIV cohort studies was initiated in December 1999 (the DAD study, Data collection on Adverse events of anti-HIV Drugs [25]) with the objectives of detecting the incidence of myocardial infarction and stroke, and of identifying whether exposure time to the agents contained in antiretroviral drug regimens is independently associated with the risk of developing these cardiovascular events. The working hypothesis of the study is that anti-HIV drugs may accelerate the atherosclerotic process and, by doing so, increase the risk of CVD including myocardial infarction. The study is powered to detect a twofold increased risk of myocardial infarction, and will follow a cohort of more than 20 000 HIV-infected patients at various stages of infection and therapy prospectively for a minimum of 2 years.

The objectives of the present analyses were to determine the proportion of patients with an elevated risk profile for CVD at the time of inclusion into the DAD study, and to identify factors associated with these increased risk profiles, particularly with regards to the type and duration of antiretroviral therapy.

Back to Top | Article Outline

Methods

Design

The DAD study is an observational study formed by the collaboration of previously established HIV cohorts. Eleven cohorts [26–36] participate and contribute data on more than 20 000 HIV infected patients followed at 188 clinics in 20 countries situated in Europe, USA and Australia (Table 1 and Appendix).

Table 1
Table 1
Image Tools
Back to Top | Article Outline
Data collection

Patients are followed prospectively during visits to out-patient clinics scheduled as part of regular medical care. Eligible patients are all under active follow-up at the time of initiation of the DAD protocol, irrespective of antiretroviral treatment status. Patients were enrolled into DAD consecutively as they were seen in the clinic from the time the DAD study was implemented in each of the participating cohorts. The first cohorts started to include patients in December 1999, and all patients were included prior to 1 April 2001.

At enrolment and at least every 8 months thereafter standardized data collection forms are completed at the sites providing information from physical examination, patient interview and patient case notes, concerning family history of coronary heart disease, patients’ prior history of CVD and diabetes, cigarette smoking, blood pressure, therapy for diabetes mellitus, lipid-lowering and anti-hypertensive therapy, the presence of clinical signs of lipodystrophy and serum lipid levels (including total- and HDL-cholesterol, triglycerides, and information on fasting conditions). Further, all cumulative data characterizing the patient's underlying HIV infection since inclusion in any of the individual cohorts are collected, including information on demography, antiretroviral therapy, CD4 cell counts and HIV viral loads. Dates of diagnosis of all AIDS-defining diseases are recorded, using the 1993 clinical definition of AIDS from the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention [37]. All collected information is transformed into a standardized format and merged into a central data-set.

Back to Top | Article Outline

Variables

HIV laboratory parameters

In various analyses, CD4 cell count was stratified in strata of 100 × 106 (cells/l) or assessed as a continuous variable (log2 transformed). Similarly, HIV RNA was stratified in strata of: ≤ 500, 501–10 000, 10 001–100 000, and > 100 000 copies/ml, and also assessed as a continuous variable (log10 transformed).

Back to Top | Article Outline
Antiretroviral therapy

Six categories were predefined based on current use of antiretroviral therapy regimen at the time of enrolment into the DAD study. These are: (i) naive; (ii) treatment-experienced, but not currently receiving antiretroviral therapy; (iii) currently receiving only NRTI; (iv) currently receiving NNRTI and NRTI but not PI; (v) currently receiving PI and NRTI but not NNRTI; or (vi) currently receiving PI, NNRTI and NRTI.

Previous antiretroviral therapy exposure was modelled as cumulative time spent using each of the three drug classes.

Back to Top | Article Outline
CVD risk factors

The grouping of the risk factors assessed was defined prior to the initiation of the analysis. CVD risk factors were assessed as dichotomous categorical variables, where the cut-off levels chosen were conservative estimates of ‘high risk’ based on levels used for risk scoring in the background population [38–41]. The specification of risk factors is as follows. (i) Dyslipidaemia: defined as elevated total cholesterol ≥ 6.2 mmol/l (240 mg/dl), and/or decreased HDL-cholesterol ≤ 0.9 mmol/l (35 mg/dl), and/or elevated triglycerides ≥ 2.3 mmol/l (200 mg/dl). [The cut-offs applied are based on cut-offs for high risk for CVD in the NCEP guidelines.] (ii) Older age: age ≥ 45 years for men and ≥ 55 for women. (iii) Family history of coronary heart disease: first-degree relative with myocardial infarction before age 50. (iv) Previous CVD: patients’ own previous experience of myocardial infarction and/or stroke. (v) Hypertension: elevated systolic blood pressure ≥ 150 mmHg and/or elevated diastolic blood pressure ≥ 100 mmHg, or usage of anti-hypertensive drugs. (vi) Diabetes: history of diabetes or usage of anti-diabetic therapy. (vii) Body mass index (BMI) was stratified in four categories: underweight (BMI, < 18 kg/m2), normal weight (BMI, 18–26 kg/m2), overweight (BMI, 26.1–30 kg/m2) and obesity (BMI, > 30 kg/m2). Obesity was considered a cardiovascular risk factor. (viii) Smoking: current cigarette smoking at inclusion in the DAD study. (ix) Presence of clinical lipodystrophy was defined as either characteristic fat loss (from the face and/or extremities), central fat gain (abdominal and/or cervicodorsal) or mixed (at least one sign each of fat loss and central fat gain), as judged by the treating physician.

Back to Top | Article Outline
Statistical analyses

Prevalence of single risk factors was calculated for the groups of patients for which data were available. Based on the observed prevalence, dyslipidaemia, diabetes, hypertension and lipodystrophy were further assessed as outcome variables in logistic models.

Univariable chi-squared and Kruskal–Wallis tests were used to compare categorical and continuous baseline demographic, clinical and laboratory characteristics between antiretroviral regimen categories. Association of CVD risk factors with antiretroviral therapy, demographic, clinical and laboratory parameters were tested in univariable logistic regression models. Multivariable logistic regression was then performed to identify parameters independently associated with the presence of CVD risk factors. The multivariable model included all parameters significantly associated with the risk factor assessed, at a level of P < 0.05 in the univariable model. For the main associations, the outcomes of the logistic models were tested in linear models, where the outcome variables were modelled as continuous variables.

From the literature it is known that total cholesterol levels are not significantly influenced by fasting status and HDL-cholesterol is influenced only slightly [42–44]. Although triglycerides are influenced by fasting, their daily fluctuation does not have a simple relationship with intake of meals [45]. In order to consider the impact of fasting status on the results, sensitivity analyses were repeated separately for fasting and non-fasting triglyceride measurements. Similarly, and for all lipid measurements, sensitivity analyses were performed to assess associations among the cohorts with less missing data. The associations of the primary analyses were reproduced by the sensitivity analyses; these results have generally not been included in this report.

All analyses were performed using Statistical Analysis System (SAS) version 6.12 (SAS Institute Inc, Cary, North Carolina, USA).

Back to Top | Article Outline

Results

Demographics

By April 2001, the central database contained information on 17 852 patients enrolled in DAD from nine of 11 participating cohorts. The patient characteristics are shown in Tables 1, 2 and 3. Seventy-six percent were male, the median age was 39 years [inter quartile range (IQR), 34–45], 25% previously had AIDS. Mode of HIV acquisition was homosexual contacts in 43%, heterosexual contacts in 28% and injecting drug use in 23%. The median CD4 cell count was 430 × 106 cells/l (IQR, 270–621 × 106 cells/l) and median plasma HIV RNA was below 500 copies/ml (IQR, < 500–4800 copies/ml). These variables varied by cohort (Table 1).

Table 2
Table 2
Image Tools
Table 3
Table 3
Image Tools

Two cohorts (CPCRA and the Brussels St. Pierre cohort) were included later in the DAD study and their patient characteristics at baseline not analysed in this manuscript.

Back to Top | Article Outline
Antiretroviral therapy

At enrolment, 13% of the study population were antiretroviral therapy naive, 6% were previously exposed, but not currently receiving any antiretroviral therapy, 11% were receiving a regimen containing NRTI only, 20% were receiving NNRTI-based therapy, 43% PI-based therapy and 7% were on a regimen containing all three drug classes. Overall, 72% of the study population had at any one time been exposed to PI with a median exposure time of 2.5 years (IQR, 1.5–3.2 years), 36% had ever been exposed to NNRTI with a median exposure time of 0.9 years (IQR, 0.5–1.5 years) and 87% had ever been exposed to NRTI with a median exposure of 3.2 years (IQR, 2.0–4.7 years) (Table 2).

Back to Top | Article Outline
CVD risk factors and association with antiretroviral drugs and duration of therapy

CVD risk factors were prevalent in the study population (Table 3). Almost 25% of the study population was in an age group constituting a CVD risk factor by our definition, with the highest prevalence among patients receiving PI, NNRTI or both of these drug classes. 11.4 % had a family history of coronary heart disease with no significant difference between the antiretroviral therapy groups, and 1.4% had a previous history of CVD, with the highest prevalence in the group of patients receiving a regimen containing both PI and NNRTI. More than half of the study population were current cigarette smokers, with the highest prevalence among the naive patients and patients not currently receiving antiretroviral therapy.

Back to Top | Article Outline
Hypertension

More than 8% of the study population had hypertension. In a univariable logistic model, using the antiretroviral therapy-naive group as reference, regimens containing NNRTI, PI or both drug classes were associated with an increased risk of being hypertensive (Table 4). But after adjustment for other factors which univariably were associated with the presence of hypertension, the associations with antiretroviral therapy disappeared or were reversed (Table 4). This was explained mainly by a strong correlation of hypertension with other factors (age, sex and BMI).

Table 4
Table 4
Image Tools
Back to Top | Article Outline
Diabetes

The overall prevalence of diabetes was 2.5%. In a univariable model, all regimens were associated with an increased risk of diabetes when compared with naive patients (Table 4). After adjustment for other factors, current therapy with a regimen containing NNRTI or NNRTI + PI remained marginally independently associated with the presence of diabetes.

Back to Top | Article Outline
Serum total cholesterol

The association of antiretroviral therapy with lipid levels is shown in Table 3. Assessed from median cholesterol levels (Table 3) and in univariable models (Table 4), patients currently using regimens containing NNRTI + NRTI, PI + NRTI or all three drug classes combined were at increased risk of having a high total cholesterol when compared with naive patients, with the highest risk among patients receiving a regimen containing all three drug classes. This pattern remained unchanged after controlling for other risk factors (Table 4). Subjects receiving NRTI only as well as subjects who had discontinued antiretroviral therapy have similar total cholesterol levels to naive subjects (regardless of duration of previous exposure to any of the drug classes), the latter suggestive of a reversible drug effect on total cholesterol level.

We further examined the effect of duration of exposure to the drug classes. As current and previous antiretroviral therapy exposures were highly correlated, these parameters were fitted in separate models. In a univariable logistic model for cumulative antiretroviral therapy exposure time, the OR for elevated total cholesterol was 1.00 (IQR, 0.98–1.02; P = 0.81), 1.39 (IQR, 1.31–1.47; P < 10−4) and 1.42 (IQR, 1.38–1.47; P < 10−4) per year of exposure to NRTI, NNRTI and PI, respectively. After controlling for other risk factors for dyslipidaemia, these associations remained essentially unchanged (data not shown; the model included sex, age, smoking, family history of coronary heart disease, previous cardiovascular disease, BMI, HIV transmission category, CD4 cell count, HIV RNA and duration of NRTI, NNRTI and PI therapy).

Among patients who currently or previously were exposed to antiretroviral therapy, level of immunodeficiency and plasma HIV RNA were independently associated with elevated total cholesterol after adjustment for other factors, including duration of antiretroviral therapy. The association was present within each antiretroviral therapy regimen group (Fig. 1). Overall, the adjusted risk of having elevated total cholesterol increased by 24% per twofold increase in CD4 cell count [OR, 1.24 (IQR, 1.18–1.30) per log2CD4, P < 10−4], thus the highest risk of elevated cholesterol is among patients with preserved or regained immunity (Fig. 1a). Of note, there was no association of CD4 cell count with total cholesterol in treatment-naive patients. In all antiretroviral therapy groups, and also in the group of antiretroviral therapy-naive patients, higher HIV viral load was associated with a decreased risk of elevated total cholesterol (Fig. 1b), overall the adjusted OR was 0.70 (IQR, 0.65–0.75), P < 10−4, per 1 log10 increase in HIV RNA.

Fig. 1
Fig. 1
Image Tools
Back to Top | Article Outline
Serum triglycerides

The prevalence of elevated triglycerides was 28.4% among patients with fasting values and 35.4% for the non-fasting measurements (36% of measurements were fasting values, 24% non-fasting and the remaining lacked information regarding fasting status). The associations of antiretroviral treatment with elevated triglycerides resembled the associations seen with total cholesterol (Table 4), and were also similar within each group, when fasting and non-fasting measurements were tested separately (data not shown).

In a univariable logistic model for cumulative antiretroviral drug exposure time, the OR for elevated triglycerides was 1.05 (IQR, 1.03–1.07), 1.28 (IQR, 1.21–1.35) and 1.38 (IQR, 1.34–1.42) per year of exposure to NRTI, NNRTI and PI respectively (all, P < 10−4). In the multivariable model these associations remained essentially unchanged (data not shown).

The association with CD4 cell count and HIV viral load differed between regimens. Among patients who were antiretroviral therapy-naive, previously exposed, but not currently receiving any antiretroviral therapy, or currently receiving a regimen containing NRTI only, the adjusted risk of elevated triglycerides increased with increasing HIV RNA [OR, 1.18 (IQR, 1.07–1.31) per 1 log10 increase; P = 0.001], whereas there was no significant association with CD4 cell count [OR, 1.06 (IQR, 0.99–1.13) per twofold increase; P = 0.12].

Among patients receiving NNRTI, PI or a regimen containing both drug classes, the risk of elevated triglycerides increased with increasing HIV viral load [adjusted OR, 1.13 (IQR, 1.06–1.21) per 1 log10 increase; P < 10−4] and also increased with increasing CD4 cell count [OR, 1.20 (IQR, 1.15–1.26) per twofold increase in CD4 cell count; P < 10−3].

Back to Top | Article Outline
Serum high density lipoprotein (HDL)-cholesterol

All regimens were associated with an increased risk of low HDL-cholesterol except regimens containing NNRTI, when compared to naive subjects (Table 4). In a univariable logistic model for cumulative antiretroviral drug exposure time, the OR for decreased HDL-cholesterol per year of exposure to NRTI, NNRTI and PI respectively, was 1.08 (IQR, 1.05–1.11; P < 10−4), 0.87 (IQR, 0.80–0.95; P < 0.002) and 1.01 (IQR, 0.97–1.06; P = 0.53). The multivariable model showed similar associations.

The associations of CD4 cell count and HIV viral load were similar for the absolute value of HDL-cholesterol as for total cholesterol, i.e., the risk of having decreased HDL-cholesterol is highest among patients with low CD4 cell count and high HIV viral load.

Back to Top | Article Outline
Body composition

In all regimen groups there were few obese patients (Table 3), with a slightly higher prevalence among treatment-naive (4.8%) patients than in other groups. As would be expected, antiretroviral therapy was highly associated with the presence of clinical lipodystrophy, with the highest risk among patients receiving a regimen containing all three drug classes (Tables 3 and 4). Patients exposed for a longer time to the antiretroviral drug classes tended to have a higher prevalence of lipodystrophy at baseline (data not shown). Using the composite definition of lipodystrophy, there was no association between BMI and lipodystrophy (data not shown).

When assessed as an explanatory variable, lipodystrophy was associated with the presence of several of the CVD risk factors discussed above. In a multivariable model including the total study population, and adjusting for co-variables as listed in Table 4, the adjusted OR for the association of lipodystrophy with elevated total cholesterol was 1.56 (IQR, 1.41–1.72; P < 10−4), elevated triglycerides 2.16 (IQR, 1.98–2.37; P < 10−4) and decreased HDL 1.53 (IQR, 1.35–1.73; P < 10−4). The presence of lipodystrophy was associated with an increased risk of hypertension and diabetes [OR, 1.34 (IQR, 1.17–1.54) and 2.05 (IQR, 1.63–2.58), respectively; both P < 10−4].

Back to Top | Article Outline

Discussion

In the DAD population we have observed a high prevalence of multiple risk factors for CVD, particularly among patients currently receiving an antiretroviral therapy regimen containing all three drug classes. DAD has the strength of having included more than 20 000 patients with details concerning CVD risk factors and thereby is by far the largest study conducted to date which addresses CVD risk factors in HIV infection. A novel finding was that regimens containing drugs from both the PI and NNRTI classes were associated with the highest prevalence of dyslipidaemia, suggestive of a possibly additive effect of combinations of drugs from these drug classes. Furthermore, we observed that hypercholesterolaemia was associated with a higher CD4 cell count (in antiretroviral-treated people), a lower HIV plasma viral load, the presence of clinical signs of lipodystrophy and older age.

Dyslipidaemia was most strongly correlated with antiretroviral regimens currently being used, and less with a history of previous exposure to the different drug classes. This finding corresponds with previous reports, in which the dyslipidaemia associated with PI occurred shortly after beginning therapy (in the fraction of patients prone to develop this adverse effect) [8,46] and the rate of increase in lipid levels abated within months of initiation of the drugs. It is also consistent with studies that have shown that switch from PI to NNRTI-based or NRTI-only regimens is associated with attenuation or resolution of dyslipidaemia [47] within a short period of time (i.e., a few months). However, the cumulative time of exposure to various antiretroviral drug classes (with the concomitant risk of raised lipid levels) is likely to be relevant when predicting the risk of future CVD.

The association between PI therapy and elevated levels of total cholesterol and serum triglycerides has been noted previously in smaller cohort studies. The average increases in lipid levels in the largest series published to date [9,10,48,49], comparing levels during PI therapy with either pre-therapy levels or levels in PI-naive HIV-infected patients, were 28% for total cholesterol and 96% for triglycerides. We observed no difference in risk of low HDL-cholesterol among patients treated with PI, NRTI or not currently receiving antiretroviral therapy, and patients in these groups all had lower HDL-cholesterol levels than treatment-naive individuals. Consistent with most other studies, duration of PI therapy did not influence the level of HDL-cholesterol [49], whereas duration of NRTI was associated with a higher risk of low HDL-cholesterol.

An increase in total cholesterol with no increase in the HDL fraction is of particular concern, because it implies an elevation of the atherogenic non-HDL-cholesterol. The risk of elevated total cholesterol was increased per additional drug included in the regimen, and for longer exposure time to PI. Additional analysis to assess possible differences between individual PI is underway to examine these associations in more detail [50].

In contrast with previous observations of an association of PI use and dyslipidaemia, our finding of an association between NNRTI-containing regimens and dyslipidaemia has not been widely investigated. Phase I studies of efavirenz in HIV-uninfected subjects revealed increases in total cholesterol levels of 10–20% in some subjects [51], and no differences between different NNRTI were reported in HIV-infected individuals [52]. In concordance with our results, an increase in (protective) HDL-cholesterol with NNRTI has recently been reported [53,54]. More detailed analyses to assess possible differences between individual NNRTI are ongoing [55].

Consistent with previous reports, NRTI-only therapy was not associated with elevated cholesterol [52,56]. With regards to triglycerides, recent studies have indicated differences among drugs in the NRTI drug class, with a higher propensity for high triglyceride levels associated with stavudine use [56,57]. Future analyses from the DAD study will further assess differences between individual drugs within the NRTI drug class.

So far, few studies have examined factors which predispose HIV-infected patients to treatment-associated lipid abnormalities [58–60]. We have identified several factors that are significantly associated with the presence of dyslipidaemia in HIV infected subjects receiving antiretroviral therapy. We found a strong association between elevated total cholesterol level and higher CD4 cell counts, which was present within each treatment category but not in the antiretroviral therapy-naive group. Nevertheless, within each CD4 cell count stratum, the effect of antiretroviral therapy was clearly observed, which indicates that the effect of antiretroviral substances certainly cannot solely be explained by a reversal to ‘normal’ pre-disease cholesterol levels as a result of improved cellular immunity. The CD4 cell count level remained independently associated with elevated total cholesterol also after adjustment for duration of treatment. This does not rule out, however, that the observed association may still – at least in part – be due to residual confounding of the effect of antiretroviral therapy, either directly via a dose–response effect (i.e., higher CD4 cell count and lower plasma viral load are surrogates of better adherence and hence higher exposure to causative drugs) or indirectly via lowering HIV-RNA levels (see below).

The level of HDL-cholesterol, although to a lesser extent, likewise increased with more conserved cellular immunity, consistent with observations in the pre-HAART era [61], while no clear association was observed for levels of triglycerides after adjusting for therapy.

For total cholesterol, the association with HIV viral load was the inverse of the association with CD4 cell count. Thus we found increasing levels of total cholesterol with lower HIV RNA, and similarly for HDL-cholesterol. The latter has also been reported from other studies [62]. Conversely, overall and after adjustment for other factors, levels of triglycerides increased with increasing HIV viral load, consistent with the findings in the pre-PI era of elevated triglycerides linked to HIV disease progression [63].

Subjects already exposed to other risk factors for CVD are likely to have an accelerated course of atherosclerosis and the clinical complications hereof, given the known synergistic effects of different CVD risk factors [38]. In the DAD study, we have observed a high prevalence of other known and potential CVD risk factors among patients receiving either PI or NNRTI, including cigarette smoking, diabetes, hypertension and altered body composition.

The overall prevalence of diabetes mellitus in the DAD study was 2.5% and varied between regimens, from 1.1% in patients not currently receiving antiretroviral therapy to 4.3% in patients receiving PI and NNRTI. This is consistent with other studies which have shown an association between impaired glucose tolerance, diabetes mellitus and use of PI [8,9,48]. The prevalence of diabetes in PI-treated HIV patients has been reported to be in the range of 2–8%, with the highest detection rate in studies based on performance of oral glucose tolerance testing. In the setting of our observational study, in which oral glucose tolerance testing is not mandated and the diagnosis will mainly rely on measuring repeated elevated fasting blood sugar, the prevalence of diabetes is likely to be underestimated.

Data on the prevalence of hypertension in HIV patients are limited. A few studies have reported an increased prevalence of hypertension in PI treated patients [11,12] or in conjunction with lipodystrophy [64]. In our study, the associations between antiretroviral drug regimens and hypertension in univariable logistic models were no longer present after adjustment for other factors associated with hypertension. Thus, our data do not support a concern that HIV treatment per se is likely to induce hypertension.

