Skip Navigation LinksHome > February 14, 2003 - Volume 17 - Issue 3 > Breastmilk RNA viral load in HIV-infected South African wome...
AIDS:
Epidemiology & Social

Breastmilk RNA viral load in HIV-infected South African women: effects of subclinical mastitis and infant feeding

Willumsen, Juana Fa; Filteau, Suzanne Ma; Coutsoudis, Annac; Newell, Marie-Louiseb; Rollins, Nigel Cc; Coovadia, Hoosen Mc; Tomkins, Andrew Ma

Free Access
Article Outline
Collapse Box

Author Information

From the aCentre for International Child Health and the bCentre for Paediatric Epidemiology and Biostatistics, Institute of Child Health, University College London, UK and the cDepartment of Paediatrics and Child Health, University of Natal Medical School, Durban.

Requests for reprints to: Dr J. Willumsen, Centre for International Child Health, Institute of Child Health, 30 Guilford Street, London WC1N 1EH, UK.

Received: 21 February 2002; revised: 25 June 2002; accepted: 22 October 2002.

Collapse Box

Abstract

Objective: To investigate determinants of breastmilk RNA viral load among HIV-infected South African women, with particular attention to infant feeding mode and subclinical mastitis.

Design: Observational, longitudinal study.

Methods: Information on current infant feeding practice and a spot milk sample from each breast were obtained from 145 HIV-infected lactating women at 1, 6 and 14 weeks postpartum. The sodium/potassium (Na+/K+) ratio in milk was taken as an indicator of subclinical mastitis. The association between milk RNA viral load and maternal and infant characteristics was investigated using uni- and multivariate models.

Results: Milk viral load was below the limit of detection of the HIV RNA assay (< 200 copies/ml) in 63/185 (34.1%), 73/193 (37.8%) and 68/160 (42.5%) of samples at 1, 6 and 14 weeks, respectively. Multivariate models predicted between 13 and 26% of variability in milk viral load in the first 14 weeks. Low blood CD4 cell count (< 200 × 106 cells/l) during pregnancy and raised milk Na+/K+ ratio were significantly associated with raised milk RNA viral load at all times, but there were no consistent associations between infant feeding mode and RNA viral load in milk. There was a non-significant trend for the six infants known to be infected postnatally, compared with the 88 infants who remained uninfected, to have been exposed to breastmilk of higher viral load at each time point.

Conclusions: Breast milk HIV RNA viral load in the first 14 weeks of life varied; high levels were associated with subclinical mastitis and severe maternal immunosuppression. Multivariate models had limited predictive value for milk RNA viral load, illustrating the multiple contributors to viral load.

Back to Top | Article Outline

Introduction

Breastfeeding increases the risk of postnatal mother-to-child HIV transmission [1]. However, results from a recent study in Durban suggest that infants who are exclusively breastfed have a lower risk of HIV infection than infants mixed-fed with breastmilk plus other foods or liquids [2]. It remains unclear how exclusive breastfeeding would reduce the risk of transmission but both maternal and infant health factors could be important. Previous work in the same setting investigated whether mixed feeding, relative to exclusive breastfeeding, increased infant intestinal permeability [3,4] or immune system activation, both of which could potentially increase postnatal HIV infection of breastfed infants [5]. However, these infant-related mechanisms did not explain the protective effect of exclusive breastfeeding compared with mixed feeding [6].

The present study considers maternal factors, in particular subclinical mastitis, which is defined as a raised sodium/potassium (Na+/K+) ratio in breastmilk in the absence of symptoms of clinical mastitis [7–9]. Subclinical, like clinical, mastitis can result from several causes, such as a local mammary inflammation in response to either mechanical or infectious insult [10]; milk stasis and mammary gland involution as a result of reduced breastmilk production, as seen during weaning [11]; micronutrient deficiencies [8,12]; or systemic infection [13]. During subclinical mastitis, disruption of mammary epithelial tight junctions may allow plasma constituents such as Na+ to leak into the alveolus [10,14], and inflammatory chemokine production [7,8,13] can increase influx of leukocytes. These conditions could result in an increase in breastmilk HIV viral load; consequently, subclinical mastitis has been tentatively implicated in the increased risk of postnatal HIV transmission [9]. However, since both mastitis and detectable milk virus are often transient and unilateral [10,15], breastmilk from a single time point and a single breast will not provide a clear picture of the role of subclinical mastitis in postnatal HIV transmission. The associations between subclinical mastitis, breastmilk RNA viral load and infant feeding practices were investigated at three time points in a longitudinal study of breastfeeding HIV-infected women.