Consistent with current knowledge [10], the use of antiretroviral therapy was strongly associated with the presence of lipodystrophy. Furthermore, there was a marked association between dyslipidaemia and several of the other CVD risk factors on the one hand and clinical lipodystrophy on the other. Such associations do not necessarily suggest a particular aetiology of lipodystrophy, but rather describe a clinical phenomenon, as the definition of lipodystrophy in the present analyses includes all clinical presentation of the syndrome, when in fact the various fat re-distribution patterns may represent separate entities with different aetiology [65]. Clinical lipodystrophy – i.e., fat redistribution – is associated with presence of several known metabolic risk factors for CVD, and therefore the lipodystrophy syndrome would also be expected to be associated with an increased risk of CVD.

Whether the presence of fat redistribution in itself – by way of abnormal fat loss and/or gain – represents an independent risk for CVD remains unresolved. A large collaboration is ongoing with the purpose of establishing a case definition for the lipodystrophy syndrome [66], which will facilitate the evaluation of the different clinical patterns and their possible influence on risk of CVD.

Compared with antiretroviral therapy-naive subjects, those treated with antiretroviral drugs tended to be less obese. Whether this observation is causally related to adverse events caused by the antiretroviral drugs should be investigated further. Obesity is an independent risk factor for CVD in the background population [40,67].

Back to Top | Article Outline
Strengths and limitations

The strength of our results is primarily related to the substantial size of the study population. The diversity of the study population, including patients from a variety of geographical areas and a substantial number of women and minorities, ensures that the study is representative of the HIV infected population in industrialized countries.

The limitations are mainly related to the observational design of the study and the cross-sectional nature of the current analyses. Firstly, the results presented are only associations from which no conclusions regarding causality can or should be drawn. Secondly, due to the observational design of the study, many measurements are expected not to be always conducted in a uniform manner. This includes measurement of blood pressure and laboratory analyses of lipid levels. However, even in the absence of uniform standards for this study, national and international standardization of serum lipid measurements have been accomplished through collaboration of the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention and the World Health Organization, and comparable results can be obtained globally because of these standardization efforts [68]. Thirdly, the relatively high proportion of missing data should be noted (Table 3), which amongst other things implies that the prevalence of the individual risk factors is imprecise. Measures have been taken to complete the collection of pending baseline data during follow-up. Finally, information concerning certain other potential risk factors for CVD was not collected in our study, including genetic factors, physical activity, diet and alcohol consumption.

Back to Top | Article Outline
Perspectives

The present analysis shows that, especially among older patients, the use of potent antiretroviral therapy resulting in more profound virus suppression and more preserved immunity, was associated with a high both relative and absolute risk of exhibiting risk factors for coronary heart disease.

Using these results, work is in progress to model the estimated risk of CVD based on validated algorithms [69]. Such projections assume that the induced risk factors can be directly transposed, which is likely to be a simplification as there presumably will be a time lag from when factors known to accelerate the atherosclerotic process are induced (i.e., when PI and/or NNRTI are started) and until clinical manifestations of atherosclerotic vascular disease will occur. As many of these factors are likely to act synergistically, and as the underlying HIV infection itself and its various manifestations may also contribute, current knowledge does not permit reliable assessment of the duration of the above mentioned time-lag. However, comparison of the estimated expected with the observed CVD event rate in the DAD study may provide some understanding.

The question as to whether antiretroviral therapy-associated metabolic disorders contribute to premature cardiovascular disease is of major importance for the way HIV infection is clinically managed. If current treatment of HIV infection would indeed be shown to be associated with an increased risk of CVD, such risk of course would need to be balanced against the proven major benefits of therapy. It would likely have implications for considerations concerning the composition of regimens, the timing of initiation of therapy, as well as for the evaluation and use of various pharmaceutical and non-pharmaceutical measures directed at reducing CVD risk. Last but not least it stresses the continued need for developing less toxic and better tolerated effective treatments for HIV infection.

Back to Top | Article Outline

Acknowledgements

Sponsorship: The ATHENA study was supported by a grant (CURE/97-46486) from the Health Insurance Fund Council, Amstelveen, the Netherlands. The Aquitaine Cohort was supported by a grant from the ‘Agence Nationale de Recherches sur le SIDA’ (ANRS, Action Coordonnée no.7, Cohortes). The BASS study was supported by grants from the ‘Fondo de Investigación Sanitaria’ (FIS 99/0887) and ‘Fundación para la Investigación y la Prevención del SIDA en Espanã’ (FIPSE 3171/00). The EuroSIDA study was supported by grants from the European Commission BIOMED 1 (CT94-1637) and BIOMED 2 (CT97-2713) programs, from Pharmacia & Upjohn, GlaxoSmithKline, Roche and Merck. The ICONA network was supported by an unrestricted educational grant from Glaxo Wellcome, Italy. The Swiss HIV Cohort Study was supported by a grant (3345-062041) from the Swiss National Science Foundation. Support for the DAD study was provided by the ‘Oversight Committee for The Evaluation of Metabolic Complications of HAART', a collaborative committee with representation from academic institutions, the EMEA, the FDA and all pharmaceutical companies with licensed anti-HIV drugs in the US marked, i.e., Abbott, Agouron, Boehringer Ingelheim, Bristol-Myers Squibb, GlaxoSmithKline, Merck, Pfizer, Pharmacia & Upjohn, Hoffman-La Roche.

Back to Top | Article Outline

References

1.Palella FJ, Jr., Delaney KM, Moorman AC, Loveless MO, Fuhrer J, Satten GA, Aschman DJ, et al. Declining morbidity and mortality Among patients with advanced Human Immunodeficiency Virus infection. HIV Outpatient Study Investigators. N Engl J Med 1998, 338:853–860.

2.Ledergerber B, Egger M, Opravil M, Telenti A, Hirschel B, Battegay M, et al. Clinical progression and virological failure on highly active antiretroviral therapy in HIV-1 patients: a prospective cohort study. Swiss HIV Cohort Study. Lancet 1999, 353:863–868.

3.Mocroft A, Vella S, Benfield TL, Chiesi A, Miller V, Gargalianos P, et al. Changing patterns of mortality across europe in patients infected with HIV-1. EuroSIDA Study Group. Lancet 1998, 352:1725–1730.

4.Carpenter CC, Cooper DA, Fischl MA, Gatell JM, Gazzard BG, Hammer SM, et al. Antiretroviral therapy in adults: updated recommendations of the International AIDS Society-USA Panel. JAMA 2000, 283:381–390.

5.BHIVA writing Committee on behalf of the BHIVA Executive Committee. British HIV association guidelines for the treatment of HIV infected adults with antiretroviral therapy. HIV Med 2000, 1:76–101.

6.Staszewski S, Morales-Ramirez J, Tashima KT, Rachlis A, Skiest D, Stanford J, et al. Efavirenz plus zidovudine and lamivudine, efavirenz plus indinavir, and indinavir plus zidovudine and lamivudine in the treatment of HIV-1 infection in adults. Study 006 Team. N Engl J Med 1999, 341:1865–1873.

7.Carr A. Cooper DA. Adverse effects of antiretroviral therapy. Lancet 2000, 356:1423–1430.

8.Carr A, Samaras K, Thorisdottir A, Kaufmann GR, Chisholm DJ, Cooper DA. Diagnosis, prediction, and natural course of HIV-1 protease-inhibitor-associated lipodystrophy, hyperlipidaemia, and diabetes mellitus: a cohort study. Lancet 1999, 353: 2093–2099.

9.Behrens G, Dejam A, Schmidt H, Balks HJ, Brabant G, Korner T, et al. Impaired glucose tolerance, beta cell function and lipid metabolism in hiv patients under treatment with protease inhibitors. AIDS 1999, 13:F63–F70.

10.Carr A, Samaras K, Burton S, Law M, Freund J, Chisholm DJ, et al.A syndrome of peripheral lipodystrophy, hyperlipidaemia and insulin resistance in patients receiving HIV protease inhibitors. AIDS 1998, 12:F51–F58.

11.Hewitt RG, Thompson MA, Chu A, Hernandez F, Shelton MJ. Indinavir, not nelfinavir, is associated with systemic hypertension when compared to no protease inhibitor therapy. Eighth Conference on Retroviruses and Opportunistic Infections. Chicago, February 2001 [abstract 658].

12.Cattelan AM, Trevenzoli M, Sasset L, Rinaldi L, Balasso V, Cadrobbi P. Indinavir and systemic hypertension. AIDS 2001, 15:805–807.

13.Henry K, Melroe H, Huebsch J, Hermundson J, Levine C, Swensen L, et al. Severe premature coronary artery disease with protease inhibitors. Lancet 1998, 351:1328.

14.Friedl AC, Jost CH, Schalcher C, Amann FW, Flepp M, Jenni R, et al. Acceleration of confirmed coronary artery disease among HIV-infected patients on potent antiretroviral therapy. AIDS 2000, 14:2790–2792.

15.Karmochkine M. Raguin G. Severe coronary artery disease in a young HIV-infected man With no cardiovascular risk factor who was treated with indinavir. AIDS 1998, 12:2499.

16.Flynn TE, Bricker LA. Myocardial infarction in HIV-infected men receiving protease inhibitors. Ann Intern Med 1999, 131: 548.

17.Vittecoq D, Escaut L, Monsuez JJ. Vascular complications associated with use of HIV protease inhibitors. Lancet 1998, 351:1959.

18.Coplan P, Cormier K, Japour A. Myocardial infarction incidence in clinical trials of 4 protease inhibitors. Seventh Conference on Retroviruses and Opportunistic Infections. San Francisco, January 2000 [abstract 34].

19.Currier J, Boyd F, Burtcel B, Dezii C, Kawabata H, Lilienfeld D, et al. Accelerated atherosclerosis in men infected with HIV. Antiviral Therapy 2001; 6 (suppl. 4): 36 [abstract 49].

20.Bozzette SA, Ake C, Carpenter A, Bommakanty U, Leung V, Tam H, et al. Cardio- and Cerebrovascular Outcomes with Changing Process of Anti-HIV Therapy in 36,766 US Veterans. Ninth Conference on Retroviruses and Opportunistic Infections. Seattle, February 2002 [abstract LB9].

21.Klein D, Hurley LB, Quesenberry CP, Jr, Sidney S. Do protease inhibitors increase the risk for coronary heart disease in patients with HIV-1 infection? J Acquir Immune Defic Syndr 2002, 30:471–477.

22.Holmberg SD, Moorman AC, Tong T, Ward D, Wood K, Greenberg A, et al. Protease inhibitor drug use and adverse cardiovascular events in ambulatory HIV-infected patients. XIV International Conference on AIDS. Barcelona, July 2002 [abstract TuPeB4494].

23.Leport C, Saves M, Ducimetiere P, Le Moal G, Amouyel P, Arveiler D, et al. Coronary heart disease risk (CHD) in French HIV-infected men started on a protease inhibitor (PI)-containing regimen compared to the general population. Ninth Conference on Retroviruses and Opportunistic Infections. Seattle, February 2002 [abstract 697-T].

24.Mary-Krause M, Cotte L, Partisani M, Simon A, Costagliola D. Impact of treatment with protease inhibitor (PI) on myocardial infarction (MI) occurrence in HIV-infected men. Eighth Conference on Retroviruses and Opportunistic Infections. Chicago, February 2001 [abstract 657].

25.Data Collection on Adverse Events of Anti-HIV Drugs; Study documents. http://www.cphiv.dk/dad/daddocuments.htm. 1 March 2000.

26.Lundgren JD, Phillips AN, Vella S, Katlama C, Ledergerber B, Johnson AM, et al. Regional differences in use of antiretroviral agents and primary prophylaxis in 3122 European HIV-infected patients. EuroSIDA Study Group. J Acquir Immune Defic Syndr Hum Retrovirol 1997;16:153–160.

27.The Community Programs for Clinical Research on AIDS (CPCRA) is an experienced community-based clinical trials network assessing the effect of available HIV therapies in diverse populations across the spectrum of HIV disease. http://www.cpcra.org 2001.

28.Keita-Perse O, Roger PM, Pradier C, Pugliese P, Cottalorda J, Dellamonica P. Do viral load and CD8 cell count at initiation of tritherapy influence the increase of CD4 T-cell count? AIDS 1998, 12:F175–F179.

29.d'Arminio, Monforte A, Lepri AC, Rezza G, Pezzotti P, Antinori A, Phillips AN, et al. Insights into the reasons for discontinuation of the first highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART) regimen in a cohort of antiretroviral naive patients. I.CO.N.A. Study Group. Italian Cohort of Antiretroviral-Naive Patients. AIDS 2000, 14:499–507.

30.Clumeck N, De Wit S, Sommereijns B, Barath A. Cerebral toxoplasmosis over the last 10 years in a 2394 patient cohort in Brussels. Eleventh International Symposium on Infections in the Immunocompromised Host. Halifax, Nova Scotia, Canada, June 2000.

31.Morfeldt L, Åkerlund B, Koppel K, Sundström A, Wiholm BE; Steineck G, et al. The HivBivus Project - a concept for the surveillance of ADRs in HIV-infected patients. AIDS 14 (Suppl 4): abstract p. 166.

32.Mateu S, on behalf of the Barcelona Antiretroviral Surveillance Study (BASS) Group. Multicentre prospective cohort study to evaluate the safety profile of HAART in HIV outpatients: one year follow-up results. Antiviral Ther 1999, 4 (suppl 2):58–59 [Abstract 045].

33.Sudre P, Rickenbach M, Taffe P, Janin P, Volkart AC Francioli, P. Clinical epidemiology and research on HIV Infection in Switzerland: the Swiss HIV Cohort Study 1988–2000. Schweiz Med Wochenschr 2000, 130:1493–500.

34.Jambroes M, Weverling GJ, Reiss P, Danner SA, Jurriaans S, ten Veen JH, et al. HIV-1 Therapy in the Netherlands: virological and immunological response to antiretroviral therapy. Ned Tijdschr Geneeskd 2001, 145:1591–1597.

35.The Australian HIV Observational Database. Rates of Change of Combination Antiretroviral Treatment in Australia. HIV Med 2002; 3(1):28–36.

36.Thiebaut R, Morlat, P, Jacqmin-Gadda H, Neau D, Mercie P, Dabis F, et al. Clinical progression of HIV-1 infection according to the viral response during the first year of antiretroviral treatment. Groupe D'Epidemiologie Du SIDA En Aquitaine (GECSA). AIDS 2000, 14:971–978.

37.1993 Revised Classification System for HIV Infection and Expanded Surveillance Case Definition for AIDS Among Adolescents and Adults. MMWR 1992, 41(RR–17):1–19.

38.Wilson PW, D'Agostino, RB, Levy D, Belanger AM, Silbershatz H, Kannel WB. Prediction of coronary heart disease using risk factor categories. Circulation 1998, 97:1837–1847.

39.Ramsay LE, Williams B, Johnston GD, MacGregor GA, Poston L, Potter JF, et al. British Hypertension Society Guidelines for Hypertension Management 1999: Summary. BMJ 1999, 319:630–635.

40.Obesity: Preventing and Managing the Global Epidemic. Report of a WHO Consultation. World Health Organ Tech Rep Ser 2000, 894:I–253.

41.Summary of the Second Report of the National Cholesterol Education Program (NCEP) Expert Panel on Detection, Evaluation, and Treatment of High Blood Cholesterol in Adults (Adult Treatment Panel II). JAMA 1993 269:3015–3023.

42.Quality Assessment of Total Cholesterol Measurements in the WHO MONICA Project. WWW Publications from the WHO MONICA Project. http://www.ktl.fi/publications/monica/tchol/tcholqa.htm. 1999.

43.Cohn JS, McNamara JR, Cohn SD, Ordovas JM, Schaefer EJ. Postprandial plasma lipoprotein changes in human subjects of different ages. J Lipid Res 1988, 29:469–479.

44.Mayer KH, Stamler J, Dyer AR, Stamler R, Berkson D. Epidemiologic findings on the relationship of time of day and time since last meal to five clinical variables: serum cholesterol, hematocrit, systolic and diastolic blood pressure, and heart rate. Prev Med 1978, 7:22–27.

45.Cooper GR, Myers GL, Smith, SJ, Sampson EJ. Standardization of lipid, lipoprotein, and apolipoprotein measurements. Clin Chem 1988 34:B95–105.

46.Purnell JQ, Zambon A, Knopp RH, Pizzuti DJ, Achari R, Leonard JM, et al. Effect of ritonavir on lipids and post-heparin lipase activities in normal subjects. AIDS 2000, 14:51–57.

47.Martinez E, Garcia-Viejo MA, Blanco JL, Bianchi L, Buira E, Conget I, et al. Impact of switching from Human Immunodeficiency Virus Type 1 protease inhibitors to efavirenz in successfully treated adults with lipodystrophy. Clin Infect Dis 2000, 31:1266–1273.

48.Walli R, Herfort O. Michl GM, Demant T, Jager H, Dieterle C, et al. Treatment with protease inhibitors associated with peripheral insulin resistance and impaired oral glucose tolerance in HIV-1-infected patients. AIDS 1998, 2:F167–F173.

49.Periard D, Telenti A, Sudre P, Cheseaux JJ, Halfon P, Reymond MJ, et al. Atherogenic dyslipidemia in HIV-infected individuals treated with protease inhibitors. The Swiss HIV Cohort Study. Circulation 1999, 100:700–705.

50.Pradier C, Sabin C, Friis-Møller N, Weber R, Reiss P, d'Arminio Monforte A, et al. Lipid profiles on therapy with PI. The D:A:D (Data Collection on Adverse Events of Anti-HIV Drugs) Study. Sixth International Congress on Drug Therapy in HIV Infection. Glasgow, November 2002 [abstract PL12.1].

51.DuPont Pharmaceuticals. Sustiva Prescribing Information. 2000.

52.Matthews GV, Moyle GJ, Mandalia S, Bower M, Nelson M, Gazzard BG. Absence of association between individual thymidine analogues or nonnucleoside analogues and lipid abnormalities in HIV-1-infected persons on initial therapy. J Acquir Immune Defic Syndr 2000, 24:310–315.

53.Becker S, Rachlis A, Gill J, Dejesus E. Successful substitution of protease inhibitors with efavirenz in patients with undetectable viral loads - a prospective, randomised, multicenter, open label study (DMP 049). Eighth Conference on Retroviruses and Opportunistic Infections. Chicago, February 2001 [abstract 20].

54.van der Valk M, Kastelein JJ, Murphy RL, van Leth F, Katlama C, Horban A, et al. Nevirapine-containing antiretroviral therapy in HIV-1 infected patients results in an anti-atherogenic lipid profile. AIDS 2001 15:2407–2414.

55.Leth FV, Friis-Møller N, Weber R, d'Arminio Monforte A, Kirk O, Thiebaut R, et al., for the DAD study group. Distinguishable lipid profiles between PI and NNRTI therapy may carry different risk of cardiovascular disease (CVD). Ninth Conference on Retroviruses and Opportunistic Infections. Seattle, February 2002 [abstract 34].

56.Galli M, Ridolfo AL, Adorni F, Gervasoni C, Ravasio L, Corsico L, et al. Body habitus changes and metabolic alterations in protease inhibitor-naive HIV-1-infected patients treated with two nucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitors. J Acquir Immune Defic Syndr 2002, 29:21–31.

57.Saint-Marc T, Partisani M, Poizot-Martin I, Rouviere O, Bruno F, Avellaneda R, et al. Fat distribution evaluated by computed tomography and metabolic abnormalities in patients undergoing antiretroviral therapy: preliminary results of the LIPOCO Study. AIDS 2000, 14:37–49.

58.Lee D, Mathews WC. Prevalence and risk factors for hyperglycemia, dyslipidemia, and coronary disease among HIV-infected patients on initial protease inhibitor therapy. Sixth conference on Retroviruses and Opportunustic Infections. Chicago, January–February 1999 [Abstract 644].

59.Thiebaut R, Dabis F, Malvy D, Jacqmin-Gadda H, Mercie P, Valentin VD. Serum triglycerides, HIV Infection, and highly active antiretroviral therapy, Aquitaine Cohort, France, 1996 to 1998. Groupe D'Epidemiologie Clinique Du Sida En Aquitaine (GECSA). J Acquir Immune Defic Syndr 2000, 23:261–265.

60.Tsiodras S, Mantzoros C, Hammer S, Samore M. Effects of protease inhibitors on hyperglycemia, hyperlipidemia, and lipodystrophy: a 5-year cohort study. Arch Intern Med 2000, 160:2050–2056.

61.Constans J, Pellegrin JL, Peuchant E, Dumon MF, Pellegrin I, Sergeant C, et al. Plasma lipids in HIV-infected patients: a prospective study in 95 patients. Eur J Clin Invest 1994, 24: 416–420.

62.Vergis EN, Paterson DL, Wagener MM, Swindells S, Singh N. Dyslipidaemia in HIV-infected patients: association with adherence to potent antiretroviral therapy. Int J STD AIDS 2001, 12:463–468.

63.Grunfeld C, Kotler, DP, Hamadeh R, Tierney A, Wang J, Pierson RN. Hypertriglyceridemia in the acquired immunodeficiency syndrome. Am J Med 1989, 86:27–31.

64.Sattler FR, Qian D, Louie S, Johnson D, Briggs W, DeQuattro V, Dube MP. Elevated blood pressure in subjects with lipodystrophy. AIDS 2001, 15:2001–2010.

65.Safrin S, Grunfeld C. Fat distribution and metabolic changes in patients with HIV infection. AIDS 1999, 13:2493–2505.

66.Carr A. An objective case definition of HIV lipodystrophy. Ninth Conference on Retroviruses and Opportunistic Infections. Seattle, February 2002 [abstract 31].

67.Hubert HB, Feinleib M, McNamara PM, Castelli WP. Obesity as an independent risk factor for cardiovascular disease: a 26-year follow-up of participants in the Framingham Heart Study. Circulation 1983, 67:968–977.

68.McNamara JR, Leary ET, Ceriotti F, Boersma-Cobbaert CM, Cole TG, Hassemer DJ, et al. Point: status of lipid and lipoprotein standardization. Clin Chem 1997, 43:13006–13010.

69.Law M, Friis-Møller N, Weber R, Reiss P, Thiebaut R, Kirk O, et al. Modelling the three year risk of myocardial infarction among participants in the D:A:D Study. Hiv Med 2003; 4(1):1–10.

Back to Top | Article Outline
Appendix

DAD Steering Committee: Persons with * below (#: chair) and F. Houyez, T. Mertenskoetter, I. Weller.

DAD Central Coordination: N. Friis-Møller, C. Sabin, J.D. Lundgren.

DAD data managers: A. Sawitz and P. Ricks (coordination), M. Rickenbach, P. Pezzotti, E. Krum, R. Meester, V. Lavignolle, A. Sundström, B. Poll, E. Fontas, F. Torres, K. Petoumenos, J. Kjœr.

Back to Top | Article Outline
The members of the 11 Cohorts
Back to Top | Article Outline
ATHENA (AIDS Therapy Evaluation Project Netherlands)

Coordinating centre: F. de Wolf, J. Lange, E. van der Ven, H. Tissing, T. Hantke, R. Meester.

Participating physicians (city): W. Bronsveld (Alkmaar); H. Weigel, K. Brinkman, P. Frissen, J. ten Veen, M. Hillebrand, P. van Dam, S. Schieveld, J. Mulder, E. van Gorp, P. Meenhorst, A. van Eeden, S. Danner, F. Claessen, R. Perenboom, D. Blanckenberg, S. Blank, J. K. Eeftinck Schattenkerk, M. Godfried, S. Lowe, J. van der Meer, F. Nellen, K. Pogany, T. van der Poll, J. Prins, P. Reiss*, T. Ruys, M. van der Valk, A. Verbon, F. Wit (Amsterdam); C. Richter, R. van Leusen (Arnhem); R. Vriesendorp, F. Jeurissen (Den Haag); R. Kauffmann, E. Koger (Den Haag); B. Bravenboer (Eindhoven); C. ten Napel (Enschede); H.G. Sprenger, G. Law (Groningen); R.W. ten Kate (Haarlem); M. Leemhuis (Leeuwarden); F. Kroon, E. Schippers (Leiden); G. Schrey, S. van der Geest, A. van der Ven (Maastricht); P. Koopmans, M. Keuter, D. Telgt (Nijmegen); M. van der Ende, I. Gyssens, S. de Marie (Rotterdam); J. Juttmann, C. van der Heul (Tilburg); M. Schneider, J. Borleffs, L. Hoepelman, C. Jaspers, A. Matute, C. Schurink (Utrecht); W. Blok (Vlissingen).

Back to Top | Article Outline
Aquitaine (France)

Scientific committee: R. Salamon (chair), J. Beylot, M. Dupon, M. Le Bras, J.L. Pellegrin, J.M. Ragnaud; Coordinating centre staff: F. Dabis*, G. Chêne, N. Bernard, D. Lacoste, D. Malvy, D. Neau, M. Dupon, J.-F. Moreau, P. Morlat, P. Mercié, J.L. Pellegrin, J.M. Ragnaud, D. Commenges, H. Jacqmin-Gadda, R. Thiébaut, S. Lawson-Ayayi, V. Lavignolle, M.J. Blaizeau, M. Decoin, A.M. Formaggio, S. Delveaux, S. Labarerre, B. Uwamaliya, E. Vimard, L. Merchadou, G. Palmer, D. Touchard, D. Dutoit, F. Pereira, B. Boulant; Participating physicians (city): J. Beylot, P. Morlat, N. Bernard, M. Bonarek, F. Bonnet, B. Coadou, P. Gelie, D. Jaubert, C. Nouts, D. Lacoste, M. Dupon, H. Dutronc, G. Cipriano, S. Lafarie, J.Y. Lacut, J.L. Pellegrin, P. Mercie, J.F. Viallard, I. Faure, P. Rispal, C. Cipriano, B. Leng, M. Le Bras, F. Djossou, D. Malvy, J.P. Pivetaud, J.M. Ragnaud, C. De La Taille, D. Neau, T. Galperine, A. Ochoa, D. Chambon (Bordeaux).

Back to Top | Article Outline
AHOD (Australian HIV Observational Database, Australia)

Coordinating centre: M. Law*, K. Petoumenos (Sydney, New South Wales).

Participating sites (city, state): J. Anderson, J. Bal (Melbourne, Victoria), D. Austin, A. Gowers, D. Baker, R. McFarlane, A. Carr, D. Cooper (Sydney, New South Wales), J. Chuah, W. Fankhauser (Gold Coast, Queensland), S. Mallal, J. Skett (Perth, Western Australia), A. Mijch, K. Watson (Melbourne, Victoria), N. Roth, H. Wood (Melbourne, Victoria).

Back to Top | Article Outline
BASS (Spain)

Coordinating centre: G Calvo*, F Torres, S Mateu (Barcelona).

Participating physicians: P. Domingo, M.A. Sambeat, J. Gatell, E. Del Cacho (Barcelona), G. Sirera, G. Viñas (Badalona).

Back to Top | Article Outline
The Brussels St Pierre Cohort (Belgium)

N. Clumeck, S. De Wit*, M. Gerard, P. Hermans, M. Hildebrand, K. Kabeya, D. Konopnicki, M.C. Payen, B. Sommereijns, Y. Van Laethem.

Back to Top | Article Outline
CPCRA (USA)

Central coordination: J. Neaton, G. Bartsch*, W. El-Sadr, E. Krum, D. Wentworth.

Participating physicians (city, state): R. Luskin-Hawk (Chicago, Illinois), E. Telzak (Bronx, New York), D.I. Abrams (San Francisco, California), D. Cohn (Denver, Colorado), N. Markowitz (Detroit, Michigan), R. Arduino (Houston, Texas), D. Mushatt (New Orleans, Louisiana), G. Friedland (New Haven, Connecticut), G. Perez (Newark, New Jersey), E. Tedaldi (Philadelphia, Pennsylvania), E. Fisher (Richmond, Virginia), F. Gordin (Washington, DC), L.R. Crane (Detroit, Michigan), J. Sampson (Portland, Oregon), J. Baxter (Camden, New Jersey).

Back to Top | Article Outline
EuroSIDA Study Group (Multinational)

Central coordination: O Kirk*, A Mocroft, AN Phillips*, JD Lundgren*#.

Participating countries and physicians (city): Austria, N. Vetter (Vienna); Belgium, N. Clumeck, P. Hermans (Brussels), R. Colebunders (Antwerp); Czech Republic, L. Machala (Prague); Denmark, J. Nielsen, T. Benfield, J. Gerstoft, T. Katzenstein, B. Røge, P Skinhøj (Copenhagen), C. Pedersen (Odense); France, C. Katlama, J.-P. Viard (Paris), T. Saint-Marc, P. Vanhems (Lyon); Germany, M. Dietrich, C. Manegold, J. van Lunzen (Hamburg); V. Miller, S. Staszewski, M. Bieckel (Frankfurt), F.D. Goebel (Munich), B. Salzberger (Cologne), J. Rockstroh (Bonn); Greece, J. Kosmidis, P. Gargalianos, H. Sambatakou, J. Perdios, G. Panos, I. Karydis, A. Filandras (Athens); Hungary, D. Banhegyi (Budapest); Ireland, F. Mulcahy (Dublin); Israel, I Yust, D. Turner (Tel Aviv), S. Pollack, Z. Ben-Ishai (Haifa), Z. Bentwich (Rehovot), S. Maayan (Jerusalem); Italy, S. Vella, A. Chiesi (Rome), C. Arici (Bergamo), R. Pristerá (Bolzano), F. Mazzotta, A. Gabbuti (Florence), R. Esposito, A. Bedini (Modena), A. Chirianni, E. Montesarchio (Naples), V. Vullo, P. Santopadre, P. Narciso, A. Antinori, P. Franci, M. Zaccarelli (Rome), R. Finazzi (Milan); Luxembourg, R. Hemmer, T. Staub (Luxembourg); Norway, J. Bruun, A. Maeland, V. Ormaasen (Oslo); Poland, B. Knysz, J. Gasiorowski (Wroclaw), A. Horban (Warsaw), D. Prokopowicz (Bialystok), A. Boron-Kaczmarska, M. Pynka (Szczecin), M. Beniowski (Chorzow), H. Trocha (Gdansk); Portugal, F. Antunes, K. Mansinho, R. Proenca (Lisbon); Spain, J. González-Lahoz, B. Diaz, T. García-Benayas, L. Martin-Carbonero, V. Soriano (Madrid), B. Clotet, A. Jou, J. Conejero, C. Tural (Badalona), J.M. Miró (Barcelona); Sweden, A. Blaxhult, B. Heidemann, P. Pehrson (Stockholm); United Kingdom, M. Fisher (Brighton), R. Brettle (Edinburgh), S. Barton, A.M. Johnson, D. Mercey, C. Loveday, M.A. Johnson, A. Pinching, J. Parkin, J. Weber, G. Scullard (London).

Back to Top | Article Outline
HivBivus (Sweden)

Central coordination: L. Morfeldt*, G. Thulin, A. Sundström.

Participating physicians (city): B. Åkerlund (Huddinge), K. Koppel, A. Karlsson (Stockholm), L. Flamholc, C. Håkangård (Malmö).

Back to Top | Article Outline
ICONA (Italy)

Central coordination: A. D'Arminio Monforte*, P. Pezzotti.

Participarting physicians: M. Moroni, A. d'Arminio Monforte, A. Cargnel, S. Merli, G.M. Vigevani, C. Pastecchia, A. Lazzarin, R. Novati, L. Caggese, C. Moioli (Milano), M.S. Mura, G. Madeddu (Sassari), F. Suter, C. Arici (Bergamo), P.E. Manconi (Cagliari), F. Mazzotta (Firenze), A. Poggio, G. Bottari (Verbania), G. Pagano, A. Alessandrini (Genova), A. Scasso, A. Vincenti (Lucca), V. Abbadesse, S. Mancuso (Palermo), F. Alberici, M. Sisti (Piacenza), M. Arlotti, P. Ortolani (Rimini), F. De Lalla, G. Tositti (Vicenza), N. Piersantelli, R. Piscopo (Genova), E. Raise, S. Pasquinucci (Venezia), F. Soscia, L. Tacconi (Latina), U. Tirelli, G. Nasti (Aviano) E. Rinaldi, L. Pusterla (Como), G. Carosi, F. Castelli (Brescia), G. Cadeo, D. Vangi (Brescia), G. Carnevale, D. Galloni (Cremona), G. Filice, R. Bruno (Pavia), A. Sinicco, M. Sciandra, P. Caramello, L. Gennero, M.L. Soranzo, A. Macor (Torino), G. Rizzardini, C. Abeli (Busto Arsizio), F. Chiodo, V. Colangeli (Bologna), L. Bonazzi, M. Ursitti (Reggio Emilia), F. Menichetti, A. Smorfa (Pisa), R. Esposito, C. Mussini (Modena), F. Ghinelli, L. Sighinolfi (Ferrara), F. Gritti, O. Coronado (Bologna), T. Zauli, G. Ballardini (Ravenna), M. Montroni, A. Costantini (Ancona), E. Petrelli, A. Cioppi (Pesaro), L. Ortona, A. De Luca, N. Petrosillo, P. Noto, P. Narciso, G. D'Offizi, A. Antinori, P. De Longis, V Vullo, M. Lichtner (Roma), G. Pastore, M.L. Perulli (Bari), A. Chirianni, L. Loiacono, M. Piazza, S. Nappa, N. Abrescia, M. De Marco (Napoli), A. Colomba, T. Prestileo (Palermo), C. De Stefano, A. La Gala (Potenza), T. Ferraro, A. Scerbo (Catanzaro), P. Grima, P. Tundo (Lecce), E. Pizzigallo, F. Ricci (Chieti), B. Grisorio, S. Ferrara (Foggia).

Back to Top | Article Outline
Nice Cohort (France)

Central coordination: C. Pradier*, E. Fontas, C. Caissotti.

Participating physicians: P. Dellamonica, L. Bentz, E. Bernard, S. Chaillou, F. De Salvador-Guillouet, J. Durant, R. Guttman, L. Heripret, V. Mondain-Miton, I. Perbost, B. Prouvost-Keller, P. Pugliese, V. Rahelinirina, P.M. Roger, F. Vandenbos.

Back to Top | Article Outline
SHCS (The Swiss HIV Cohort Study, Switzerland)

Scientific Committee: R. Amiet, M. Battegay (chair), E. Bernasconi, H. Bucher, P. Bürgisser, M. Egger, P. Erb, W. Fierz, M. Flepp, P. Francioli, H. J. Furrer, M. Gorgievski, H. Günthard, P. Grob, B. Hirschel, C. Kind, T. Klimkait, B. Ledergerber, U. Lauper, M. Opravil, F. Paccaud, G. Pantaleo, L. Perrin, W. Pichler, J. C. Piffaretti, M. Rickenbach, C. Rudin, P. Sudre, V. Schiffer, J. Schupbach, A. Telenti, P. Vernazza, R. Weber*.

Participating physicians (city): H. C. Bucher, M. Battegay (Basel), H. J. Furrer, M. Egger (Bern), A. Calmy, B. Hirschel (Geneve), A. Telenti (Lausanne), E. Bernasconi, L. Magenta (Lugano), T. Wagels, P. Vernazza (St. Gall), M. Flepp, R. Weber (Zürich). Cited Here...

Cited By:

This article has been cited 328 time(s).

International Journal of Std & AIDS
Effects of once-daily darunavir/ritonavir versus lopinavir/ritonavir on metabolic parameters in treatment-naive HIV-1-infected patients at week 96: ARTEMIS
Arathoon, E; Schneider, S; Baraldi, E; Lim, PL; Opravil, M; Van De Casteele, T; Lavreys, L
International Journal of Std & AIDS, 24(1): 12-17.
10.1258/ijsa.2012.012120
CrossRef
Clinical Biochemistry
Lipid profile changes by high activity anti-retroviral therapy
Duro, M; Sarmento-Castro, R; Almeida, C; Medeiros, R; Rebelo, I
Clinical Biochemistry, 46(9): 740-744.
10.1016/j.clinbiochem.2012.12.017
CrossRef
Hiv Medicine
Mean platelet volume is decreased in HIV-infected women
Qadri, S; Holman, S; DeHovitz, J; Crystal, H; Minkoff, H; Lazar, JM
Hiv Medicine, 14(9): 549-555.
10.1111/hiv.12048
CrossRef
AIDS Research and Human Retroviruses
Incidence and Clinical Features of Cerebrovascular Disease Among HIV-Infected Adults in the Southeastern United States
Vinikoor, MJ; Napravnik, S; Floris-Moore, M; Wilson, S; Huang, DY; Eron, JJ
AIDS Research and Human Retroviruses, 29(7): 1068-1074.
10.1089/aid.2012.0334
CrossRef
Revista Chilena De Infectologia
Incidence of adverse drug reactions in patients initiating or changing antiretroviral therapy
Bernal, F; Vasquez, P; Giadalah, C; Rodriguez, L; Villagran, A
Revista Chilena De Infectologia, 30(5): 507-512.

Janac-Journal of the Association of Nurses in AIDS Care
Primary, Secondary, and Tertiary Prevention of Cardiovascular Disease in Patients With HIV Disease: A Guide for Nurse Practitioners
Jones-Parker, H
Janac-Journal of the Association of Nurses in AIDS Care, 23(2): 124-133.
10.1016/j.jana.2011.08.001
CrossRef
Janac-Journal of the Association of Nurses in AIDS Care
Development of Evidence-Based Exercise Recommendations for Older HIV-Infected Patients
Yahiaoui, A; McGough, EL; Voss, JG
Janac-Journal of the Association of Nurses in AIDS Care, 23(3): 204-219.
10.1016/j.jana.2011.06.001
CrossRef
Sang Thrombose Vaisseaux
Coronary artery disease in HIV-infected patients
Boccara, F
Sang Thrombose Vaisseaux, 24(7): 319-324.
10.1684/stv.2012.0726
CrossRef
Pharmacoeconomics
Lopinavir/Ritonavir Versus Darunavir Plus Ritonavir for HIV Infection: A Cost-Effectiveness Analysis for the United States
Simpson, KN; Pei, PP; Moller, J; Baran, RW; Dietz, B; Woodward, W; Migliaccio-Walle, K; Caro, JJ
Pharmacoeconomics, 31(5): 427-444.
10.1007/s40273-013-0048-3
CrossRef
Janac-Journal of the Association of Nurses in AIDS Care
Hypertension and HIV Infection
Balt, CA
Janac-Journal of the Association of Nurses in AIDS Care, 24(1): S127-S134.
10.1016/j.jana.2012.06.012
CrossRef
Brazilian Journal of Infectious Diseases
Aging with HIV: a practical review
Cardoso, SW; Torres, TS; Santini-Oliveira, M; Monteiro, L; Marins, S; Veloso, VG; Grinsztejn, B
Brazilian Journal of Infectious Diseases, 17(4): 464-479.
10.1016/j.bjid.2012.11.007
CrossRef
Brazilian Journal of Infectious Diseases
Aging with HIV: an overview of an urban cohort in Rio de Janeiro (Brazil) across decades of life
Torres, TS; Cardoso, SW; Velasque, LD; Marins, LMS; de Oliveira, MS; Veloso, VG; Grinsztejn, B
Brazilian Journal of Infectious Diseases, 17(3): 324-331.
10.1016/j.bjid.2012.10.024
CrossRef
Enfermedades Infecciosas Y Microbiologia Clinica
Cardiovascular risk in patients with chronic HIV-1 infection: A controversy with therapeutic, clinical and prognostic implications
Dronda, F
Enfermedades Infecciosas Y Microbiologia Clinica, 22(1): 40-45.

Atherosclerosis
Fenofibrate improves the atherogenic lipid profile and enhances LDL resistance to oxidation in HIV-positive adults
Badiou, S; De Boever, CM; Dupuy, AM; Baillat, V; Cristol, JP; Reynes, J
Atherosclerosis, 172(2): 273-279.
10.1016/j.atherosclerosis.2003.10.006
CrossRef
Medicina Clinica
Cardiovascular risk and HIV infection
Dronda, F
Medicina Clinica, 122(8): 301-303.

Hiv Medicine
The Protease Inhibitor Transfer Study (PROTRA 1): abacavir and efavirenz in combination as a substitute for a protease inhibitor in heavily pretreated HIV-1-infected patients with undetectable plasma viral load
Bickel, M; Rickerts, V; Stephan, C; Jacobi, V; Rottmann, C; Dauer, B; Carlebach, A; Thalhammer, A; Miller, V; Staszweski, S
Hiv Medicine, 6(3): 179-184.

Hiv Medicine
Carotid intima-media thickness is slightly increased over time in HIV-1-infected patients
Mercie, P; Thiebaut, R; Aurillac-Lavignolle, V; Pellegrin, JL; Yvorra-Vives, MC; Cipriano, C; Neau, D; Morlat, P; Ragnaud, JM; Dupon, M; Bonnet, F; Lawson-Ayayi, S; Malvy, D; Roudaut, R; Dabis, F
Hiv Medicine, 6(6): 380-387.

Hiv Medicine
Impact of highly active antiretroviral therapy on blood pressure in HIV-infected patients. A prospective study in a cohort of naive patients
Palacios, R; Santos, J; Garcia, A; Castells, E; Gonzalez, M; Ruiz, J; Marquez, M
Hiv Medicine, 7(1): 10-15.

Antiviral Therapy
Insulin resistance, hepatic lipid and adipose tissue distribution in HIV-infected men
He, Q; Engelson, ES; Ionescu, G; Glesby, MJ; Albu, JB; Kotler, DP
Antiviral Therapy, 13(3): 423-428.

Expert Opinion on Drug Safety
Nephrotoxicity associated with antiretroviral therapy in HIV-infected patients
Harris, M
Expert Opinion on Drug Safety, 7(4): 389-400.
10.1517/14740330802211423
CrossRef
Radiographics
Imaging and histopathologic features of HIV-related renal disease
Symeonidou, C; Standish, R; Sahdev, A; Katz, RD; Morlese, J; Malhotra, A
Radiographics, 28(5): 1339-1354.
10.1148/rg.285075126
CrossRef
Sang Thrombose Vaisseaux
Myocardial infarction in HIV carriers: specificities?
Boccara, F; Meuleman, C; Ederhy, S; Dufaitre, G; Douna, F; Berthelot, E; Cohen, A
Sang Thrombose Vaisseaux, 20(9): 462-466.

Current Hiv Research
Successfully Resuscitated Sudden Cardiac Death in a Young Homosexual Male with HIV Myocarditis
Belohlavek, J; Kuchynka, P; Machala, L; Dytrych, V; Vitkova, I; Schramlova, J; Smid, O; Gandalovicova, J; Linhart, A
Current Hiv Research, 7(4): 434-436.

Current Pharmaceutical Design
Understanding and avoiding antiretroviral adverse events
Shibuyama, S; Gevorkyan, A; Yoo, U; Tim, S; Dzhangiryan, K; Scott, JD
Current Pharmaceutical Design, 12(9): 1075-1090.

AIDS Patient Care and Stds
Provision of general and HIV-specific health maintenance in middle aged and older patients in an urban HIV clinic
Sheth, AN; Moore, RD; Gebo, KA
AIDS Patient Care and Stds, 20(5): 318-325.

Expert Opinion on Therapeutic Patents
Cardiovascular risk associated with antiretroviral therapy in IV-infected patients
Calza, L; Manfredi, R; Chiodo, F
Expert Opinion on Therapeutic Patents, 16(): 1497-1516.

Hiv Medicine
Peripheral arterial disease in HIV-infected and uninfected women
Sharma, A; Holman, S; Pitts, R; Minkoff, HL; DeHovitz, JA; Lazar, J
Hiv Medicine, 8(8): 555-560.

American Journal of Respiratory and Critical Care Medicine
Prevalence of HIV-related pulmonary arterial hypertension in the current antiretroviral therapy era
Sitbon, O; Lascoux-Combe, C; Delfraissy, JF; Yeni, PG; Raffi, F; De Zuttere, D; Gressin, V; Clerson, P; Sereni, D; Simonneau, G
American Journal of Respiratory and Critical Care Medicine, 177(1): 108-113.

Expert Opinion on Pharmacotherapy
Treatment options for lipodystrophy in HIV-positive patients
Behrens, GM
Expert Opinion on Pharmacotherapy, 9(1): 39-52.
10.1517/14656566.9.1.39
CrossRef
Enfermedades Infecciosas Y Microbiologia Clinica
Hypertension, HIV infection, and highly active antiretroviric therapy
de la Serna, JIB; Zamora, FX; Montes, ML; Garcia-Puig, J; Arribas, JR
Enfermedades Infecciosas Y Microbiologia Clinica, 28(1): 32-37.
10.1016/j.eimc.2008.07.005
CrossRef
Current Hiv Research
Determinants of Smoking Cessation Attempts Among HIV-Infected Patients: Results from a Hospital-Based Prospective Cohort
Encrenaz, G; Benard, A; Rondeau, V; Bonnet, F; Lazaro, E; Neau, D; Dupon, M; Dabis, F; Mercie, P; Chene, G
Current Hiv Research, 8(3): 212-217.