Back to Top | Article Outline

Methods

The field work for the study was conducted from November 1997 to December 1999. Initially women were recruited from an ongoing randomized placebo-controlled study of vitamin A supplementation during pregnancy based at McCord's Hospital, Durban [16], but after July 1998 women were recruited for this study only from the City Health Department Primary Health Care Clinic at Cato Manor, Durban. Women who, after counselling on HIV and infant feeding in accordance with UNAIDS guidelines [17], chose to breastfeed their infant were invited to participate in the study after giving written informed consent. They were supported throughout pregnancy and informed about the potential benefits of exclusive breastfeeding and how best to achieve this. Maternal blood CD4 and CD8 cell counts were measured by FACScan (Becton Dickinson, San Jose, California, USA), and socioeconomic data was collected at recruitment into the study during the third trimester of pregnancy. Gestational age at birth was determined from last menstrual period.

Women were asked to return with their infants to the study clinic at 1, 6 and 14 weeks postpartum. Women were asked about infant feeding practices and infant morbidity using standardized questionnaires. Infants were classified as exclusively breastfed if the mother reported giving only breastmilk and no other liquids or foods, apart from prescription medicines [18]. All other breastfed infants were classified as mixed-fed. Infants were weighed to the nearest 10 g. Women were asked to provide a breastmilk sample of approximately 7 ml from each breast by hand expression into a sterile polypropylene screw-top jar. In some cases, sample size was decreased since women could not always provide sufficient sample from both breasts.

Breastmilk samples were stored in a cool place and processed within 2 h of collection. Samples of whole milk were stored at −80°C until analysed for Na+/K+ by flame photometry and for the inflammatory chemokine interleukin-8 by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay [7]. Severe subclinical mastitis was defined as an Na+/K+ ratio > 1.0 [7,8,19]. HIV RNA was measured in the cell-free supernatant produced by centrifuging 3 ml of whole milk at 1000 × g for 10 min and discarding the fat layer and cell pellet. The cell free supernatant was stored at −80°C until analysed for HIV RNA by the polymerase chain reaction (PCR) using Amplicor HIV-1 Monitor 1.5 (Roche Diagnostic Systems, Branchburg, New Jersey, USA), which has been shown to be sensitive for HIV clades present in KwaZulu-Natal (personal communication, Dr Dennis York, University of Natal Medical School, 1999). All samples were stored and analysed in batches during the period of fieldwork and within 2 months of completion of the study.

Information on infant HIV status was available from the initial vitamin A supplementation study within which this work was nested [2,16] for 131/145 infants and was determined by RNA PCR (Roche Molecular Systems, Branchburg, New Jersey, USA).

Data were entered and double-checked using EpiInfo version 6 and statistical analyses were carried out using SPSS 6.1.3 for Windows (SPSS Inc., Chicago, Illinois, USA). Variables that were not normally distributed were natural log (Na+/K+ ratio and interleukin-8) or log base 10 (milk viral load) transformed and geometric means and 95% confidence intervals (CI) reported. Gestational age (< 37 or ≥ 37 weeks) and CD4 cell count (< 200, 200–500, and >500 × 106 cells/l) were categorized. Univariate and multivariate analyses were carried out by linear regression for continuous dependent variables and logistic regression for categorical dependent variables to investigate factors associated with breastmilk RNA viral load levels. The interaction between breastmilk Na+/K+ ratio and feeding mode was also investigated since poor breastfeeding practices, which could result in milk stasis, are known to increase milk Na+/K+ ratio [11]. Because of intraindividual differences in breastmilk Na+/K+ and viral load observed in many cases, data from both breasts of each woman at each time were included in all analyses except those for infant HIV status, for which the mother–infant pair was the unit of analysis.

Back to Top | Article Outline

Results

A total of 145 lactating HIV-infected women and their infants were recruited into the study. Figure 1 shows the number of women sampled at each time point and explains the flow of women in and out of the study. Cessation of breastfeeding before 14 weeks was the main reason for leaving the study (29 mother–infant pairs) but 15 pairs were lost to follow-up and three infants died. Subject characteristics are shown in Table 1. The majority of women were unemployed, living in informal housing and had no electricity or running water.