Plos Medicine
Nevirapine and efavirenz elicit different changes in lipid profiles in antiretroviral-therapy-naive patients infected with HIV-1
van Leth, F; Phanuphak, P; Stroes, E; Gazzard, B; Cahn, P; Raffi, F; Wood, R; Bloch, M; Katlama, C; Kastelein, JJP; Schechter, M; Murphy, RL; Horban, A; Hall, DB; Lange, JMA; Reiss, P
Plos Medicine, 1(1): 64-74.
ARTN e19
CrossRef
Wiener Klinische Wochenschrift
Human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) related heart disease: A review
Sani, MU; Okeahialam, RN; Aliyu, SH; Enoch, DA
Wiener Klinische Wochenschrift, 117(3): 73-81.
10.1007/s00508-005-0313-3
CrossRef
Hiv Medicine
British HIV Association (BHIVA) guidelines for the treatment of HIV-infected adults with antiretroviral therapy (2005)
Gazzard, B
Hiv Medicine, 6(): 1-61.

Current Medical Research and Opinion
Comparison of atazanavir with lopinavir/ritonavir in patients with prior protease inhibitor failure: a randomized multinational trial
Cohen, C; Nieto-Cisneros, L; Zala, C; Fessel, WJ; Gonzalez-Garcia, J; Gladysz, A; McGovern, R; Adler, E; McLaren, C
Current Medical Research and Opinion, 21(): 1683-1692.
10.1185/030079905X65439
CrossRef
Blood Pressure
Effect of HIV duration on ambulatory blood pressure in HIV-infected individuals with high office blood pressure
Manner, IW; Baekken, M; Oektedalen, O; Sandvik, L; Os, I
Blood Pressure, 19(3): 188-195.
10.3109/08037051.2010.483055
CrossRef
European Journal of Clinical Microbiology & Infectious Diseases
Prevalence of hypertension in HIV-positive patients on highly active retroviral therapy (HAART) compared with HAART-naive and HIV-negative controls: Results from a Norwegian study of 721 patients
Bergersen, BM; Sandvik, L; Dunlop, O; Birkeland, K; Bruun, JN
European Journal of Clinical Microbiology & Infectious Diseases, 22(): 731-736.
10.1007/s10096-003-1034-z
CrossRef
Hiv Medicine
Prevalence of risk factors for cardiovascular disease in HIV-infected patients over time: the Swiss HIV Cohort Study
Glass, TR; Ungsedhapand, C; Wolbers, M; Weber, R; Vernazza, PL; Rickenbach, M; Furrer, H; Bernasconi, E; Cavassini, M; Hirschel, B; Battegay, M; Bucher, HC
Hiv Medicine, 7(6): 404-410.

Journal of Antimicrobial Chemotherapy
Monitoring the toxicity of antiretroviral therapy in resource limited settings: a prospective clinical trial cohort in Thailand
Nuesch, R; Srasuebkul, P; Ananworanich, J; Ruxrungtham, K; Phanuphak, P; Duncombe, C
Journal of Antimicrobial Chemotherapy, 58(3): 637-644.
10.1093/jac/dkl313
CrossRef
Journal of Antimicrobial Chemotherapy
Predictive factors of vascular intima media thickness in HIV-positive subjects
Bongiovanni, M; Casana, M; Cicconi, P; Pisacreta, M; Codemo, R; Pelucchi, M; Monforte, AD; Bini, T
Journal of Antimicrobial Chemotherapy, 61(1): 195-199.
10.1093/jac/dkm414
CrossRef
Antiviral Therapy
Safety and efficacy of a double-boosted protease inhibitor combination, saquinavir and lopinavir/ritonavir, in pretreated children at 96 weeks
Bunupuradah, T; van der Lugt, J; Kosalaraksa, P; Engchanil, C; Boonrak, P; Puthanakit, T; Mengthaisong, T; Mahanontharit, A; Lumbiganon, P; Tompkins, E; Burger, D; Ruxrungtham, K; Ananworanich, J
Antiviral Therapy, 14(2): 241-248.

Pharmacotherapy
A multimodal, evidence-based approach to achieve lipid targets in the treatment of antiretroviral-associated dyslipidemia: Case report and review of the literature
Bain, AM; White, EA; Rutherford, WS; Rahman, AP; Busti, AJ
Pharmacotherapy, 28(7): 932-938.

Liver International
Hepatitis C, human immunodeficiency virus and metabolic syndrome: interactions
Kotler, DP
Liver International, 29(): 38-46.
10.1111/j.1478-3231.2008.01951.x
CrossRef
Current Hiv Research
Dietary Intake in HIV-Infected Men with Lipodystrophy: Relationships with Body Composition, Visceral Fat, Lipid, Glucose and Adipokine Metabolism
Samaras, K; Wand, H; Law, M; Emery, S; Cooper, DA; Carr, A
Current Hiv Research, 7(4): 456-461.

AIDS Research and Human Retroviruses
Arterial Wave Reflection in HIV-Infected and HIV-Uninfected Rwandan Women
Lazar, JM; Wu, X; Shi, QH; Kagame, A; Cohen, M; Binagwaho, A; Munyakazi, L; Salciccioli, L; Shi, D; Anastos, K
AIDS Research and Human Retroviruses, 25(9): 877-882.
10.1089/aid.2008.0269
CrossRef
International Journal of Infectious Diseases
Changes in antioxidant profile among HIV-infected individuals on generic highly active antiretroviral therapy in southern India
Sundaram, M; Saghayam, S; Priya, B; Venkatesh, KK; Balakrishnan, P; Shankar, EM; Murugavel, KG; Solomon, S; Kumarasamy, N
International Journal of Infectious Diseases, 12(6): E61-E66.
10.1016/j.ijid.2008.04.004
CrossRef
Journal of Clinical Lipidology
Lipoprotein particle profiles by nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy in medically underserved HIV-infected persons
Swanson, B; Sha, BE; Keithley, JK; Fogg, L; Nerad, J; Novak, RM; Adeyemi, O
Journal of Clinical Lipidology, 3(6): 379-384.
10.1016/j.jacl.2009.10.005
CrossRef
Atherosclerosis
Premature atherosclerosis in HIV positive patients and cumulated time of exposure to antiretroviral therapy (SHIVA study)
Saint Martin, LD; Vandhuick, O; Guillo, P; Bellein, W; Bressollette, L; Roudaut, N; Amaral, A; Pasquier, E
Atherosclerosis, 185(2): 361-367.
10.1016/J.ATHEROSCLEROSIS.2005.06.049
CrossRef
American Journal of Clinical Nutrition
Physiologic growth hormone replacement improves fasting lipid kinetics in patients with HIV lipodystrophy syndrome
D'Amico, S; Shi, JJ; Sekhar, RV; Jahoor, F; Ellis, KJ; Rehman, K; Willis, J; Maldonado, M; Balasubramanyam, A
American Journal of Clinical Nutrition, 84(1): 204-211.

Jama-Journal of the American Medical Association
Metabolic and skeletal complications of HIV infection - The price of success
Morse, CG; Kovacs, JA
Jama-Journal of the American Medical Association, 296(7): 844-854.

Diabetes Care
Prevalence of metabolic syndrome in HIV-infected patients receiving highly active antiretroviral therapy using International Diabetes Foundation and Adult Treatment Panel III criteria - Associations with insulin resistance, disturbed body fat compartmentalization, elevated C-reactive peptide, and hypoadiponectinemia
Samaras, K; Wand, H; Law, M; Emery, S; Cooper, D; Carr, A
Diabetes Care, 30(1): 113-119.
10.2337/dc06-1075
CrossRef
Collegium Antropologicum
HIV-associated lipodystrophy syndrome
Milinkovic, A
Collegium Antropologicum, 30(): 59-62.

Medizinische Klinik
No obvious difference in Streptococcus pneumoniae antibiotic resistance profiles isolates from HIV-positive and -negative patients
Stephan, C; Just-Nubling, G; Franck, S; Bickel, M; Shah, PM; Babacan, E; Staszewski, S
Medizinische Klinik, 103(2): 69-74.
10.1007/s00063-008-1011-5
CrossRef
Netherlands Journal of Medicine
Antiretroviral therapy in HIV patients: aspects of metabolic complications and mitochondrial toxicity
ter Hofstede, HJM; Burger, DM; Koopmans, PP
Netherlands Journal of Medicine, 61(): 393-403.

Herz
HIV infection, antiretroviral therapy, and endothelium
Hurlimann, D; Weber, R; Enseleit, F; Luscher, TF
Herz, 30(6): 472-480.
10.1007/s00059-005-2740-3
CrossRef
Swiss Medical Weekly
Morbidity and mortality in HIV-infected individuals - a shift towards comorbidities
Battegay, M; Elzi, L
Swiss Medical Weekly, 139(): 564-570.

Expert Review of Anti-Infective Therapy
The SWITCHMRK studies: substitution of lopinavir/ritonavir with raltegravir in HIV-positive individuals
Cocohoba, J
Expert Review of Anti-Infective Therapy, 7(): 1159-1163.
10.1586/ERI.09.110
CrossRef
Plos One
Bacterial Pneumonia among HIV-Infected Patients: Decreased Risk After Tobacco Smoking Cessation. ANRS CO3 Aquitaine Cohort, 2000-2007
Benard, A; Mercie, P; Alioum, A; Bonnet, F; Lazaro, E; Dupon, M; Neau, D; Dabis, F; Chene, G
Plos One, 5(1): -.
ARTN e8896
CrossRef
Revista De Investigacion Clinica
Epidemiology of the metabolic abnormalitis in patients with HIV infections
Mehta, R; Loredo, B; Sanudo, ME; Hernandez-Jimenez, S; Rodriguez-Carranza, SI; Gomez-Perez, FJ; Rull, JA; Aguilar-Salinas, CA
Revista De Investigacion Clinica, 56(2): 209-221.

Drug Safety
Protease inhibitor-induced diabetic complications - Incidence, management and prevention
Lien, LF; Feinglos, MN
Drug Safety, 28(3): 209-226.

Current Hiv Research
Metabolic and cardiovascular complications of highly active antiretroviral therapy for HIV infection
Barbaro, G
Current Hiv Research, 4(1): 79-85.

Antiviral Therapy
Arterial stiffness in HIV-infected patients receiving highly active antiretroviral therapy
Sevastianova, K; Sutinen, J; Westerbacka, J; Ristola, M; Yki-Jarvinen, H
Antiviral Therapy, 10(8): 925-935.

Jama-Journal of the American Medical Association
Changes in the risk of death after HIV seroconversion compared with mortality in the general population
Bhaskaran, K; Hamouda, O; Sannes, M; Boufassa, F; Johnson, AM; Lambert, PC; Porter, K
Jama-Journal of the American Medical Association, 300(1): 51-59.

Diabetes Stoffwechsel Und Herz
Metabolic changes under HIV therapy
Rockstroh, JK; Vogel, M
Diabetes Stoffwechsel Und Herz, 17(4): 289-297.

Nefrologia
Outcome of HIV-infected patients of peritoneal dialysis: experience in a center and literature review
Gorrin, MR; Rivas, JLM; Garcelan, MCA; Alvarez, CG; Manuel, O; Briones, JLT; Letosa, RM; Mirete, O
Nefrologia, 28(5): 505-510.

Hiv Medicine
Lipoatrophy and lipohypertrophy are independently associated with hypertension
Crane, HM; Grunfeld, C; Harrington, RD; Kitahata, MM
Hiv Medicine, 10(8): 496-503.
10.1111/j.1468-1293.2009.00720.x
CrossRef
Seminars in Ultrasound Ct and Mri
Imaging Features of Renal Pathology in the Human Immunodeficiency Virus-Infected Patient
Symeonidou, C; Hameeduddin, A; Hons, B; Malhotra, A
Seminars in Ultrasound Ct and Mri, 30(4): 289-297.
10.1053/j.sult.2009.03.008
CrossRef
Journal of Biomedical Science
The emerging role of cardiovascular risk factor-induced mitochondrial dysfunction in atherogenesis
Puddu, P; Puddu, GM; Cravero, E; De Pascalis, S; Muscari, A
Journal of Biomedical Science, 16(): -.
ARTN 112
CrossRef
Medecine Et Maladies Infectieuses
Cardiovascular preoccupations
Leclercq, P
Medecine Et Maladies Infectieuses, 39(): 10-14.

Hiv Clinical Trials
Effects of HIV infection on body composition changes among men of different racial/ethnic origins
Visnegarwala, F; Shlay, JC; Barry, V; Gibert, CL; Xiang, Y; Wang, J; Kotler, D; Raghavan, S; Ei-Sadr, WM; Beirn, T
Hiv Clinical Trials, 8(3): 145-154.
10.1310/hct.0803-145
CrossRef
Atherosclerosis
The role of C-reactive protein as a marker for cardiovascular risk associated with antiretroviral therapy in HIV-infected patients
Masia, M; Bernal, E; Padilla, S; Graells, ML; Jarrin, I; Almenar, MV; Molina, J; Hernandez, I; Gutierrez, F
Atherosclerosis, 195(1): 167-171.
10.1016/j.atherosclerosis.2006.09.013
CrossRef
Arquivos Brasileiros De Cardiologia
AIDS in childhood: Cardiac involvement with and without triple combination antiretroviral therapy
Cunha, MDSA; de Siqueira, AG; dos Santos, SR; de Abreu, TF; de Oliveira, RHS; Baptista, DM; Dantas, MCF; Carvalho, MF; Guedes, LG
Arquivos Brasileiros De Cardiologia, 90(1): 11-17.

Arquivos Brasileiros De Endocrinologia E Metabologia
Prevalence of HIV-associated lipodystrophy in Brazilian outpatients: Relation with metabolic syndrome and cardiovascular risk factors
Diehl, LA; Dias, JR; Paes, ACS; Thomazini, MC; Garcia, LR; Cinagawa, E; Wiechmann, SL; Carrilho, AJF
Arquivos Brasileiros De Endocrinologia E Metabologia, 52(4): 658-667.

Journal of Infection
Risk of premature atherosclerosis and ischemic heart disease associated with HIV infection and antiretroviral therapy
Calza, L; Manfredi, R; Pocaterra, D; Chiodo, F
Journal of Infection, 57(1): 16-32.
10.1016/j.jinf.2008.02.006
CrossRef
Future Lipidology
Current and future treatments of HIV-associated dyslipidemia
Bennett, MT; Johns, KW; Bondy, GP
Future Lipidology, 3(2): 175-188.
10.2217/17460875.3.2.175
CrossRef
Israel Medical Association Journal
Cardiovascular disease prevention and treatment in patients with human immunodeficiency virus
Magen, E; Elbirt, D; Sthoeger, Z
Israel Medical Association Journal, 7(4): 252-256.

American Journal of Hypertension
Hypertension in HIV-infected patients: Prevalence and related factors
Jerico, C; Knobel, H; Montero, M; Sorli, ML; Guelar, A; Gimeno, JL; Saballs, P; Lopez-Colomes, JL; Pedro-Botet, J
American Journal of Hypertension, 18(): 1396-1401.
10.1016/j.amjhyper.2005.05.016
CrossRef
Hiv Medicine
Effects of highly active antiretroviral therapy on paediatric metabolite levels
Rhoads, MP; Smith, CJ; Tudor-Williams, G; Kyd, P; Walters, S; Sabin, CA; Lyall, EGH
Hiv Medicine, 7(1): 16-24.

New Microbiologica
Sequencing antiretroviral drugs for long-lasting suppression of HIV replication
Gianotti, N; Lazzarin, A
New Microbiologica, 28(4): 281-297.

AIDS
Effects of atazanavir/ritonavir and lopinavir/ritonavir on glucose uptake and insulin sensitivity: demonstrable differences in vitro and clinically
Noor, MA; Flint, OP; Maa, JF; Parker, RA
AIDS, 20(): 1813-1821.

Medical Journal of Australia
Ten years of highly active antiretroviral therapy for HIV infection
Chen, LF; Hoy, J; Lewin, SR
Medical Journal of Australia, 186(3): 146-151.

Hiv Medicine
Reduction in circulating markers of endothelial dysfunction in HIV-infected patients during antiretroviral therapy
Kristoffersen, US; Kofoed, K; Kronborg, G; Giger, AK; Kjaer, A; Lebech, AM
Hiv Medicine, 10(2): 79-87.
10.1111/j.1468-1293.2008.00661.x
CrossRef
Journal of General Internal Medicine
The Association Between the Receipt of Lipid Lowering Therapy and HIV Status Among Veterans Who Met NCEP/ATP III Criteria for the Receipt of Lipid Lowering Medication
Freiberg, MS; Leaf, DA; Goulet, JL; Goetz, MB; Oursler, KK; Gibert, CL; Rodriguez-Barradas, MC; Butt, AA; Justice, AC
Journal of General Internal Medicine, 24(3): 334-340.
10.1007/s11606-008-0891-7
CrossRef
International Journal of Epidemiology
Mortality of HIV-infected patients starting potent antiretroviral therapy: comparison with the general population in nine industrialized countries
Zwahlen, M; Harris, R; May, M; Hogg, R; Costagliola, D; de Wolf, F; Gill, J; Fatkenheuer, G; Lewden, C; Saag, M; Staszewski, S; Monforte, AD; Casabona, J; Lampe, F; Justice, A; von Wyl, V; Egger, M; Casabona, J; Chene, G; Costagliola, D; Dabis, F; Monforte, AD; de Wolf, F; Egger, M; Fatkenheuer, G; Gill, J; Hogg, R; Justice, A; Kitahata, M; Lampe, F; Ledergerber, B; Leport, C; May, M; Mocroft, A; Phillips, A; Reiss, P; Saag, M; Sabin, C; Staszewski, S; Sterne, J; Harris, R; Beckthold, B; Yip, B; Dauer, B; Fusco, J; Darney, E; Rickenbach, M; Lavignolle, V; van Leth, F; Pereira, E; Pezzotti, P; Phillips, A; Sabin, C
International Journal of Epidemiology, 38(6): 1624-1633.
10.1093/ije/dyp306
CrossRef
American Journal of Cardiology
Long-term cardiovascular risk with protease inhibitors and management of the dyslipidemia
Kannel, WB; Giordano, M
American Journal of Cardiology, 94(7): 901-906.
10.1016/j.amjcard.2004.06.025
CrossRef
Hiv Clinical Trials
Coronary heart disease risk, dyslipidemia, and management in HIV-infected persons
Fichtenbaum, CJ
Hiv Clinical Trials, 5(6): 416-433.

Xv International AIDS Conference: Clinical Research, Treatment, and Care
An extremely different dysmetabolism between the two available HIV non-nucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitors
Manfredi, R; Calza, L; Chiodo, F
Xv International AIDS Conference: Clinical Research, Treatment, and Care, (): 279-282.

Hiv Medicine
The use of the Framingham equation to predict myocardial infarctions in HIV-infected patients: comparison with observed events in the D : A : D Study
Law, MG; Friis-Moller, N; El-Sadr, WM; Weber, R; Reiss, P; Monforte, AD; Thiebaut, R; Morfeldt, L; De Wit, S; Pradier, C; Calvo, G; Kirk, O; Sabin, CA; Phillips, AN; Lundgren, JD
Hiv Medicine, 7(4): 218-230.

Hiv Clinical Trials
Lipid profile during pregnancy in HIV-infected women
Floridia, M; Tamburrini, E; Ravizza, M; Tibaldi, C; Probizer, MFR; Anzidei, G; Sansone, M; Mori, F; Rubino, E; Meli, M; Dalzero, S; Guaraldi, G
Hiv Clinical Trials, 7(4): 184-193.
10.1310/hct0704-184
CrossRef
Infectious Disease Clinics of North America
Management of antiretroviral treatment-related complications
Hoffman, RM; Currier, JS
Infectious Disease Clinics of North America, 21(1): 103-+.
10.1016/j.idc.2007.01.007
CrossRef
Journal of Medical Virology
Soluble urokinase plasminogen activator receptor is a marker of dysmetabolism in HIV-infected patients receiving highly active antiretroviral therapy
Andersen, O; Eugen-Olsen, J; Kofoed, K; Iversen, J; Haugaard, SB
Journal of Medical Virology, 80(2): 209-216.
10.1002/jmv.21114
CrossRef
Wiener Klinische Wochenschrift
Myocardial disease in human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection: a review
Sani, MU
Wiener Klinische Wochenschrift, 120(): 77-87.
10.1007/s00508-008-0935-3
CrossRef
Journal of Antimicrobial Chemotherapy
HIV-associated lipodystrophy: a review of underlying mechanisms and therapeutic options
Mallewa, JE; Wilkins, E; Vilar, J; Mallewa, M; Doran, D; Back, D; Pirmohamed, M
Journal of Antimicrobial Chemotherapy, 62(4): 648-660.
10.1093/jac/dkn251
CrossRef
European Journal of Vascular and Endovascular Surgery
Pseudoaneurysm of the femoral artery in a HIV-infected man
Bongiovanni, M; Pisacreta, M; Ortu, M; Tordato, E; Codemo, R; Gervasoni, C; Gornati, R; Trovati, S; Piolini, R; Chiesa, E; Porretta, T; Bini, T
European Journal of Vascular and Endovascular Surgery, 28(4): 451-453.
10.1016/j.ejvs.2004.07.002
CrossRef
Circulation
Atherosclerosis in patients infected with HIV is influenced by a mutant monocyte chemoattractant protein-1 allele
Alonso-Villaverde, C; Coll, B; Parra, S; Montero, M; Calvo, N; Tous, M; Joven, J; Masana, L
Circulation, 110(): 2204-2209.
10.1161/01.CIR.0000143835.95029.7D
CrossRef
Wiener Klinische Wochenschrift
Lipodystrophy and metabolic abnormalities in Slovenian HIV-infected patients
Tomazic, J; Silic, A; Karner, P; Vidmar, L; Maticic, M; Poljak, M; Ihan, A; Janez, A
Wiener Klinische Wochenschrift, 116(): 755-759.

Netherlands Journal of Medicine
Antiretroviral therapy adults infected in previously untreated with the human immunodeficiency virus type I: established and potential determinants of virological outcome
Lowe, SH; Prins, JM; Lange, JMA
Netherlands Journal of Medicine, 62(): 424-440.

Hiv Clinical Trials
Atherosclerotic cardiovascular disease risk in the HAART-treated HIV-1 population
Mehta, N; Reilly, M
Hiv Clinical Trials, 6(1): 5-24.

Antiviral Therapy
Predictors of hypertension and changes of blood pressure in HIV-infected patients
Thiebaut, R; El-Sadr, WM; Friis-Moller, N; Rickenbach, M; Reiss, P; Monforte, AD; Morfeldt, L; Fontas, E; Kirk, O; De Wit, S; Calvo, G; Law, MG; Dabis, F; Sabin, CA; Lundgren, JD
Antiviral Therapy, 10(7): 811-823.

Haemophilia
The challenge of an ageing haemophilic population
Dolan, G
Haemophilia, 16(): 11-16.

AIDS
Cardio- and cerebrovascular events in HIV-infected persons
Monforte, AD; Sabin, CA; Phillips, AN; Reiss, P; Weber, R; Kirk, O; El-Sadr, W; De Wit, S; Mateu, S; Petoumenos, K; Dabis, F; Pradier, C; Morfeldt, FL; Lundgren, JD; Friis-Moller, N; Collins, S; Loeliger, E; Tressler, R; Weller, I; Sawitz, A; Rickenbach, M; Pezzotti, P; Krum, E; Zaheri, S; Lavignolle, V; Sundstrom, A; Poll, B; Fontas, E; Torres, F; Kjaer, J
AIDS, 18(): 1811-1817.

Atherosclerosis
Mechanism of highly active anti-retroviral therapy-induced hyperlipidemia in HIV-infected individuals
Carpentier, A; Patterson, BW; Uffelman, KD; Salit, I; Lewis, GF
Atherosclerosis, 178(1): 165-172.
10.1016/j.atherosclerosis.2004.07.035
CrossRef
Clinical Therapeutics
An open-label, prospective, observational study of the incidence of coronary artery disease in patients with HIV infection receiving highly active antiretroviral therapy
Barbaro, G; Di Lorenzo, G; Cirelli, A; Grisorio, B; Lucchini, A; Hazra, C; Barbarini, G
Clinical Therapeutics, 25(9): 2405-2418.

American Journal of Clinical Nutrition
Evaluation of high-protein supplementation in weight-stable HIV-positive subjects with a history of weight loss: a randomized, double-blind, multicenter trial
Sattler, FR; Rajicic, N; Mulligan, K; Yarasheski, KE; Koletar, SL; Zolopa, A; Alston, B; Zackin, SR; Bistrian, B
American Journal of Clinical Nutrition, 88(5): 1313-1321.
10.3945/ajcn.2006.23583
CrossRef
Experimental Biology and Medicine
Ritonavir Increases CD36, ABCA1 and CYP27 Expression in THP-1 Macrophages
Pou, J; Rebollo, A; Roglans, N; Sanchez, RM; Vazquez-Carrera, M; Laguna, JC; Pedro-Botet, J; Alegret, M
Experimental Biology and Medicine, 233(): 1572-1582.
10.3181/0805-RM-144
CrossRef
Hiv Medicine
Association between HIV infection and attenuated diurnal blood pressure rhythm in untreated hypertensive individuals
Baekken, M; Os, I; Stenehjem, A; Sandvik, L; Oektedalen, O
Hiv Medicine, 10(1): 44-52.
10.1111/j.1468-1293.2008.00655.x
CrossRef
Revista Da Associacao Medica Brasileira
Cardiovascular Complications in the Acquired Immunodeficiency Syndrome
Barbaro, G; da Silva, EFR
Revista Da Associacao Medica Brasileira, 55(5): 621-630.

Neurologia
Carotid artery disease and human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection
Serna-Candel, C; Portilla, J; Matias-Guiu, J
Neurologia, 24(5): 318-330.

Plos One
Increasing Rates of Obesity among HIV-Infected Persons during the HIV Epidemic
Crum-Cianflone, N; Roediger, MP; Eberly, L; Headd, M; Marconi, V; Ganesan, A; Weintrob, A; Barthel, RV; Fraser, S; Agan, BK
Plos One, 5(4): -.
ARTN e10106
CrossRef
Hiv Medicine
Impact of antiretroviral choice on hypercholesterolaemia events: the role of the nucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitor backbone
Jones, R; Sawleshwarkar, S; Michailidis, C; Jackson, A; Mandalia, S; Stebbing, J; Bower, M; Nelson, M; Gazzard, BG; Moyle, GJ
Hiv Medicine, 6(6): 396-402.

Journal of Clinical Pharmacology
Practical perspectives on the use of tipranavir in combination with other medications: Lessons learned from pharmacokinetic studies
Boffito, M; Maitland, D; Pozniak, A
Journal of Clinical Pharmacology, 46(2): 130-139.
10.1177/0091270005283279
CrossRef
International Journal of Tuberculosis and Lung Disease
HIV infection and tobacco smoking behaviour: prospects for prevention? ANRS CO3 Aquitaine Cohort, 2002
Benard, A; Tessier, JF; Rambeloarisoa, J; Bonnet, F; Fossoux, H; Neau, D; Dutronc, H; Lazaro, E; Dabis, F; Chene, G
International Journal of Tuberculosis and Lung Disease, 10(4): 378-383.

Medecine Et Maladies Infectieuses
Medical care for HIV infection in France in 2005, the NADIS cohort study on 7416 patients
Poizot-Martin, I; Pugliese, P; Enel, P; Cuzin, L; Billaud, E; Duvivier, C; Yazdanpanah, Y
Medecine Et Maladies Infectieuses, 36(9): 454-459.
10.1016/j.medmal.2006.07.003
CrossRef
Annals of Clinical Biochemistry
The basis and management of metabolic abnormalities associated with cardiovascular risk in human immunodeficiency virus infection and its treatment
Crook, M
Annals of Clinical Biochemistry, 44(): 219-231.

Clinical Infectious Diseases
Endothelial adhesion molecules are associated with inflammation in subjects with HIV disease
Melendez, MM; McNurlan, MA; Mynarcik, DC; Khan, S; Gelato, MC
Clinical Infectious Diseases, 46(5): 775-780.
10.1086/527563
CrossRef
Toxicologic Pathology
The Role of Protease Inhibitors in the Pathogenesis of HIV-Associated Lipodystrophy: Cellular Mechanisms and Clinical Implications
Flint, OP; Noor, MA; Hruz, PW; Hylemon, PB; Yarasheski, K; Kotler, DP; Parker, RA; Bellamine, A
Toxicologic Pathology, 37(1): 65-77.
10.1177/0192623308327119
CrossRef
Plos One
Respiratory Symptoms and Airway Obstruction in HIV-Infected Subjects in the HAART Era
George, MP; Kannass, M; Huang, L; Sciurba, FC; Morris, A
Plos One, 4(7): -.
ARTN e6328
CrossRef
American Journal of Psychiatry
Suicide in HIV-Infected Individuals and the General Population in Switzerland, 1988-2008
Keiser, O; Spoerri, A; Brinkhof, MWG; Hasse, B; Gayet-Ageron, A; Tissot, F; Christen, A; Battegay, M; Schmid, P; Bernasconi, E; Egger, M
American Journal of Psychiatry, 167(2): 143-150.
10.1176/appi.ajp.2009.09050651
CrossRef
Revista De Investigacion Clinica
Metabolic abnormalities in patients with HIV infection
Rodriguez-Carranza, SI; Aguilar-Salinas, CA
Revista De Investigacion Clinica, 56(2): 193-208.

Journal of Endovascular Therapy
Multiple HIV-related aneurysms: Open and endovascular treatment
Heikkinen, MA; Dake, MD; Alsac, JM; Zarins, CK
Journal of Endovascular Therapy, 12(3): 405-410.

Heart and Vessels
Rapid progression of atherosclerotic coronary artery disease in patients with human immunodeficiency virus infection
Spieker, LE; Karadag, B; Binggeli, C; Corti, R
Heart and Vessels, 20(4): 171-174.
10.1007/s00380-004-0790-8
CrossRef
Journal of Antimicrobial Chemotherapy
The role of efavirenz compared with protease inhibitors in the body fat changes associated with highly active antiretroviral therapy
Perez-Molina, JA; Domingo, P; Martinez, E; Moreno, S
Journal of Antimicrobial Chemotherapy, 62(2): 234-245.
10.1093/jac/dkn191
CrossRef
Hiv Medicine
British HIV Association guidelines for the treatment of HIV-1-infected adults with antiretroviral therapy 2008
Gazzard, BG
Hiv Medicine, 9(8): 563-608.
10.1111/j.1468-1293.2008.00636.x
CrossRef
Hiv Medicine
Ankle-branch index and HIV: the role of antiretrovirals
Olalla, J; Salas, D; Del Arco, A; De la Torre, J; Prada, JL; Machin-Hamalainen, S; Garcia-Alegria, J
Hiv Medicine, 10(1): 1-5.
10.1111/j.1468-1293.2008.00638.x
CrossRef
Expert Review of Anti-Infective Therapy
Trends in the European HIV/AIDS epidemic: a perspective from Italy
Madeddu, G; Rezza, G; Mura, MS
Expert Review of Anti-Infective Therapy, 7(1): 25-36.
10.1586/14787210.7.1.25
CrossRef
AIDS Reader
HIV-Related Lipodystrophy in Africa and Asia
Womack, J
AIDS Reader, 19(4): 131-+.

Journal of Hepatology
Hepatocellular carcinoma in HIV-infected patients comes of age: The convergence of epidemiology and treatment effectiveness
Sulkowski, M
Journal of Hepatology, 50(4): 655-658.
10.1016/j.jhep.2009.01.009
CrossRef
International Journal of Immunopathology and Pharmacology
Metabolic syndrome and cardiovascular risk in HIV-infected patients with lipodystrophy
Falasca, K; Ucciferri, C; Manzoli, L; Mancino, P; Pizzigallo, E; Conti, P; Vecchiet, J
International Journal of Immunopathology and Pharmacology, 20(3): 519-527.

Antiviral Therapy
The effect of depressive symptoms at ART initiation on HIV clinical progression implications in clinical and mortality: implications in clinical practice
Villes, V; Spire, B; Lewden, C; Perronn, C; Besnier, JM; Garre, M; Chene, G; Leport, C; Carrieri, MP; Le Moing, V
Antiviral Therapy, 12(7): 1067-1074.

Archives of Medical Research
No evidence of increased risk for certain highly atherogenic lipoprotein phenotypes in HIV-infected patients
Catzin-Kuhlmann, A; Castillo-Martinez, L; Colin-Ramirez, E; Valles, V; Aguilar-Salinas, CA; Sierra, J; Calva, JJ
Archives of Medical Research, 39(1): 84-91.
10.1016/j.arcmed.2007.06.012
CrossRef
Clinical Infectious Diseases
Changes over time in risk factors for cardiovascular disease and use of lipid-lowering drugs in HIV-infected individuals and impact on myocardial infarction
Sabin, CA; Monforte, AD; Friis-Moller, N; Weber, R; El-Sadr, WM; Reiss, P; Kirk, O; Mercie, P; Law, MG; De Wit, S; Pradier, C; Phillips, AN; Lundgren, JD
Clinical Infectious Diseases, 46(7): 1101-1110.
10.1086/528862
CrossRef
Lancet
Use of nucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitors and risk of myocardial infarction in HIV-infected patients enrolled in the D : A : D study: a multi-cohort collaboration
Sabin, CA; Worm, SW; Weber, R; Reiss, P; El-Sadr, W; Dabis, F; De Wit, S; Law, M; Monforte, AD; Friis-Moller, N; Kirk, O; Pradier, C; Weller, I; Phillips, AN; Lundgren, JD
Lancet, 371(): 1417-1426.

Statistics in Medicine
Mixed modeling and multiple imputation for unobservable genotype clusters
Foulkes, AS; Yucel, R; Reilly, MP
Statistics in Medicine, 27(): 2784-2801.
10.1002/sim.3051
CrossRef
Hiv Clinical Trials
Pilot study of saquinavir and lopinavir/ritonavir twice daily in protease inhibitor-naive HIV-positive patients
Hellinger, J; Cohen, C; Morris, A; Sheble-Hall, S; Gordon, D; Foy, C; Jackson-Pope, L; Shevitz, A; van Schaic, E
Hiv Clinical Trials, 6(2): 107-117.

Hiv Medicine
Antiretroviral therapy in HIV-positive men is associated with increased apolipoprotein CIII in triglyceride-rich lipoproteins
Rimland, D; Guest, JL; Hernandez, I; del Rio, C; Le, NA; Brown, WV
Hiv Medicine, 6(5): 326-333.

Enfermedades Infecciosas Y Microbiologia Clinica
Bupropion use for smoking cessation in HIV-infected patients receiving antiretroviral therapy
Pedrol-Clotet, E; Deig-Comerma, E; Ribell-Bachs, M; Vidal-Castell, I; Garcia-Rodriguez, P; Soler, A
Enfermedades Infecciosas Y Microbiologia Clinica, 24(8): 509-511.

Hautarzt
The side effects of antiretroviral therapy
Hartmann, M
Hautarzt, 57(): 969-974.
10.1007/s00105-006-1240-6
CrossRef
New England Journal of Medicine
Class of antiretroviral drugs and the risk of myocardial infarction
Friis-Moller, N; Reiss, P; Sabin, CA; Weber, R; Monforte, AD; El-Sadr, W; De Wit, S; Kirk, O; Fontas, E; Law, MG; Phillips, A; Lundgren, JD
New England Journal of Medicine, 356(): 1723-1735.

AIDS Reader
Parotid gland enlargement and fat maldistribution syndrome in an HIV-infected man
Pirog, SC; Agoff, SN; Aboulafia, DM
AIDS Reader, 17(1): 26-28.

AIDS Reviews
Disorders of Body Fat Distribution in HIV-1-Infected Patients
Moreno, S; Miralles, C; Negredo, E; Domingo, P; Estrada, V; Gutierrez, F; Lozano, F; Martinez, E
AIDS Reviews, 11(3): 126-134.

Journal of the American College of Cardiology
Cardiovascular Disease in Adult and Pediatric HIV/AIDS
McDonald, CL; Kaltman, JR
Journal of the American College of Cardiology, 54(): 1185-1188.
10.1016/j.jacc.2009.05.055
CrossRef
Journal of Infectious Diseases
Risk of Myocardial Infarction in Patients with HIV Infection Exposed to Specific Individual Antiretroviral Drugs from the 3 Major Drug Classes: The Data Collection on Adverse Events of Anti-HIV Drugs (D:A:D) Study
Worm, SW; Sabin, C; Weber, R; Reiss, P; El-Sadr, W; Dabis, F; De Wit, S; Law, M; Monforte, AD; Friis-Moller, N; Kirk, O; Fontas, E; Weller, I; Phillips, A; Lundgren, J
Journal of Infectious Diseases, 201(3): 318-330.
10.1086/649897
CrossRef
New England Journal of Medicine
Combination antiretroviral therapy and the risk of myocardial infarction
Friis-Moller, N; Sabin, CA; Weber, R; Monforte, AD; El-Sadr, WM; Reiss, P; Thiebaut, R; Morfeldt, L; De Wit, S; Pradier, C; Calvo, G; Law, MG; Kirk, O; Phillips, AN; Lundgren, JD; Lundgren, JD; Weber, R; Monteforte, AD; Bartsch, G; Reiss, P; Dabis, F; Morfeldt, L; De Wit, S; Pradier, C; Calvo, G; Law, MG; Kirk, O; Phillips, AN; Houyez, F; Loeliger, E; Tressler, R; Weller, I; Friis-Moller, N; Sabin, CA; Sjol, A; Lundgren, JD; Sawitz, A; Rickenbach, M; Pezzotti, P; Krum, E; Meester, R; Lavignolle, V; Sundstrom, A; Poll, B; Fontas, E; Torres, F; Petoumenos, K; Kjaer, J; Hammer, S; Neaton, J; Sjol, A; de Wolf, F; van der Ven, E; Zaheri, S; Van Valkengoed, L; Meester, R; Bronsveld, W; Weigel, H; Brinkman, K; Frissen, P; ten Veen, J; Hillbrand, M; van Dam, P; Schieveld, S; Mulder, J; van Gorp, E; Meenhorst, P; van Eeden, A; Danner, S; Claessen, F; Perenboom, R; Schattenkerk, JKE; Godfried, M; Lange, J; Lowe, S; van der Meer, J; Nellen, F; Pogany, K; van der Poll, T; Prins, J; Reiss, R; Ruys, T; van der Valk, M; Wit, F; Richter, C; van Leusen, R; Vriesendorp, R; Jeurissen, F; Kauffmann, R; Koger, E; Brevenboer, B; ten Napel, C; Sprenger, HG; Law, G; ten Kate, RW; Leemhuis, M; Kroon, F; Schippers, E; Schrey, G; van der Geest, S; Verbon, A; Koopmans, P; Keuter, M; Telgt, D; van der Ven, A; van der Ende, M; Gyssens, I; de Marie, S; Juttmann, J; van der Heul, C; Schneider, M; Borleffs, J; Hoepelman, I; Jaspers, C; Matute, A; Schurink, C; Blok, W; Salamon, R; Beylot, J; Dupon, M; Le Bras, M; Pellegrin, JL; Ragnaud, JM; Dabis, F; Chene, G; Jacqmin-Gadda, H; Rhiebaut, R; Lawson-Ayayi, S; Lavignolle, V; Balestre, E; Blaizeau, MJ; Decoin, M; Formaggio, AM; Delveaux, S; Labarerre, S; Uwamaliya, B; Vimard, E; Merchadou, L; Palmer, G; Touchard, D; Dutoit, D; Pereira, F; Boulant, B; Beylot, J; Morlat, P; Bernard, N; Bonarek, M; Bonnet, F; Coadou, B; Gelie, P; Jaubert, D; Nouts, C; Lacoste, D; Dupon, M; Dutronc, H; Cipriano, G; Lafarie, S; Chossat, I; Lacut, JY; Leng, B; Pellegrin, JL; Mercie, P; Viallard, JF; Faure, I; Rispal, P; Cipriano, C; Tchamgoue, S; Le Bras, M; Djossou, F; Malvy, D; Pivetaud, JP; Ragnaud, JM; Chambon, D; De La Taille, C; Galperine, T; Lafarie, S; Neau, D; Ochoa, A; Beylot, C; Doutre, MS; Bezian, JH; Moreau, JF; Taupin, JL; Conri, C; Constans, J; Couzigou, P; Castera, L; Fleury, H; Lafon, ME; Masquelier, B; Pellegrin, I; Trimoulet, P; Moreau, F; Mestre, C; Series, C; Taytard, A; Law, M; Petoumenos, K; Anderson, J; Bal, J; Mijch, A; Watson, K; Roth, N; Wood, H; Austin, D; Gowers, A; Baker, B; McFarlane, R; Carr, A; Cooper, D; Chuah, J; Fankhauser, W; Mallal, S; Skett, J; Calvo, G; Torres, F; Mateau, S; Domingo, P; Sambeat, MA; Gatell, J; Del Cacho, E; Cadafalch, J; Fuster, M; Codina, C; Sirera, G; Vaque, A; Clumeck, N; De Wit, S; Gerard, M; Hildebrand, M; Kabeya, K; Konopnicki, D; Payen, MC; Poll, B; Van Laethem, Y; Neaton, J; Bartsch, G; El-Sadr, WM; Krum, E; Thompson, G; Wentworth, D; Luskin-Hawk, R; Telzak, E; El-Sadr, WM; Abrams, DI; Cohn, D; Markowitz, N; Arduino, R; Mushatt, D; Friedland, G; Perez, G; Tedaldi, E; Fisher, E; Gordin, F; Crane, LR; Sampson, J; Baxter, J; Kirk, O; Mocroft, A; Phillips, AN; Lundgren, JD; Vetter, N; Clumeck, N; Hermans, P; Colebunders, R; Machala, L; Nielsen, J; Benfield, T; Gerstoft, J; Katzenstein, T; Roge, B; Skinhoj, P; Pedersen, C; Katlama, C; Viard, JP; Saint-Marc, T; Vanhems, P; Pradier, C; Dietrich, M; Manegold, C; van Lunzen, J; Miller, V; Staszewski, S; Bieckel, M; Goebel, FD; Salzberger, B; Rockstroh, J; Kosmidis, J; Gargalianos, P; Sambatakou, H; Perdios, J; Panos, G; Karydis, I; Filandras, A; Banhegyi, D; Mulcahy, F; Yust, I; Turner, D; Pollack, S; Ben-Ishai, Z; Bentwich, Z; Maayan, S; Vella, S; Chiesi, A; Arici, C; Pristera, R; Mazzotta, F; Gabbuti, A; Esposito, R; Bedini, A; Chirianni, A; Montesarchio, E; Vullo, V; Santopadre, P; Narciso, P; Antinori, A; Franci, P; Zaccarelli, M; Lazzarin, A; Finazzi, R; Monforte, VO; Hemmer, R; Staub, T; Reiss, P; Bruun, J; Maeland, A; Ormaasen, V; Knysz, B; Gasiorowski, J; Horban, A; Prokopowicz, D; Boron-Kaczmarska, A; Pnyka, M; Beniowski, M; Trocha, H; Antunes, F; Mansinho, K; Proenca, R; Gonzalez-Lahoz, J; Diaz, B; Garcia-Benayas, T; Martin-Carbonero, L; Soriano, V; Clotet, B; Jou, A; Conejero, J; Tural, C; Gatell, JM; Miro, JM; Blaxhult, A; Heidemann, B; Pehrson, P; Ledergerber, B; Weber, R; Francioli, P; Telenti, A; Hirschel, B; Soravia-Dunand, V; Furrer, H; Fisher, M; Brettle, R; Barton, S; Johnson, AM; Mercey, D; Loveday, C; Johnson, MA; Pinching, A; Parkin, J; Weber, J; Scullard, G; Morfeldt, L; Thulin, G; Sunstrom, A; Akerlund, B; Koppel, K; Karlsson, A; Flamholc, L; Hakangard, C; Monforte, AD; Pezzotti, P; Moroni, M; Monforte, AD; Cargnel, A; Merli, S; Vigevani, GM; Pastecchia, C; Lazzarin, A; Novati, R; Caggese, L; Moioli, C; Mura, MS; Mannazzu, M; Suter, F; Arici, C; Manconi, PE; Piano, P; Mazzotta, F; Lo Caputo, S; Poggio, A; Bottari, G; Pagano, G; Alessandrini, A; Scasso, A; Vincenti, A; Abbadesse, V; Mancuso, S; Alberici, F; Ruggieri, A; Arlotti, M; Ortolani, P; De Lalla, F; Tositti, G; Piersantelli, N; Piscopo, R; Raise, E; Pasquinucci, S; Soscia, F; Tacconi, L; Tirelli, U; Nasti, G; Santoro, D; Pusterla, L; Carosi, G; Castelli, F; Cadeo, G; Vangi, D; Carnevale, G; Galloni, D; Filice, G; Bruno, R; Sinicco, A; Sciandra, M; Caramello, P; Gennero, L; Soranzo, ML; Bonasso, M; Rizzardini, G; Migliorino, G; Chiodo, F; Colangeli, V; Magnani, G; Ursitti, M; Menichetti, F; Martinelli, C; Esposito, R; Mussini, C; Ghinelli, F; Sighinolfi, L; Coronado, O; Zauli, T; Ballardini, G; Montroni, M; Zoli, A; Petrelli, E; Cioppi, A; Ortona, L; De Luca, A; Petrosillo, N; Noto, P; Narciso, P; Salcuni, P; Antinori, A; De Longis, P; Vullo, V; Lichtner, M; Pastore, G; Minafra, G; Chiriann, A; Loiacono, L; Piazza, M; Nappa, S; Abrescia, N; De Marco, M; Colomba, A; Prestileo, T; De Stefano, C; La Gala, A; Ferraro, T; Scerbo, A; Grima, P; Tundo, P; Pizzigallo, E; D'Alessandro, M; Grisorio, B; Ferrara, S; Pradier, C; Fontas, E; Caissotti, C; Dellamonica, P; Bentz, L; Bernard, E; Chaillou, S; De Salvador-Guillouet, F; Durant, J; Guttman, R; Heripret, L; Mondain-Miton, V; Perbost, I; Prouvost-Keller, B; Pugliese, P; Rahelinirina, V; Roger, PM; Vandenbos, F; Bernasconi, E; Bucher, H; Burgisser, P; Cattacin, S; Egger, M; Erb, P; Fierz, W; Fischer, M; Flepp, M; Fontana, A; Francioli, P; Furrer, HJ; Gorgievski, M; Gunthard, H; Hirschel, B; Kaiser, L; Kind, C; Klimkait, T; Ledergerber, B; Lauper, U; Opravil, M; Paccaud, F; Pantaleo, G; Perrin, L; Piffaretti, JC; Rickenbach, M; Rudin, C; Schupbach, J; Speck, R; Telenti, A; Trkola, A; Vernazza, P; Weber, R; Yerly, S
New England Journal of Medicine, 349(): 1993-2003.