Fig. 1
Fig. 1
Image Tools
Table 1
Table 1
Image Tools

Severe subclinical mastitis (Na+/K+ >1.0) was present in both breasts in 13/126 (10.3%) of women at 1 week, 4/116 (3.4%) of women at 6 weeks, and 2/83 (2.4%) of women at 14 weeks. In addition, severe subclinical mastitis in one breast only was present in 30/126 (23.8%) of women at 1 week, 22/116 (19.0%) of women at 6 weeks, and 19/83 (22.9%) of women at 14 weeks. The prevalence of bilateral subclinical mastitis decreased over time but unilateral did not.

Milk viral load was below the limit of detection of the HIV RNA PCR assay (< 200 copies/ml) in 63/185 (34.1%), 73/193 (37.8%) and 68/160 (42.5%) of samples at 1, 6 and 14 weeks, respectively [15]. The mean RNA viral loads for only those samples with detectable virus were 2630 copies/ml (95% CI, 1895–3650; n = 122) at 1 week, 2831 copies/ml (95% CI, 2029–3948; n = 120) at 6 weeks and 2809 copies/ml (95% CI, 1995–3955; n = 92) at 14 weeks. In further analyses, breastmilk samples with undetectable RNA viral load were assigned the detection cutoff value of 200 copies/ml. Geometric mean HIV RNA viral load was 1094 copies/ml (95% CI, 829–1443; n = 185) at 1 week, 1039 copies/ml (95% CI, 790–1366; n = 193) at 6 weeks and 914 copies/ml (95% CI, 690–1210; n = 160) at 14 weeks.

Results of univariate analyses are shown in Table 2. At all times, there was a significant positive association between the natural log of milk Na+/K+ ratio and the log milk RNA viral load and between the interleukin-8 concentration and the log milk RNA viral load (P < 0.001). Breastmilk RNA viral load was higher at 1 week (P = 0.003) and 6 weeks (P = 0.004) in women who were more immunosuppressed, as indicated by CD4 cell count < 200 × 106 cells/l. Feeding mode was significantly (P = 0.017) associated with log milk RNA viral load only at 14 weeks, when women exclusively breastfeeding had higher log milk RNA viral load than those mixed-feeding. The log breastmilk RNA viral load was higher for girls than for boys at 1 week (P = 0.023) and 14 weeks (P = 0.031),. At 1 week, women who were delivered by caesarean section had a lower milk viral load than those who were delivered vaginally (P = 0.029). At 14 weeks, a larger percentage infant weight gain since the previous visit was associated with a lower log breastmilk RNA viral load (P = 0.022).

Table 2
Table 2
Image Tools

The results of multivariate analyses are shown in Table 3, with variables selected because they were of interest a priori or because they were significantly related to milk RNA viral load in univariate analyses. Interleukin-8 concentration was not included in multivariate analyses because of its high degree of colinearity with Na+/K+ ratio [correlation coefficients positive and statistically significant (P < 0.001) at all times]. The week 1 association of viral load with mode of delivery was considered to be a consequence of confounding with unmeasured factors and, therefore, was not included. Multivariate models predicted 25.9% of the variation in breastmilk log viral load at 1 week, 13.4% at 6 weeks, and 20.7% at 14 weeks. The natural log Na+/K+ ratio was significantly associated with log RNA viral load at all three times (1 week, P = 0.022; 6 weeks, P = 0.002; 14 weeks, P = 0.007). Feeding mode was not significantly associated with log milk RNA viral load at 1 week (P = 0.123) and 6 weeks (P = 0.978), but at 14 weeks exclusive breastfeeding was significantly associated with a 0.45 log copies/ml increase in HIV RNA load compared with mixed feeding (P = 0.014). A CD4 cell count of < 200 × 106 cells/l during pregnancy was associated with an increased log milk RNA viral load at all three times (1 week, P = 0.014; 6 weeks, P = 0.010; 14 weeks, P = 0.032) compared with women having a CD4 cell count >500 × 106 cells/l. Greater percentage weight gain since the previous visit was associated with a decreased log RNA viral load (B = −0.46, P = 0.047 at 6 weeks; B = −0.865, P = 0.009 at 14 weeks).