Jaids-Journal of Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndromes
Do new protease inhibitors offer improved management options? Issues of PI tolerability and safety
Sax, PE
Jaids-Journal of Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndromes, 35(): S22-S34.

Medicina Clinica
Cardiovascular risk and HIV-infection in prison inmates
Mauri, M; Pardo, MV; Sole, R; Garcia-Maurino, L
Medicina Clinica, 124(): 636.

Hiv Medicine
Implementing the number needed to harm in clinical practice: risk of myocardial infarction in HIV-1-infected patients treated with abacavir
Kowalska, JD; Kirk, O; Mocroft, A; Hoj, L; Friis-Moller, N; Reiss, P; Weller, I; Lundgren, JD
Hiv Medicine, 11(3): 200-208.
10.1111/j.1468-1293.2009.00763.x
CrossRef
Presse Medicale
Metabolic syndrome: A major risk factor for atherosclerosis in HIV-infected patients (SHIVA study)
de Saint Martin, L; Pasquier, E; Roudaut, N; Vandhuick, O; Vallet, S; Bellein, V; Bressollette, L
Presse Medicale, 37(4): 579-584.

Journal of Infection
Association of non-HDL cholesterol with subclinical atherosclerosis in HIV-positive patients
BadioU, S; Thiebaut, R; Aurillac-Lavignolle, V; Dabis, F; Laporte, F; Cristol, JP; Mercie, P
Journal of Infection, 57(1): 47-54.
10.1016/j.jinf.2008.05.007
CrossRef
Journal of Infection
suPAR associates to glucose metabolic aberration during glucose stimulation in HIV-infected patients on HAART
Andersen, O; Eugen-Olsen, J; Kofoed, K; Iversen, J; Haugaard, SB
Journal of Infection, 57(1): 55-63.
10.1016/j.jinf.2008.01.014
CrossRef
European Journal of Nuclear Medicine and Molecular Imaging
Coronary and peripheral endothelial function in HIV patients studied with positron emission tomography and flow-mediated dilation: relation to hypercholesterolemia
Lebech, AM; Kristoffersen, US; Wiinberg, N; Kofoed, K; Andersen, O; Hesse, B; Petersen, CL; Gerstoft, J; Kjaer, A
European Journal of Nuclear Medicine and Molecular Imaging, 35(): 2049-2058.
10.1007/s00259-008-0846-6
CrossRef
Circulation
Diabetes Mellitus, Preexisting Coronary Heart Disease, and the Risk of Subsequent Coronary Heart Disease Events in Patients Infected With Human Immunodeficiency Virus The Data Collection on Adverse Events of Anti-HIV Drugs (D:A:D Study)
Worm, SW; De Wit, S; Weber, R; Sabin, CA; Reiss, P; El-Sadr, W; Monforte, AD; Kirk, O; Fontas, E; Dabis, F; Law, MG; Lundgren, JD; Friis-Moller, N
Circulation, 119(6): 805-U75.
10.1161/CIRCULATIONAHA.108.790857
CrossRef
AIDS
Increased soluble vascular cell adhesion molecule-1 plasma levels and soluble intercellular adhesion molecule-1 during antiretroviral therapy interruption and retention of elevated soluble vascular cellular adhesion molecule-1 levels following resumption of antiretroviral therapy
Papasavvas, E; Azzoni, L; Pistilli, M; Hancock, A; Reynolds, G; Gallo, C; Ondercin, J; Kostman, JR; Mounzer, K; Shull, J; Montaner, LJ
AIDS, 22(): 1153-1161.

Plos One
Increase in Non-AIDS Related Conditions as Causes of Death among HIV-Infected Individuals in the HAART Era in Brazil
Pacheco, AG; Tuboi, SH; Faulhaber, JC; Harrison, LH; Schechter, M
Plos One, 3(1): -.
ARTN e1531
CrossRef
Obesity
Proinflammatory Markers, Insulin Sensitivity, and Cardiometabolic Risk Factors in Treated HIV Infection
Samaras, K; Gan, SK; Peake, PW; Carr, A; Campbell, LV
Obesity, 17(1): 53-59.
10.1038/oby.2008.500
CrossRef
Collegium Antropologicum
Dyslipidemia and Adherence to the Mediterranean Diet in Croatian HIV-Infected Patients during the First Year of Highly Active Antiretroviral Therapy
Turcinov, D; Stanley, C; Canchola, JA; Rutherford, GW; Novotny, TE; Begovac, J
Collegium Antropologicum, 33(2): 423-430.

Current Hiv Research
Caring for HIV-Infected Patients in the ICU in The Highly Active Antiretroviral Therapy Era
Corona, A; Raimondi, F
Current Hiv Research, 7(6): 569-579.

Blood
Increased tissue factor expression on circulating monocytes in chronic HIV infection: relationship to in vivo coagulation and immune activation
Funderburg, NT; Mayne, E; Sieg, SF; Asaad, R; Jiang, W; Kalinowska, M; Luciano, AA; Stevens, W; Rodriguez, B; Brenchley, JM; Douek, DC; Lederman, MM
Blood, 115(2): 161-167.
10.1182/blood-2009-03-210179
CrossRef
New England Journal of Medicine
Intensive care of patients with HIV infection
Huang, L; Quartin, A; Jones, D; Havlir, DV
New England Journal of Medicine, 355(2): 173-181.

Medicina Clinica
HIV infection: from Pneumocystis to statins
Munoz, RP; Gonzalez, JS
Medicina Clinica, 127(7): 253-254.

Expert Opinion on Drug Metabolism & Toxicology
Toxic metabolic syndrome associated with HAART
Haugaard, SB
Expert Opinion on Drug Metabolism & Toxicology, 2(3): 429-445.
10.1517/17425255.2.3.429
CrossRef
AIDS Patient Care and Stds
Global cardiovascular risk in patients with HIV infection: Concordance and differences in estimates according to three risk equations (Framingham, SCORE, and PROCAM)
Knobel, H; Jerico, C; Montero, M; Sorli, ML; Velat, M; Guelar, A; Saballs, P; Pedro-Botet, J
AIDS Patient Care and Stds, 21(7): 452-457.
10.1089/apc.2006.0165
CrossRef
AIDS Patient Care and Stds
Tobacco addiction and HIV infection: Toward the implementation of cessation programs. ANRS CO3 Aquitaine Cohort
Benard, A; Bonnet, F; Tessier, JF; Fossoux, H; Dupon, M; Mercie, P; Ragnaud, JM; Viallard, JF; Dabis, F; Chene, G
AIDS Patient Care and Stds, 21(7): 458-468.
10.1089/apc.2006.0142
CrossRef
Jaids-Journal of Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndromes
Antiretroviral treatment strategies and immune reconstitution in treatment-naive HIV-infected patients with advanced disease
Soria, A; Lazzarin, A
Jaids-Journal of Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndromes, 46(): S19-S30.

Expert Opinion on Pharmacotherapy
HIV protease inhibitors: recent clinical trials and recommendations on use
Fernandez-Montero, JV; Barreiro, P; Soriano, V
Expert Opinion on Pharmacotherapy, 10(): 1615-1629.
10.1517/14656560902980202
CrossRef
Current Hiv Research
Cystatin C, Adipokines and Cardiovascular Risk in HIV Infected Patients
Falasca, K; Ucciferri, C; Mancino, P; Di Iorio, A; Vignale, F; Pizzigallo, E; Vecchiet, J
Current Hiv Research, 8(5): 405-410.

AIDS
Metabolic complications of HIV therapy in children
McComsey, GA; Leonard, E
AIDS, 18(): 1753-1768.

Hiv Medicine
Impact of highly active antiretroviral therapy on organ-specific manifestations of HIV-1 infection
Torre, D; Speranza, F; Martegani, R
Hiv Medicine, 6(2): 66-78.

International Journal of Tuberculosis and Lung Disease
Management of adults living with HIV/AIDS in low-income, high-burden settings, with special reference to persons with tuberculosis
Fujiwara, PI; Clevenbergh, P; Dlodlo, RA
International Journal of Tuberculosis and Lung Disease, 9(9): 946-958.

Stroke
Subclinical carotid atherosclerosis in HIV-infected patients - Role of combination antiretroviral therapy
Jerico, C; Knobel, H; Calvo, N; Sorli, ML; Guelar, A; Gimeno-Bayon, JL; Saballs, P; Lopez-Colomes, JL; Pedro-Botet, J
Stroke, 37(3): 812-817.
10.1161/01.STR.0000204037.26797.7f
CrossRef
Anales De Medicina Interna
Sex influence in lipodystrophy of HIV-infected patients and its association with cardiovascular risk factors
Redo, MLS; Freud, HK; Montero, M; Alba, CJ; Grimberg, AG; Montoya, JPB
Anales De Medicina Interna, 24(4): 168-172.

Current Medical Research and Opinion
HIV lipodystrophy and its metabolic consequences: implications for clinical practice
Wierzbicki, AS; Purdon, SD; Hardman, TC; Kulasegaram, R; Peters, BS
Current Medical Research and Opinion, 24(3): 609-624.
10.1185/030079908X272742
CrossRef
Diabetes Obesity & Metabolism
Antiretroviral therapy and the human immunodeficiency virus - improved survival but at what cost?
Bradbury, RA; Samaras, K
Diabetes Obesity & Metabolism, 10(6): 441-450.
10.1111/j.1463-1326.2007.00760.x
CrossRef
AIDS Patient Care and Stds
Potential for new antiretrovirals to address unmet needs in the management of HIV-1 infection
Moyle, G; Gatell, J; Perno, CF; Ratanasuwan, W; Schechter, M; Tsoukas, C
AIDS Patient Care and Stds, 22(6): 459-471.
10.1089/apc.2007.0136
CrossRef
AIDS Reader
Hormonal contraception in HIV-positive women
Womack, J; Williams, A
AIDS Reader, 18(7): 372-+.

Hiv Medicine
Effects of HIV status and antiretroviral therapy on blood pressure
Wilson, SL; Scullard, G; Fidler, SJ; Weber, JN; Poulter, NR
Hiv Medicine, 10(6): 388-394.
10.1111/j.1468-1293.2009.00699.x
CrossRef
Journal of Infectious Diseases
Lipid profiles in HIV-infected patients receiving combination antiretroviral therapy: Are different antiretroviral drugs associated with different lipid profiles?
Fontas, E; van Leth, F; Sabin, CA; Friis-Moller, N; Rickenbach, M; Monforte, AD; Kirk, O; Dupon, M; Morfeldt, L; Mateu, S; Petoumenos, K; El-Sadr, W; de Wit, S; Lundgren, JD; Pradier, C; Reiss, P
Journal of Infectious Diseases, 189(6): 1056-1074.

Clinical Infectious Diseases
Risk of metabolic abnormalities in patients infected with HIV receiving antiretroviral therapy that contains lopinavir-ritonavir
Martinez, E; Domingo, P; Galindo, MJ; Milinkovic, A; Arroyo, JA; Baldovi, F; Larrousse, M; Leon, A; de Lazzari, E; Gatell, JM
Clinical Infectious Diseases, 38(7): 1017-1023.

International Journal of Epidemiology
Causes of death among human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-infected adults in the era of potent antiretroviral therapy: emerging role of hepatitis and cancers, persistent role of AIDS
Lewden, C; Salmon, D; Morlat, P; Bevilacqua, S; Jougla, E; Bonnet, F; Heripret, L; Costagliola, D; May, T; Chene, G
International Journal of Epidemiology, 34(1): 121-130.

Circulation Research
Mitochondrial dysfunction in atherosclerosis
Madamanchi, NR; Runge, MS
Circulation Research, 100(4): 460-473.
10.1161/01.RES.0000258450.44413.96
CrossRef
Clinical Physiology and Functional Imaging
Carotid intima-media thickness in HIV patients treated with antiretroviral therapy
Lebech, AM; Wiinberg, N; Kristoffersen, US; Hesse, B; Petersen, CL; Gerstoft, J; Kjaer, A
Clinical Physiology and Functional Imaging, 27(3): 173-179.
10.1111/j.1475-097X.2007.00737.x
CrossRef
Current Hiv Research
Correlations between carotid IMT, factor VIII activity level and metabolic disturbances: A cardio-vascular risk factor in the HIV positive persons
de Saint Martin, L; Pasquier, E; Vandhuick, O; Arnaud, B; Vallet, S; Duchemin, J; Bellein, V; Bressollette, L
Current Hiv Research, 5(3): 361-364.

AIDS
Comparison of the risks of atherosclerotic events versus death from other causes associated with antiretroviral use
Kwong, GPS; Ghani, AC; Rode, RA; Bartley, LM; Cowling, BJ; da Silva, B; Donnelly, CA; van Sighem, AI; Cameron, DW; Danner, SA; de Wolf, F; Anderson, RM
AIDS, 20(): 1941-1950.

Atherosclerosis
High-sensitivity C-reactive protein levels in HIV-infected patients treated or not with antiretroviral drugs and their correlation with factors related to cardiovascular risk and HIV infection
Guimaraes, MMM; Greco, DB; de Figueiredo, SM; Foscolo, RB; de Oliveira, AR; Machado, LJD
Atherosclerosis, 201(2): 434-439.
10.1016/j.atherosclerosis.2008.02.003
CrossRef
Journal of Neurovirology
NeuroAIDS in the Asia Pacific Region
Wright, EJ; Nunn, M; Joseph, J; Robertson, K; Lal, L; Brew, BJ
Journal of Neurovirology, 14(6): 465-473.
10.1080/13550280802235932
CrossRef
Hiv Medicine
The prevalence of metabolic syndrome in Danish patients with HIV infection: the effect of antiretroviral therapy
Hansen, BR; Petersen, J; Haugaard, SB; Madsbad, S; Obel, N; Suzuki, Y; Andersen, O
Hiv Medicine, 10(6): 378-387.
10.1111/j.1468-1293.2009.00697.x
CrossRef
Clinical Infectious Diseases
Role of Uncontrolled HIV RNA Level and Immunodeficiency in the Occurrence of Malignancy in HIV-Infected Patients during the Combination Antiretroviral Therapy Era: Agence Nationale de Recherche sur le Sida (ANRS) CO3 Aquitaine Cohort
Bruyand, M; Thiebaut, R; Lawson-Ayayi, S; Joly, P; Sasco, AJ; Mercie, P; Pellegrin, JL; Neau, D; Dabis, F; Morlat, P; Chene, G; Bonnet, F
Clinical Infectious Diseases, 49(7): 1109-1116.
10.1086/605594
CrossRef
Hiv Infection and the Cardiovascular System
Evolution of the involvement of the cardiovascular system in HIV infection
Barbaro, G
Hiv Infection and the Cardiovascular System, 40(): 15-22.

AIDS Care-Psychological and Socio-Medical Aspects of AIDS/Hiv
Strategies for management and treatment of dyslipidemia in HIV/AIDS
Sax, PE
AIDS Care-Psychological and Socio-Medical Aspects of AIDS/Hiv, 18(2): 149-157.
10.1080/0954012050161843
CrossRef
Expert Opinion on Drug Safety
Cardiovascular & renal - Antiretroviral therapy and the kidney: balancing benefit and risk in patients with HIV infection
Wyatt, CM; Klotman, PE
Expert Opinion on Drug Safety, 5(2): 275-287.
10.1517/14740338.5.2.275
CrossRef
Hiv Medicine
Increased serum lipids are associated with higher CD4 lymphocyte count in HIV-infected women
Floris-Moore, M; Howard, AA; Lo, Y; Arnsten, JH; Santoro, N; Schoenbaum, EE
Hiv Medicine, 7(7): 421-430.

Revista Clinica Espanola
Prevalence of cardiovascular risk factors in HIV-infected patients
Jerico, C; Knobel, H; Sorli, ML; Montero, M; Guelar, A; Pedro-Botet, J
Revista Clinica Espanola, 206(): 556-559.

Antiviral Research
Antiviral effects of mifepristone on human immunodeficiency virus type-1 (HIV-1): Targeting Vpr and its cellular partner, the glucocorticoid receptor (GR)
Schafer, EA; Venkatachari, NJ; Ayyavoo, V
Antiviral Research, 72(3): 224-232.
10.1016/j.antiviral.2006.06.008
CrossRef
Enfermedades Infecciosas Y Microbiologia Clinica
Epidemiological and clinical usefulness of HIV/AIDS cohort studies: Towards a global collaboration
Chene, G
Enfermedades Infecciosas Y Microbiologia Clinica, 25(1): 3-4.

Current Therapeutic Research-Clinical and Experimental
Effectiveness and metabolic complications after 96 weeks of a generic fixed-dose combination of stavudine, lamivudine, and nevirapine among antiretroviral-naive advanced HIV-infected patients in Thailand: A prospective study
Manosuthi, W; Sungkanuparph, S; Tansuphaswadikul, S; Prasithsirikul, W; Athichathanabadi, C; Likanonsakul, S; Chaovavanich, A
Current Therapeutic Research-Clinical and Experimental, 69(1): 90-100.
10.1016/j.curtheres.2008.02.007
CrossRef
Ultrasound in Medicine and Biology
Comparability of echographic and tomographic assessments of body fat changes related to the hiv associated adipose redistribution syndrome (HARS) in antiretroviral treated patients
Gulizia, R; Vercelli, A; Gervasoni, C; Uglietti, A; Ortu, M; Ferraioli, G; Galli, M; Filice, C
Ultrasound in Medicine and Biology, 34(7): 1043-1048.
10.1016/j.ultrasmedbio.2007.12.010
CrossRef
Nature Reviews Nephrology
The nephrotoxic effects of HAART
Izzedine, H; Harris, M; Perazella, MA
Nature Reviews Nephrology, 5(): 564-574.
10.1038/nrneph.2009.142
CrossRef
Hiv Medicine
Abacavir and risk of myocardial infarction in HIV-infected patients on highly active antiretroviral therapy: a population-based nationwide cohort study
Obel, N; Farkas, DK; Kronborg, G; Larsen, CS; Pedersen, G; Riis, A; Pedersen, C; Gerstoft, J; Sorensen, HT
Hiv Medicine, 11(2): 130-136.
10.1111/j.1468-1293.2009.00751.x
CrossRef
Medicina Clinica
Cardiovascular disease in HIV-infected patients on highly active antiretroviral therapy
Jerico, C; Knobel, H; Carmona, A; Sorli, ML; Lopez-Colomes, JL; Pedro-Botet, J
Medicina Clinica, 122(8): 298-300.

Infectious Disease Clinics of North America
Antiretroviral therapy in HIV-infected children: The metabolic cost of improved survival
Leonard, EG; McComsey, GA
Infectious Disease Clinics of North America, 19(3): 713-+.
10.1016/j.idc.2005.05.006
CrossRef
Antiviral Therapy
Impact of lamivudine on the risk of liver-related death in 2,041 HBsAg- and HIV-positive individuals: results from an inter-cohort analysis
Puoti, M; Cozzi-Lepri, A; Arici, C; Moller, NF; Lundgren, JD; Ledergerber, B; Rickenbach, M; Suarez-Lozanos, I; Garrido, M; Dabis, F; Winnock, M; Milazzo, L; Gervais, A; Raffi, F; Gill, J; Rockstroh, J; Qurishi, N; Mussini, C; Castagna, A; De Luca, A; Monforte, AD
Antiviral Therapy, 11(5): 567-574.

Antiviral Therapy
A smoking cessation programme in HIV-infected individuals: a pilot study
Elzi, L; Spoerl, D; Voggensperger, J; Nicca, D; Simcock, M; Bucher, HC; Spirig, R; Battegay, M
Antiviral Therapy, 11(6): 787-795.

Drugs
Cardiovascular risk in patients with HIV infection - Impact of antiretroviral therapy
Bergersen, BM
Drugs, 66(): 1971-1987.

AIDS Care-Psychological and Socio-Medical Aspects of AIDS/Hiv
Differential improvement in survival among patients with AIDS after the introduction of HAART
Couzigou, C; Semaille, C; Le Strat, Y; Pinget, R; Pillonel, J; Lot, F; Cazein, F; Vittecoq, D; Desenclos, JC
AIDS Care-Psychological and Socio-Medical Aspects of AIDS/Hiv, 19(4): 523-531.
10.1080/09540120701235628
CrossRef
Medicina Clinica
Variability in coronary risk assessment in HIV-infected patients
Garcia-Lazaro, M; Roman, AR; Espejo, AC; Perez-Camacho, I; Natera-Kindelan, C; Osorio, JJC; Cisneros, JDLT
Medicina Clinica, 129(): 521-524.

Clinical Infectious Diseases
Long-term cocaine use and antiretroviral therapy are associated with silent coronary artery disease in African Americans with HIV infection who have no cardiovascular symptoms
Lai, SH; Fishman, EK; Lai, H; Moore, R; Cofrancesco, J; Pannu, H; Tong, WJ; Du, JF; Bartlett, J
Clinical Infectious Diseases, 46(4): 600-610.
10.1086/526782
CrossRef
Antiviral Therapy
A randomized trial comparing initial HAART regimens of nelfinavir/nevirapine and ritonavir/saquinavir in combination with two nucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitors
Kirk, O; Lundgren, JD; Pedersen, C; Mathiesen, LR; Nielsen, H; Katzenstein, TL; Obe, N; Gerstoft, J
Antiviral Therapy, 8(6): 595-602.

Expert Opinion on Pharmacotherapy
Treatment of dyslipidaemia in HIV-infected persons
Manuel, O; Thiebaut, R; Darioli, R; Tarr, PE
Expert Opinion on Pharmacotherapy, 6(): 1619-1645.
10.1517/14656566.6.10.1619
CrossRef
Circulation
What a cardiologist needs to know about patients with human immunodeficiency virus infection
Hsue, PY; Waters, DD
Circulation, 112(): 3947-3957.
10.1161/CIRCULATIONAHA.105.546465
CrossRef
Chemotherapy
Highly active antiretroviral therapy-associated metabolic syndrome and cardiovascular risk
Barbaro, G; Barbarini, G
Chemotherapy, 52(4): 161-165.
10.1159/000093034
CrossRef
American Heart Journal
Cardiovascular disease in HIV infection
Sudano, I; Spieker, LE; Noll, G; Corti, R; Weber, R; Luscher, TF
American Heart Journal, 151(6): 1147-1155.
10.1016/j.ahj.2005.07.030
CrossRef
Cytokine
HIV-infected patients with lipodystrophy have higher rates of carotid atherosclerosis: The role of monocyte chemoattractant protein-1
Coll, B; Parra, S; Alonso-Villaverde, C; de Groot, E; Aragones, G; Montero, M; Tous, M; Camps, J; Joven, J; Masana, L
Cytokine, 34(): 51-55.
10.1016/j.cyto.2006.03.013
CrossRef
Journal of Internal Medicine
HAART and the heart: changes in coronary risk factors and implications for coronary risk in men starting antiretroviral therapy
Sterne, JAC; May, M; Bucher, HC; Ledergerber, B; Furrer, H; Cavassini, M; Bernasconi, E; Hirschel, B; Egger, M
Journal of Internal Medicine, 261(3): 255-267.
10.1111/j.1365-2796.2006.01761.x
CrossRef
Current Opinion in Investigational Drugs
Drug evaluation: Ibalizumab, a CD4-specific mAb to inhibit HIV-1 infection
Dimitrov, A
Current Opinion in Investigational Drugs, 8(8): 653-661.

Hiv Clinical Trials
Effectiveness and tolerability of oral administration of low-dose salmon oil to HIV patients with HAART-associated Dyslipidemia
Baril, JG; Kovacs, CM; Trottier, S; Roederer, G; Martel, AY; Ackad, N; Koulis, T; Sampalis, JS
Hiv Clinical Trials, 8(6): 400-411.
10.1310/hct0806-400
CrossRef
International Journal of Epidemiology
A coronary heart disease risk model for predicting the effect of potent antiretroviral therapy in HIV-1 infected men
May, M; Sterne, JAC; Shipley, M; Brunner, E; d'Agostino, R; Whincup, P; Ben-Shlomo, Y; Carr, A; Ledergerber, B; Lundgren, JD; Phillips, AN; Massaro, J; Eggerl, M
International Journal of Epidemiology, 36(6): 1309-1318.
10.1093/ije/dym135
CrossRef
Hiv Medicine
Protease inhibitor exposure and increased risk of cardiovascular disease in HIV-infected patients
Iloeje, UH; Yuan, Y; L'Italien, G; Mauskopf, J; Holmberg, SD; Moorman, AC; Wood, KC; Moore, RD
Hiv Medicine, 6(1): 37-44.

Journal of Antimicrobial Chemotherapy
Current perspectives on HIV-associated lipodystrophy syndrome
Milinkovic, A; Martinez, E
Journal of Antimicrobial Chemotherapy, 56(1): 6-9.
10.1093/jac/dki165
CrossRef
International Journal of Std & AIDS
Atherogenic lipid profile and cardiovascular risk factors in HIV-infected patients (Netar Study)
Santos, J; Palacios, R; Gonzalez, M; Ruiz, I; Marquez, M
International Journal of Std & AIDS, 16(): 677-680.

AIDS
Glucose metabolism, lipid, and body fat changes in antiretroviral-naive subjects randomized to nelfinavir or efavirenz plus dual nucleosides
Dube, MP; Parker, RA; Tebas, P; Grinspoon, SK; Zackin, RA; Robbins, GK; Roubenoff, R; Shafer, RW; Wininger, DA; Meyer, WA; Snyder, SW; Mulligan, K
AIDS, 19(): 1807-1818.

Plos Medicine
Associations among race/ethnicity, ApoC-III genotypes, and lipids in HIV-1-infected individuals on antiretroviral therapy
Foulkes, AS; Wohl, DA; Frank, I; Puleo, E; Restine, S; Wolfe, ML; Dube, MP; Tebas, P; Reilly, MP
Plos Medicine, 3(3): 337-347.
ARTN e52
CrossRef
Clinical Infectious Diseases
HIV-associated renal diseases and highly active antiretroviral therapy-induced nephropathy
Roling, J; Schmid, H; Fischereder, M; Draenert, R; Goebel, FD
Clinical Infectious Diseases, 42(): 1488-1495.

Atherosclerosis
Age and sex modulate metabolic and cardiovascular risk markers of patients after 1 year of highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART)
Leitner, JM; Pernerstorfer-Schoen, H; Weiss, A; Schindler, K; Rieger, A; Jilma, B
Atherosclerosis, 187(1): 177-185.
10.1016/j.atherosclerosis.2005.09.001
CrossRef
Journal of Antimicrobial Chemotherapy
Endothelial function in HIV-infected patients with low or mild cardiovascular risk
Rios Blanco, JJ; Suarez Garcia, I; Gomez Cerezo, J; Pena Sanchez de Rivera, JM; Moreno Anaya, P; Garcia Raya, P; Gonzalez Garcia, J; Arribas Lopez, JR; Barbado Hernandez, FJ; Vasquez Rodriguez, JJ
Journal of Antimicrobial Chemotherapy, 58(1): 133-139.
10.1093/jac/dkl190
CrossRef
International Journal of Tuberculosis and Lung Disease
Tobacco use and its determinants in HIV-infected patients on antiretroviral therapy in West African countries
Jaquet, A; Ekouevi, DK; Aboubakrine, M; Bashi, J; Messou, E; Maiga, M; Traore, HA; Zannou, M; Guehi, C; Ba-Gomis, FO; Minga, A; Allou, G; Eholie, SP; Dabis, F; Bissagnene, E; Sasco, AJ
International Journal of Tuberculosis and Lung Disease, 13(): 1433-1439.

Presse Medicale
Epidemiology of atherosclerotic cardiovascular risk in HIV-1 infected patients
Thiebaut, R; Saves, M; Mercie, P; Cipriano, C; Chee, G; Dabis, F
Presse Medicale, 32(): 1419-1426.

Hiv Infection and the Cardiovascular System
Pathogenesis of HIV-associated cardiovascular disease
Barbaro, G
Hiv Infection and the Cardiovascular System, 40(): 49-70.

New England Journal of Medicine
Medical progress - Cardiovascular risk and body-fat abnormalities in HIV-infected adults
Grinspoon, S; Carr, A
New England Journal of Medicine, 352(1): 48-62.

Danish Medical Bulletin
Effects of highly active antiretroviral therapy among HIV-infected patients - Results from randomised and observational studies
Kirk, O
Danish Medical Bulletin, 51(1): 63-81.

Journal of Clinical Endocrinology & Metabolism
Antiretroviral treatment reduces very-low-density lipoprotein and intermediate-density lipoprotein apolipoprotein B fractional catabolic rate in human immunodeficiency virus-infected patients with mild dyslipidemia
Shahmanesh, M; Das, S; Stolinski, M; Shojaee-Moradie, F; Jackson, NC; Jefferson, W; Cramb, R; Nightingale, P; Umpleby, AM
Journal of Clinical Endocrinology & Metabolism, 90(2): 755-760.
10.1210/jc.2004-1273
CrossRef
Jaids-Journal of Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndromes
Insulin resistance and diabetes mellitus associated with antiretroviral use in HIV-infected patients: Pathogenesis, prevention, and treatment options
Tebas, P
Jaids-Journal of Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndromes, 49(): S86-S92.

Journal of Antimicrobial Chemotherapy
Platelet-leucocyte adhesion markers before and after the initiation of antiretroviral therapy with HIV protease inhibitors
von Hentig, N; Forster, AK; Kuczka, K; Klinkhardt, U; Klauke, S; Gute, P; Staszewski, S; Harder, S; Graff, J
Journal of Antimicrobial Chemotherapy, 62(5): 1118-1121.
10.1093/jac/dkn333
CrossRef
Hiv Medicine
Improvement in lipid profiles over 6 years of follow-up in adults with AIDS and immune reconstitution
Williams, PL; Wu, JW; Cohn, SE; Koletar, SL; McCutchan, JA; Murphy, RL; Currier, JS
Hiv Medicine, 10(5): 290-301.
10.1111/j.1468-1293.2008.00685.x
CrossRef
Hiv Clinical Trials
Baseline Lipid Levels Rather Than the Presence of Reported Body Shape Changes Determine the Degree of Improvement in Lipid Levels After Switching to Atazanavir
van Vonderen, MGA; Gras, L; Wit, F; Brinkman, K; van der Ende, ME; Hoepelman, AIM; de Wolf, F; Reiss, P
Hiv Clinical Trials, 10(3): 168-180.
10.1310/hct1003-168
CrossRef
Arquivos Brasileiros De Cardiologia
Lipid Profile, Cardiovascular Risk Factors and Metabolic Syndrome in a Group of AIDS Patients
da Silva, EFR
Arquivos Brasileiros De Cardiologia, 93(2): 107-111.

Metabolic Syndrome and Related Disorders
Human Immunodeficiency Virus and Highly Active Antiretroviral Therapy-Associated Metabolic Disorders and Risk Factors for Cardiovascular Disease
Anuurad, E; Semrad, A; Berglund, L
Metabolic Syndrome and Related Disorders, 7(5): 401-409.
10.1089/met.2008.0096
CrossRef
Journal of the American Dietetic Association
Position of the American Dietetic Association and Dietitians of Canada: Nutrition intervention in the care of persons with human immunodeficiency virus infection
Fields-Gardner, C; Fergusson, P; Hayes, CR; Sanders, M; Kelley, C; Brison, CM; Knoll, LL; Rothpletz-Puglia, P; Badenhorst, AM; Kasten, G; De Maio, S; McDermid, JM; Marchand, MJ; McKinney, S; Bloch, A; Fenton, M
Journal of the American Dietetic Association, 104(9): 1425-1441.
10.1016/j.jada.2004.07.012
CrossRef
Clinical Journal of the American Society of Nephrology
Highly active antiretroviral therapy and the kidney: An update on antiretroviral medications for nephrologists
Berns, JS; Kasbekar, N
Clinical Journal of the American Society of Nephrology, 1(1): 117-129.
10.2215/CJN.00370705
CrossRef
AIDS Care-Psychological and Socio-Medical Aspects of AIDS/Hiv
Protease inhibitors and cardiovascular disease: analysis of the Los Angeles County adult spectrum of disease cohort
Vaughn, G; Detels, R
AIDS Care-Psychological and Socio-Medical Aspects of AIDS/Hiv, 19(4): 492-499.
10.1080/09540120701203329
CrossRef
AIDS Patient Care and Stds
Hepatitis C infection is associated with lower lipids and high-sensitivity C-reactive protein in HIV-infected men
Floris-Moore, M; Howard, AA; Lo, YT; Schoenbaum, EE; Arnsten, JH; Klein, RS
AIDS Patient Care and Stds, 21(7): 479-491.
10.1089/apc.2006.0150
CrossRef
Annual Review of Medicine
The challenge of hepatitis C in the HIV-infected person
Thomas, DL
Annual Review of Medicine, 59(): 473-485.
10.1146/annurev.med.59.081906.081110
CrossRef
AIDS Research and Human Retroviruses
Interarm blood pressure differences in the women's interagency HIV study
Lazar, J; Holman, S; Minkoff, HL; Dehovitz, JA; Sharma, A
AIDS Research and Human Retroviruses, 24(5): 695-700.
10.1089/aid.2007.0237
CrossRef
Clinical Infectious Diseases
Clinical inertia in the management of low-density lipoprotein abnormalities in an HIV clinic
Willig, JH; Jackson, DA; Westfall, AO; Allison, J; Chang, PW; Raper, J; Saag, MS; Mugavero, MJ
Clinical Infectious Diseases, 46(8): 1315-1318.
10.1086/533466
CrossRef
Antiviral Therapy
Living with HIV, antiretroviral treatment experience and tobacco smoking: results from a multisite cross-sectional study
Duval, X; Baron, G; Garelik, D; Villes, V; Dupre, T; Leport, C; Lert, F; Peretti-Watel, P; Ravoud, P; Spire, B
Antiviral Therapy, 13(3): 389-397.

Medicina Clinica
Prevalence of arterial hypertension and lipid profile in HIV patients
Conde, AGC; Albarran, MA; Coll, ARC; Pedrol, PD; Campmany, MP
Medicina Clinica, 131(): 681-684.

Clinical Lipidology
Risk and progression of dyslipidemia in patients with HIV who have recovered from severe immunosuppression
Bennett, MT; Bondy, GP
Clinical Lipidology, 4(3): 287-289.
10.2217/CLP.09.22
CrossRef
Nephrologie & Therapeutique
Kidney diseases in HIV-infected patients
Tourret, J; Tostivint, I; Deray, G; Isnard-Bagnis, C
Nephrologie & Therapeutique, 5(6): 576-591.
10.1016/j.nephro.2009.02.007
CrossRef
Arquivos Brasileiros De Cardiologia
Metabolic Abnormalities, Antiretroviral Therapy and Cardiovascular Disease in Elderly Patients with HIV
Kramer, AS; Lazzarotto, AR; Sprinz, E; Manfroi, WC
Arquivos Brasileiros De Cardiologia, 93(5): 519-526.

Janac-Journal of the Association of Nurses in AIDS Care
The nurse practitioner's role in managing dyslipidemia and other cardiovascular risk factors in HIV-infected patients: Impact of antiretroviral therapy
Willard, S
Janac-Journal of the Association of Nurses in AIDS Care, 17(1): 7-17.
10.1016/j.jana.2005.11.001
CrossRef
Archives of Internal Medicine
Liver-related deaths in persons infected with the human immunodeficiency virus - The D : A : D study
Weber, R
Archives of Internal Medicine, 166(): 1632-1641.

Metabolism-Clinical and Experimental
Impaired proinsulin secretion before and during oral glucose stimulation in HIV-infected patients who display fat redistribution
Haugaard, SB; Andersen, O; Halsall, I; Iversen, J; Hales, CN; Madsbad, S
Metabolism-Clinical and Experimental, 56(7): 939-946.
10.1016/j.metabol.2007.02.007
CrossRef
Nature Clinical Practice Endocrinology & Metabolism
Therapy Insight: body-shape changes and metabolic complications associated with HIV and highly active antiretroviral therapy
Falutz, J
Nature Clinical Practice Endocrinology & Metabolism, 3(9): 651-661.
10.1038/ncpendmet0587
CrossRef
AIDS Research and Human Retroviruses
Cross-sectional study of endothelial function in HIV-infected patients in Brazil
Andrade, ACO; Ladeia, AM; Netto, EM; Mascarenhas, A; Cotter, B; Benson, CA; Badaro, R
AIDS Research and Human Retroviruses, 24(1): 27-33.
10.1089/aid.2006.0281
CrossRef
Current Hiv Research
Dietary intake and physical activity in a Canadian population sample of male patients with HIV infection and metabolic abnormalities
Arendt, BM; Aghdassi, E; Mohammed, SS; Fung, LY; Jalali, P; Salit, IE; Allard, JP
Current Hiv Research, 6(1): 82-90.

AIDS Research and Human Retroviruses
The Association of HIV Infection with Left Ventricular Mass/Hypertrophy
Mansoor, A; Golub, ET; Dehovitz, J; Anastos, K; Kaplan, RC; Lazar, JM
AIDS Research and Human Retroviruses, 25(5): 475-481.
10.1089/aid.2008.0170
CrossRef
Hiv Medicine
Spectrum of chronic kidney disease in HIV-infected patients
Campbell, LJ; Ibrahim, F; Fisher, M; Holt, SG; Hendry, BM; Post, FA
Hiv Medicine, 10(6): 329-336.
10.1111/j.1468-1293.2008.00691.x
CrossRef
International Journal of Std & AIDS
Cardiovascular disease risk management in HIV patients, experiences from Greater Manchester
Mallewa, JE; Higgins, SP; Garbett, S; Saxena, N; Vilar, FJ
International Journal of Std & AIDS, 20(6): 425-426.
10.1258/ijsa.2008.008295
CrossRef
AIDS Research and Human Retroviruses
Elevated NT-pro-BNP Levels Are Associated with Comorbidities among HIV-Infected Women
Mansoor, A; Althoff, K; Gange, S; Anastos, K; Dehovitz, J; Minkoff, H; Kaplan, R; Holman, S; Lazar, JM
AIDS Research and Human Retroviruses, 25(): 997-1004.
10.1089/aid.2009.0038
CrossRef
Journal of Clinical Lipidology
A retrospective study of the lipid-lowering efficacy and safety of ezetimibe added to hydroxy methylglutaryl coenzyme A reductase therapy in HIV-infected patients with hyperlipidemia
Chastain, LM; Bain, AM; Edwards, KL; Bedimo, R; Busti, AJ
Journal of Clinical Lipidology, 1(6): 634-639.
10.1016/j.jacl.2007.10.003
CrossRef
Psychosomatics
Antiretrovirals, Part 1: Overview, history, and focus on protease inhibitors
Wynn, GH; Zapor, MJ; Smith, BH; Wortmann, G; Oesterheld, JR; Armstrong, SC; Cozza, KL
Psychosomatics, 45(3): 262-270.

Journal of Antimicrobial Chemotherapy
Metabolic consequences and therapeutic options in highly active antiretroviral therapy in human immunodeficiency virus-1 infection
Samaras, K
Journal of Antimicrobial Chemotherapy, 61(2): 238-245.
10.1093/jac/dkm475
CrossRef
British Medical Bulletin
HIV and HIV treatment: effects on fats, glucose and lipids
Gkrania-Klotsas, E; Klotsas, AE
British Medical Bulletin, 84(): 49-68.
10.1093/bmb/ldm030
CrossRef
Journal of Thrombosis and Haemostasis
Cardiovascular disease in patients with hemophilia
Tuinenburg, A; Mauser-Bunschoten, EP; Verhaar, MC; Biesma, DH; Schutgens, REG
Journal of Thrombosis and Haemostasis, 7(2): 247-254.
10.1111/j.1538-7836.2008.03201.x
CrossRef
Sexual Health
Rapidly ageing HIV epidemic among men who have sex with men in Australia
Murray, JM; McDonald, AM; Law, MG
Sexual Health, 6(1): 83-86.
10.1071/SH08063
CrossRef
Clinical Pharmacology & Therapeutics
Impact of Different Low-Dose Ritonavir Regimens on Lipids, CD36, and Adipophilin Expression
Collot-Teixeira, S; Lorenzo, F; Waters, L; Fletcher, C; Back, D; Mandalia, S; Pozniak, A; Yilmaz, S; McGregor, JL; Gazzard, B; Boffito, M
Clinical Pharmacology & Therapeutics, 85(4): 375-378.
10.1038/clpt.2008.243
CrossRef
AIDS Patient Care and Stds
Cardiac Diastolic Dysfunction Is Prevalent in HIV-Infected Patients
Nayak, G; Ferguson, M; Tribble, DR; Porter, CK; Rapena, R; Marchicelli, M; Decker, CF
AIDS Patient Care and Stds, 23(4): 231-238.
10.1089/apc.2008.0142
CrossRef
AIDS Research and Human Retroviruses
Predictive factors of hyperlipidemia in HIV-infected subjects receiving lopinavir/ritonavir
Bongiovanni, M; Bini, T; Cicconi, P; Landonio, S; Meraviglia, P; Testa, L; Di Biagio, A; Chiesa, E; Tordato, F; Biasi, P; Adorni, F; Monforte, AD
AIDS Research and Human Retroviruses, 22(2): 132-138.

Pace-Pacing and Clinical Electrophysiology
Power spectral analysis of heart rate variability in HIV-infected and AIDS patients
Correia, D; De Resende, LAPR; Molina, RJ; Ferreira, BDC; Colombari, F; Barbosa, CJDG; Da Silva, VJD; Prata, A
Pace-Pacing and Clinical Electrophysiology, 29(1): 53-58.

Enfermedades Infecciosas Y Microbiologia Clinica
Lipid alterations and cardiovascular risk associated with antiretroviral therapy
Masia-Canuto, M; Bernal-Morell, E; Gutierrez-Rodero, F
Enfermedades Infecciosas Y Microbiologia Clinica, 24(): 637-648.

Current Pharmaceutical Design
Visceral fat as target of highly active antiretroviral therapy-associated metabolic syndrome
Barbaro, G
Current Pharmaceutical Design, 13(): 2208-2213.

Toxicology and Applied Pharmacology
HIV antiretroviral drug combination induces endothelial mitochondrial dysfunction and reactive oxygen species production, but not apoptosis
Jiang, B; Hebert, VY; Li, Y; Mathis, JM; Alexander, JS; Dugas, TR
Toxicology and Applied Pharmacology, 224(1): 60-71.
10.1016/j.taap.2007.06.010
CrossRef
Minerva Anestesiologica
Critical care of HIV infected patients in the highly active antiretroviral therapy era
Corona, A; Raimondi, F
Minerva Anestesiologica, 73(): 635-645.