Table 3
Table 3
Image Tools

Mode of feeding may be related to the effect of Na+/K+ ratio, as a measure of subclinical mastitis, on log RNA viral load in milk. The interaction between mode of feeding and the natural log Na+/K+ ratio was investigated at each time and found to be statistically significant only at 1 week (P < 0.001), with a coefficient for the natural log Na+/K+ ratio of 2.05 (95% CI, 1.30–2.79) for mixed feeders and −1.09 (95% CI, −1.65 to −0.53) for exclusive breastfeeders.

This study was not designed to investigate the relationship between breastmilk Na+/K+ or RNA viral load and postnatal transmission of HIV to the infant. However, as HIV status was known for 131 infants, its association with breastmilk components and maternal CD4 cell count was explored. At the last sample available, 89 infants were HIV negative but for one of these no milk data were available; 25 infants were positive by the 6 week sample (i.e., first positive at birth, 1 or 6 weeks); six were known to be negative in the 6 week sample, and positive thereafter; and 11 infants were positive in the only sample available, usually that taken at 6 or 9 months. Therefore, 25 infants were assumed to have been infected in utero or perinatally; six infants were assumed to be infected postnatally through breastfeeding; and 11 were infected at an unknown time. Table 4 shows the mean for the higher value of viral load or Na+/K+ of each woman's breasts at each time; this analysis was chosen to investigate whether the maximum value an infant is exposed to at any time predicts risk of postnatal HIV transmission. At each time, maximum RNA viral load in milk for infants infected postnatally tended to be higher than in milk for infants who remained uninfected, but this never reached statistical significance. Infants infected in utero or perinatally were exposed to milk with the highest viral load at all times, especially week 1. The Na+/K+ ratio was significantly higher, compared with the uninfected group, at 14 weeks in the milk of women whose infants were infected postnatally (P = 0.021), and at 6 weeks in milk of women whose infants were infected before 6 weeks (P < 0.001) or at an unknown time (P = 0.009). Only at 6 weeks was there a significant difference (chi-square, P = 0.004) in proportion of women with severe subclinical mastitis (Na+/K+ >1.0): percentage unilateral and bilateral severe subclinical mastitis, respectively, was 13 and 1% in women with uninfected infants, 21 and 16% in women with infants infected before 6 weeks, 50 and 0% in women with infants infected after 6 weeks, and 44 and 0% in women with infants infected at an unknown time. There was a non-significant trend (ANOVA P = 0.062) for CD4 cell count during pregnancy to be lowest in the group infected in utero or perinatally.

Table 4
Table 4
Image Tools
Back to Top | Article Outline

Discussion

High HIV DNA and RNA viral loads in plasma [20,21] and milk [9,22] are risk factors for mother-to-child transmission and may, in part, explain the increased risk of transmission from women with advanced stages of HIV infection, as indicated by low blood CD4 cell count [16,23], and with recent primary HIV infection [24]. The present study investigated determinants of milk RNA viral load in an effort to understand the lower rate of vertical transmission with exclusive breastfeeding [2]. The association between RNA viral load and subclinical mastitis was investigated since the latter could theoretically result in higher free and cell-associated virus in milk.

RNA was detectable in only about 60% of samples at each time and the multivariate models were not strong predictors of milk RNA viral load at any point in the first 14 weeks postpartum. In other work from this cohort, the ability to predict a woman's milk viral load was complicated by the great variability in viral load between breasts and across time [15], suggesting undefined local control mechanisms. Nevertheless, subclinical mastitis was consistently associated with higher viral load after allowing for maternal immunosuppression, feeding mode and weight gain. Advanced immunosuppression (CD4 cell count < 200 × 106 cells/l) was associated with about 0.5 log copies/ml higher breastmilk RNA viral load at each time compared with women with CD4 cell count > 500 × 106 cells/l. It is possible that the correlation between milk Na+ and RNA viral load among HIV-infected women in the present study and in Malawi [9] was secondary to systemic infections [13], which may have increased mammary permeability and plasma viral load. Both of these could, in turn, contribute to increased milk viral load. However, systemic infection tends to induce bilateral subclinical mastitis [13], whereas after 1 week, most subclinical mastitis was unilateral, possibly because of poor lactation practice, which induces milk stasis and leads to increased permeability.

We hypothesized that exclusive breastfeeding would be associated with lower RNA viral load and decreased subclinical mastitis. In our analysis, feeding mode was assessed dichotomously as exclusive breastfeeding or not, with no detailed information about breastfeeding practices; however, given the support for exclusive breastfeeding in this setting, very few women reported mixed feeding and it is likely that they were not actually adding much to the breastmilk. There was no interaction between feeding mode and the effect of Na+/K+ ratio on RNA viral load at 6 and 14 weeks, although it is important to note that there were few women giving mixed feeds. The significant interaction at 1 week is hard to interpret as it relates to a time when lactation is being established and biochemical changes are rapid [25]. It is possible that exclusive breastfeeding at this time was able to protect against the increased viral load associated with subclinical mastitis, but, equally, some women may not have been able to breastfeed exclusively for other health reasons, which may have induced subclinical mastitis. This is another reason to suspect an interaction between maternal health and feeding practice, leading to increased risk of HIV transmssion.

The sample size of this study was not sufficiently large to determine the influence of subclinical mastitis and breastmilk RNA viral load on postpartum transmission of HIV since only six infants were known to have become HIV positive by the PCR assay later than 6 weeks. Nevertheless, there was a trend for higher viral load at all times in the mothers of the postnatally infected group compared with the uninfected group and a significantly higher Na+/K+ ratio in milk at 14 weeks. Women whose infants became HIV positive by 6 weeks tended to have the highest milk viral load. These infants may have acquired infection through breastmilk early in life, but available techniques cannot distinguish this from delivery-acquired infection. Furthermore, the high viral load likely indicates more advanced maternal disease, as suggested by the low CD4 cell count in this group, and thus overall high risk of transmission.

The finding in both uni- and multivariate analyses that mothers of infants who gained more weight by 6 or 14 weeks had lower breastmilk viral load at that time may be caused by the infant's efficient emptying of the breast, which would avoid milk stasis, subclinical mastitis and other conditions favouring the shedding of HIV into breastmilk. Such increased growth and demand for breastmilk may explain the lower viral load in milk of women feeding boys than girls in univariate analyses, although this effect was no longer significant in multivariate analyses.

Breastfeeding remains a cornerstone for child health in developing countries. For the vast majority of women infected with HIV, guaranteed access to nutritionally complete breastmilk substitutes and hygienic conditions in which to prepare feeds is unachievable. Therefore, low-cost methods are urgently needed to make breastfeeding as safe as possible for these women and infants. Given the great variability of milk viral load over time, such that its measurement at any given time is not reliably indicative of the extent of an infant's exposure to virus, any intervention to reduce postnatal transmission has to reduce viral load consistently. Such interventions could include, in addition to antiretroviral drugs, strategies to reduce subclinical mastitis, although it is not yet known to what extent the association between subclinical mastitis and milk viral load is causal. Furthermore, in the present study, only about 60% of women at each time had detectable RNA in milk and only 40% of these women had mild or severe subclinical mastitis; the attributable fraction of subclinical mastitis to detectable viral load is less than 5%. Nevertheless, strategies that might decrease subclinical mastitis – prevention or rapid treatment of infections, extra lactation counselling or micronutrient supplementation – merit investigation since they are relatively low cost and involve strengthening maternal care during pregnancy, at delivery and postpartum; they can, therefore, be directed towards improving overall health of all women without the need for HIV testing.

Back to Top | Article Outline

Acknowledgements

The authors gratefully acknowledge the assistance of the teams providing counselling, support and clinical care to the mothers involved during data collection; the superintendent and staff of McCord's Hospital and the Durban City Health Department and the staff of Cato Manor clinic for permission to work at these sites; laboratory staff, including Frances Taylor, Subitha Dwarika and Dennis York for assistance with analyses and Linsay Gray for help with statistical analyses.

Sponsorship: We are grateful for funding for the study from the UK Department for International Development, UNICEF South Africa, and Virgin Airways through the Great Ormond Street Hospital Trustees. This work was undertaken in collaboration with Great Ormond Street Hospital for Children NHS Trust which receives a proportion of its funding from the NHS Executive.