Journal of Infection and Chemotherapy
Influence of smoking on HIV infection among HIV-infected Japanese men
Oka, F; Naito, T; Oike, M; Saita, M; Inui, A; Uehara, Y; Mitsuhashi, K; Isonuma, H; Hisaoka, T; Shimbo, T
Journal of Infection and Chemotherapy, 19(3): 542-544.
10.1007/s10156-012-0489-1
CrossRef
European Journal of Nuclear Medicine and Molecular Imaging
Should HIV-infected patients be screened for silent myocardial ischaemia using gated myocardial perfusion SPECT?
Mariano-Goulart, D; Jacquet, JM; Molinari, N; Bourdon, A; Benkiran, M; Sainmont, M; Cornillet, L; Macia, JC; Reynes, J; Ben Bouallegue, F
European Journal of Nuclear Medicine and Molecular Imaging, 40(2): 271-279.
10.1007/s00259-012-2262-1
CrossRef
Alcoholism-Clinical and Experimental Research
Lifetime Drinking Trajectories Among Veterans in Treatment for HIV
Jacob, T; Blonigen, DM; Upah, R; Justice, A
Alcoholism-Clinical and Experimental Research, 37(7): 1179-1187.
10.1111/acer.12071
CrossRef
Hiv Medicine
A critical epidemiological review of cardiovascular disease risk in HIV-infected adults: the importance of the HIV-uninfected comparison group, confounding, and competing risks
Althoff, KN; Gange, SJ
Hiv Medicine, 14(3): 191-192.
10.1111/hiv.12007
CrossRef
Bmc Public Health
Metabolic abnormalities in adult HIV infected population on antiretroviral medication in Malaysia: a cross-sectional survey
Hejazi, N; Rajikan, R; Choong, CLK; Sahar, S
Bmc Public Health, 13(): -.
ARTN 758
CrossRef
Journal of the International AIDS Society
Cardiac effects in perinatally HIV-infected and HIV-exposed but uninfected children and adolescents: a view from the United States of America
Lipshultz, SE; Miller, TL; Wilkinson, JD; Scott, GB; Somarriba, G; Cochran, TR; Fisher, SD
Journal of the International AIDS Society, 16(): -.
ARTN 18597
CrossRef
Bmc Infectious Diseases
Risk factors for subclinical atherosclerosis in HIV-infected patients under and over 40 years: a case-control study
Albuquerque, VMG; Zirpoli, JC; Miranda-Filho, DD; Albuquerque, MDPM; Montarroyos, UR; Ximenes, RAD; Lacerda, HR
Bmc Infectious Diseases, 13(): -.
ARTN 274
CrossRef
Toxicological Sciences
Nucleoside Reverse Transcriptase Inhibitors Induce a Mitophagy-Associated Endothelial Cytotoxicity That Is Reversed by Coenzyme Q10 Cotreatment
Xue, SY; Hebert, VY; Hayes, DM; Robinson, CN; Glover, M; Dugas, TR
Toxicological Sciences, 134(2): 323-334.
10.1093/toxsci/kft105
CrossRef
Annals of Biomedical Engineering
Endothelial Dysfunction, Arterial Stiffening, and Intima-Media Thickening in Large Arteries from HIV-1 Transgenic Mice
Hansen, L; Parker, I; Sutliff, RL; Platt, MO; Gleason, RL
Annals of Biomedical Engineering, 41(4): 682-693.
10.1007/s10439-012-0702-5
CrossRef
Arteriosclerosis Thrombosis and Vascular Biology
Impaired Lipoprotein Processing in HIV Patients on Antiretroviral Therapy: Aberrant High-Density Lipoprotein Lipids, Stability, and Function
Gillard, BK; Raya, JL; Ruiz-Esponda, R; Iyer, D; Coraza, I; Balasubramanyam, A; Pownall, HJ
Arteriosclerosis Thrombosis and Vascular Biology, 33(7): 1714-1721.
10.1161/ATVBAHA.113.301538
CrossRef
Bmc Infectious Diseases
The association of high-sensitivity c-reactive protein and other biomarkers with cardiovascular disease in patients treated for HIV: a nested case-control study
De Luca, A; Donati, KD; Colafigli, M; Cozzi-Lepri, A; De Curtis, A; Gori, A; Sighinolfi, L; Giacometti, A; Capobianchi, MR; D'Avino, A; Iacoviello, L; Cauda, R; Monforte, AD
Bmc Infectious Diseases, 13(): -.
ARTN 414
CrossRef
Reviews in Endocrine & Metabolic Disorders
Insulin resistance, lipodystrophy and cardiometabolic syndrome in HIV/AIDS
Galescu, O; Bhangoo, A; Ten, S
Reviews in Endocrine & Metabolic Disorders, 14(2): 133-140.
10.1007/s11154-013-9247-7
CrossRef
Bmc Medical Research Methodology
Representativeness of an HIV cohort of the sites from which it is recruiting: results from the Ontario HIV Treatment Network (OHTN) cohort study
Raboud, J; Su, DS; Burchell, AN; Gardner, S; Walmsley, S; Bayoumi, AM; Blitz, S; Cooper, C; Salit, I; Cohen, J; Rourke, SB; Loutfy, MR
Bmc Medical Research Methodology, 13(): -.
ARTN 31
CrossRef
Journal of Biomechanics
Azidothymidine (AZT) leads to arterial stiffening and intima-media thickening in mice
Hansen, L; Parker, I; Roberts, LM; Sutliff, RL; Platt, MO; Gleason, RL
Journal of Biomechanics, 46(9): 1540-1547.
10.1016/j.jbiomech.2013.03.021
CrossRef
Clinical Infectious Diseases
First-line Antiretroviral Therapy and Changes in Lipid Levels Over 3 Years Among HIV-Infected Adults in Tanzania
Liu, E; Armstrong, C; Spiegelman, D; Chalamilla, G; Njelekela, M; Hawkins, C; Hertzmark, E; Li, N; Aris, E; Muhihi, A; Semu, H; Fawzi, W
Clinical Infectious Diseases, 56(): 1820-1828.
10.1093/cid/cit120
CrossRef
AIDS
Interruption of antiretroviral therapy is associated with increased plasma cystatin C
for the INSIGHT SMART study group, ; Mocroft, A; Wyatt, C; Szczech, L; Neuhaus, J; El-Sadr, W; Tracy, R; Kuller, L; Shlipak, M; Angus, B; Klinker, H; Ross, M
AIDS, 23(1): 71-82.
10.1097/QAD.0b013e32831cc129
PDF (216) | CrossRef
AIDS
High prevalence of the metabolic syndrome in HIV-infected patients: impact of different definitions of the metabolic syndrome
Worm, SW; Friis-Møller, N; Bruyand, M; Monforte, AD; Rickenbach, M; Reiss, P; El-Sadr, W; Phillips, A; Lundgren, J; Sabin, C; for the D:A:D study group,
AIDS, 24(3): 427-435.
10.1097/QAD.0b013e328334344e
PDF (355) | CrossRef
AIDS
Considerations on the increase in blood pressure among antiretroviral-naive patients starting HAART
Martínez, E; López Bernaldo de Quirós, JC; Miralles, C; Podzamczer, D
AIDS, 21(3): 384-386.
10.1097/QAD.0b013e328011daef
PDF (322) | CrossRef
AIDS
The nephrologist in the HAART era
Izzedine, H; Deray, G
AIDS, 21(4): 409-421.
10.1097/QAD.0b013e328011ec40
PDF (168) | CrossRef
AIDS
Ritonavir exhibits anti-atherogenic properties on vascular smooth muscle cells
Kappert, K; Caglayan, E; Bäumer, AT; Südkamp, M; Fätkenheuer, G; Rosenkranz, S
AIDS, 18(3): 403-411.

PDF (201)
AIDS
Risk of all-cause mortality associated with nonfatal AIDS and serious non-AIDS events among adults infected with HIV
Neuhaus, J; Angus, B; Kowalska, JD; Rosa, AL; Sampson, J; Wentworth, D; Mocroft, A; for the INSIGHT SMART and ESPRIT study groups,
AIDS, 24(5): 697-706.
10.1097/QAD.0b013e3283365356
PDF (476) | CrossRef
AIDS
Effective therapy has altered the spectrum of cause-specific mortality following HIV seroconversion
CASCADE Collaboration,
AIDS, 20(5): 741-749.
10.1097/01.aids.0000216375.99560.a2
PDF (194) | CrossRef
AIDS
The longer the better? Four years of durable, initially boosted protease treatment
Katzenstein, D
AIDS, 18(5): 811-813.

PDF (59)
AIDS
Regression of lipodystrophy in HIV-infected patients under therapy with the new protease inhibitor atazanavir
Haerter, G; Manfras, BJ; Mueller, M; Kern, P; Trein, A
AIDS, 18(6): 952-955.

PDF (123)
AIDS
Antiretroviral medications associated with elevated blood pressure among patients receiving highly active antiretroviral therapy
Crane, HM; Van Rompaey, SE; Kitahata, MM
AIDS, 20(7): 1019-1026.
10.1097/01.aids.0000222074.45372.00
PDF (140) | CrossRef
AIDS
The role of adipokines in relation to HIV lipodystrophy
Sweeney, LL; Brennan, AM; Mantzoros, CS
AIDS, 21(8): 895-904.
10.1097/QAD.0b013e3280adc91e
PDF (155) | CrossRef
AIDS
Progression of carotid artery intima–media thickening in HIV-infected and uninfected adults
Currier, JS; Kendall, MA; Henry, WK; Alston-Smith, B; Torriani, FJ; Tebas, P; Li, Y; Hodis, HN; for the ACTG 5078 Study Team,
AIDS, 21(9): 1137-1145.
10.1097/QAD.0b013e32811ebf79
PDF (130) | CrossRef
AIDS
Traditional risk factors and D-dimer predict incident cardiovascular disease events in chronic HIV infection
Ford, ES; Greenwald, JH; Richterman, AG; Rupert, A; Dutcher, L; Badralmaa, Y; Natarajan, V; Rehm, C; Hadigan, C; Sereti, I
AIDS, 24(10): 1509-1517.
10.1097/QAD.0b013e32833ad914
PDF (203) | CrossRef
AIDS
Preclinical atherosclerosis due to HIV infection: carotid intima-medial thickness measurements from the FRAM study
Grunfeld, C; Delaney, JA; Wanke, C; Currier, JS; Scherzer, R; Biggs, ML; Tien, PC; Shlipak, MG; Sidney, S; Polak, JF; O'Leary, D; Bacchetti, P; Kronmal, RA; for the study of Fat Redistribution and Metabolic Change in HIV Infection (FRAM),
AIDS, 23(14): 1841-1849.
10.1097/QAD.0b013e32832d3b85
PDF (365) | CrossRef
American Journal of Therapeutics
Antiretroviral Therapy With Heart
Randell, P; Moyle, G
American Journal of Therapeutics, 16(6): 579-584.
10.1097/MJT.0b013e318192116f
PDF (92) | CrossRef
The American Journal of the Medical Sciences
Prevalence of Chronic Kidney Disease in an Urban HIV Infected Population
FERNANDO, SK; FINKELSTEIN, FO; MOORE, BA; WEISSMAN, S
The American Journal of the Medical Sciences, 335(2): 89-94.
10.1097/MAJ.0b013e31812e6b34
PDF (146) | CrossRef
Critical Care Medicine
Current issues in critical care of the human immunodeficiency virus-infected patient*
Morris, A; Masur, H; Huang, L
Critical Care Medicine, 34(1): 42-49.
10.1097/01.CCM.0000194539.50905.81
PDF (300) | CrossRef
Current Opinion in Infectious Diseases
Should HIV therapy be started at a CD4 cell count above 350 cells/μl in asymptomatic HIV-1-infected patients?
Sabin, CA; Phillips, AN
Current Opinion in Infectious Diseases, 22(2): 191-197.
10.1097/QCO.0b013e328326cd34
PDF (119) | CrossRef
JAIDS Journal of Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndromes
Predictive Factors of Hyperhomocysteinemia in HIV-Positive Patients
Bongiovanni, M; Casana, M; Tordato, F; Cicconi, P; Ranieri, R; Monforte, Ad; Bini, T; Pisacreta, M; Russo, U
JAIDS Journal of Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndromes, 44(1): 117-119.
10.1097/QAI.0b013e31802be3e8
PDF (79) | CrossRef
JAIDS Journal of Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndromes
Racial Differences in Changes of Metabolic Parameters and Body Composition in Antiretroviral Therapy-Naive Persons Initiating Antiretroviral Therapy
Gibert, CL; Shlay, JC; Sharma, S; Bartsch, G; Peng, G; Grunfeld, C; for the Terry Beirn Community Programs for Clinical Research on AIDS and the International Network for Strategic Initiatives in Global HIV Trials,
JAIDS Journal of Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndromes, 50(1): 44-53.
10.1097/QAI.0b013e31818ce808
PDF (282) | CrossRef
JAIDS Journal of Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndromes
Life Expectancy After HIV Diagnosis Based on National HIV Surveillance Data From 25 States, United States
Harrison, KM; Song, R; Zhang, X
JAIDS Journal of Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndromes, 53(1): 124-130.
10.1097/QAI.0b013e3181b563e7
PDF (128) | CrossRef
JAIDS Journal of Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndromes
Managing Cardiovascular Risk in Patients With HIV Infection
Stein, JH
JAIDS Journal of Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndromes, 38(2): 115-123.

PDF (164)
JAIDS Journal of Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndromes
An Extremely Different Dysmetabolic Profile Between the Two Available Nonnucleoside Reverse Transcriptase Inhibitors: Efavirenz and Nevirapine
Manfredi, R; Calza, L; Chiodo, F
JAIDS Journal of Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndromes, 38(2): 236-238.

PDF (120)
JAIDS Journal of Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndromes
Less Lipoatrophy and Better Lipid Profile With Abacavir as Compared to Stavudine: 96-Week Results of a Randomized Study
Podzamczer, D; Ferrer, E; Sanchez, P; Gatell, JM; Crespo, M; Fisac, C; Lonca, M; Sanz, J; Niubo, J; Veloso, S; Llibre, JM; Barrufet, P; Ribas, MA; Merino, E; Ribera, E; Martínez-Lacasa, J; Alonso, C; Aranda, M; Pulido, F; Berenguer, J; Delegido, A; Pedreira, JD; Lérida, A; Rubio, R; Río, L; for the ABCDE (Abacavir vs. d4T (stavudine) plus efavirenz) Study Team,
JAIDS Journal of Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndromes, 44(2): 139-147.
10.1097/QAI.0b013e31802bf122
PDF (258) | CrossRef
JAIDS Journal of Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndromes
Lipid Screening in HIV-Infected Veterans
Korthuis, PT; Asch, SM; Anaya, HD; Morgenstern, H; Goetz, MB; Yano, EM; Rubenstein, LV; Lee, ML; Bozzette, SA
JAIDS Journal of Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndromes, 35(3): 253-260.

PDF (372)
JAIDS Journal of Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndromes
Reduction in Triglyceride Level With N-3 Polyunsaturated Fatty Acids in HIV-Infected Patients Taking Potent Antiretroviral Therapy: A Randomized Prospective Study
De Truchis, P; Kirstetter, M; Perier, A; Meunier, C; Zucman, D; Force, G; Doll, J; Katlama, C; Rozenbaum, W; Masson, H; Gardette, J; Melchior, J; and the Maxepa-HIV Group,
JAIDS Journal of Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndromes, 44(3): 278-285.
10.1097/QAI.0b013e31802c2f3d
PDF (163) | CrossRef
JAIDS Journal of Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndromes
Changes in Lipid Profile Over 24 Months Among Adults on First-Line Highly Active Antiretroviral Therapy in the Home-Based AIDS Care Program in Rural Uganda
Brooks, JT; Buchacz, K; Weidle, PJ; Moore, D; Were, W; Mermin, J; Downing, R; Kigozi, A; Borkowf, CB; Ndazima, V
JAIDS Journal of Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndromes, 47(3): 304-311.
10.1097/QAI.0b013e31815e7453
PDF (170) | CrossRef
JAIDS Journal of Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndromes
The Influence of Hepatitis C Virus Coinfection on the Risk of Lipid Abnormalities in a Cohort of HIV-1–Infected Patients After Initiation of Highly Active Antiretroviral Therapy
Di Giambenedetto, S; Baldini, F; Cingolani, A; Tamburrini, E; Cauda, R; De Luca, A
JAIDS Journal of Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndromes, 36(1): 641-642.

PDF (105)
JAIDS Journal of Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndromes
The Role of Hydroxyurea in Enhancing the Virologic Control Achieved Through Structured Treatment Interruption in Primary HIV Infection: Final Results From a Randomized Clinical Trial (Pulse)
Bloch, MT; Smith, DE; Quan, D; Kaldor, JM; Zaunders, JJ; Petoumenos, K; Irvine, K; Law, M; Grey, P; Finlayson, RJ; McFarlane, R; Kelleher, AD; Carr, A; Cooper, DA
JAIDS Journal of Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndromes, 42(2): 192-202.
10.1097/01.qai.0000219779.50668.e6
PDF (473) | CrossRef
JAIDS Journal of Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndromes
Antiretroviral Therapy in HIV-Positive Women Is Associated With Increased Apolipoproteins and Total Cholesterol
Rimland, D; Guest, JL; Hernández-Ramos, I; del Rio, C; Le, N; Brown, W
JAIDS Journal of Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndromes, 42(3): 307-313.
10.1097/01.qai.0000220164.72113.12
PDF (101) | CrossRef
JAIDS Journal of Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndromes
Efficacy and Tolerability of a Nucleoside Reverse Transcriptase Inhibitor-Sparing Combination of Lopinavir/Ritonavir and Efavirenz in HIV-1-Infected Patients
Allavena, C; Ferré, V; Brunet-François, C; Delfraissy, J; Lafeuillade, A; Valantin, M; Bentata, M; Michelet, C; Poizot-Martin, I; Dailly, E; Launay, O; Raffi, F; the Bitherapy Kaletra-Sustiva Study Group,
JAIDS Journal of Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndromes, 39(3): 300-306.

PDF (161)
JAIDS Journal of Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndromes
Recombinant Human Growth Hormone to Treat HIV-Associated Adipose Redistribution Syndrome: 12-Week Induction and 24-Week Maintenance Therapy
on behalf of the Study 24380 Investigators Group, ; Grunfeld, C; Thompson, M; Brown, SJ; Richmond, G; Lee, D; Muurahainen, N; Kotler, DP
JAIDS Journal of Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndromes, 45(3): 286-297.
10.1097/QAI.0b013e31804a7f68
PDF (307) | CrossRef
JAIDS Journal of Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndromes
Association of C-Reactive Protein and HIV Infection With Acute Myocardial Infarction
Triant, VA; Meigs, JB; Grinspoon, SK
JAIDS Journal of Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndromes, 51(3): 268-273.
10.1097/QAI.0b013e3181a9992c
PDF (113) | CrossRef
JAIDS Journal of Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndromes
Antiretrovirals Induce Direct Endothelial Dysfunction In Vivo
Jiang, B; Hebert, VY; Zavecz, JH; Dugas, TR
JAIDS Journal of Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndromes, 42(4): 391-395.
10.1097/01.qai.0000228790.40235.0c
PDF (106) | CrossRef
JAIDS Journal of Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndromes
HIV and Metabolic Syndrome: A Comparison With the General Population
Bonfanti, P; Giannattasio, C; Ricci, E; Facchetti, R; Rosella, E; Franzetti, M; Cordier, L; Pusterla, L; Bombelli, M; Sega, R; Quirino, T; Mancia, G
JAIDS Journal of Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndromes, 45(4): 426-431.
10.1097/QAI.0b013e318074ef83
PDF (200) | CrossRef
JAIDS Journal of Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndromes
Changes in Causes of Death Among Adults Infected by HIV Between 2000 and 2005: The “Mortalité 2000 and 2005” Surveys (ANRS EN19 and Mortavic)
Lewden, C; May, T; Rosenthal, E; Burty, C; Bonnet, F; Costagliola, D; Jougla, E; Semaille, C; Morlat, P; Salmon, D; Cacoub, P; Chêne, G; on behalf of the ANRS EN19 Mortalité Study Group and Mortavic1,
JAIDS Journal of Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndromes, 48(5): 590-598.
10.1097/QAI.0b013e31817efb54
PDF (502) | CrossRef
JAIDS Journal of Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndromes
Highly Active Antiretroviral Therapy Attenuates Re-Endothelialization and Alters Neointima Formation in the Rat Carotid Artery After Balloon Injury
Kappert, K; Leppänen, O; Paulsson, J; Furuhashi, M; Carlsson, M; Heldin, C; Fätkenheuer, G; Rosenkranz, S; Östman, A
JAIDS Journal of Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndromes, 43(4): 383-392.
10.1097/01.qai.0000232610.93867.2f
PDF (991) | CrossRef
Journal of Hypertension
Hypertension in an urban HIV-positive population compared with the general population: influence of combination antiretroviral therapy
Baekken, M; Os, I; Sandvik, L; Oektedalen, O
Journal of Hypertension, 26(11): 2126-2133.
10.1097/HJH.0b013e32830ef5fb
PDF (162) | CrossRef
Journal of Investigative Medicine
Improvement in Insulin Sensitivity and Dyslipidemia in Protease Inhibitor-Treated Adult Male Patients After Switch to Atazanavir/Ritonavir
Busti, AJ; Bedimo, R; Margolis, DM; Hardin, DS
Journal of Investigative Medicine, 56(2): 539-544.
10.231/JIM.0b013e3181641b26
PDF (163) | CrossRef
Journal of Investigative Medicine
The Roles of HIV-1 Proteins and Antiretroviral Drug Therapy in HIV-1-Associated Endothelial Dysfunction
Kline, ER; Sutliff, RL
Journal of Investigative Medicine, 56(5): 752-769.
10.1097/JIM.0b013e3181788d15
PDF (214) | CrossRef
Menopause
HIV, reproductive aging, and health implications in women: a literature review
Conde, DM; Silva, ET; Amaral, WN; Finotti, MF; Ferreira, RG; Costa-Paiva, L; Pinto-Neto, AM
Menopause, 16(1): 199-213.
10.1097/gme.0b013e318177352c
PDF (290) | CrossRef
The Pediatric Infectious Disease Journal
Effect of Highly Active Antiretroviral Therapy on Cardiovascular Involvement in Children With Human Immunodeficiency Virus Infection
Plebani, A; Esposito, S; Pinzani, R; Fesslova, V; Bojanin, J; Salice, P; Rossi, M; Principi, N
The Pediatric Infectious Disease Journal, 23(6): 559-563.

PDF (341)
Back to Top | Article Outline
Keywords:

antiretroviral therapy; cardiovascular disease; adverse effects; cohort study; hyperlipidaemia; prevalence; risk factors

© 2003 Lippincott Williams & Wilkins, Inc.

Login

Search for Similar Articles
You may search for similar articles that contain these same keywords or you may modify the keyword list to augment your search.