Back to Top | Article Outline

References

1.Nduati R, John G, Mbori-Ngacha D, Richardson B, Overbaugh J, Mwatha A, et al. Effect of breastfeeding and formula feeding on transmission of HIV-1: a randomized clinical trial. JAMA 2000, 283:1167–1174.

2.Coutsoudis A, Pillay K, Kuhn L, Spooner E, Tsai WY, Coovadia HM. Method of feeding and transmission of HIV-1 from mothers to children by 15 months of age: prospective cohort study from Durban, South Africa. AIDS 2001, 15:379–387.

3.Catassi C, Bonucci A, Coppa GV, Carlucci A, Giorgi PL. Intestinal permeability changes during the first month: effect of natural versus artificial feeding. J Pediatr Gastroenterol Nutr 1995, 21:383–386.

4.Goto K, Chew F, Torun B, Peerson JM, Brown KH. Epidemiology of altered intestinal permeability to lactulose and mannitol in Guatemalan infants. J Pediatr Gastroenterol Nutr 1999, 28: 282–290.

5.Granelli-Piperno A, Pope M, Inaba K, Steinman RM. Coexpression of NF-κB/Rel and Sp1 transcription factors in human immunodeficiency virus 1-induced, dendritic cell-T-cell syncytia. Proc Natl Acad Sci USA 1995, 92:10944–10948.

6.Rollins NC, Filteau SM, Coutsoudis A, Tomkins AM. Feeding mode, intestinal permeability and neopterin excretion: a longitudinal study in infants of HIV-infected South African women. J AIDS 2001, 28:132–139.

7.Filteau SM, Rice AL, Ball JJ, Chakraborty J, Stollzfus R, de Francisco A, et al. Breast milk immune factors in Bangladeshi women supplemented postpartum with retinol or β-carotene. Am J Clin Nutr 1999, 69:953–958.

8.Filteau SM, Leitz G, Mulokozi G, Bilotta S, Henry CJK, Tomkins AM. Milk cytokines and subclinical breast inflammation in Tanzanian women: effects of dietary red palm oil and sunflower oil supplementation. Immunology 1999, 97:595–600.

9.Semba RD, Kumwenda N, Hoover DR, Taha TE, Quinn TC, Mtimaralye L, et al. Human immunodeficiency virus load in breastmilk, mastitis, and mother-to-child transmission of human immunodeficiency virus type 1. J Infect Dis 1999, 180:93–98.

10.Prentice A, Prentice AM, Lamb WH. Mastitis in rural Gambian mothers and the protection of the breast by milk antimicrobial factors. Trans Roy Soc Trop Med Hyg 1985, 79:90–95.

11.Neville MC, Allen JC, Archer PC, Casey CE, Seacat J, Kelly RP, et al. Studies in human lactation: milk volume and nutrient composition during weaning and lactogenesis. Am J Clin Nutr 1991, 54:81–92.

12.Hogan JS, Weiss WP, Smith KL. Role of vitamin E and selenium in host defence against mastitis. J Dairy Sci 1993, 76: 2795–2803.

12.Georgeson JC, Ahmed Y, Filteau SM, Tomkins AM. Longitudinal changes in milk sodium/potassium ratio in women with serious infection in the postpartum period. Tenth International Conference of the International Society for Research on Human Milk and Lactation. Tucson, 2000 [abstract P36].

14.Peaker M. Recent advances in the study of monovalent ion movements across the mammary epithelium: relation to onset of lactation. J Dairy Sci 1974, 58:1042–1047.

15.Willumsen JF, Newell ML, Filteau SM, Coutsoudis A, Dwarika S, York D, et al. Variation in breastmilk HIV-1 viral load in left and right breasts during the first 3 months of lactation, AIDS 2001, 15:1896–1898.

16.Coutsoudis A, Pillay K, Spooner E, Kuhn L, Coovadia H. Randomised trial testing effect of vitamin A supplementation on pregnancy outcomes and early mother-to-child HIV-1 transmission in Durban, South Africa. AIDS 1999, 13:1517–1524.

17.UNICEF/WHO/UNAIDS. HIV and Infant Feeding: A Guide for Health Care Managers and Supervisors. Geneva: World Health Organization; 1998.

18.World Health Organization. Breast-feeding: the Technical Basis and Recommendations for Action. Geneva: World Health Organization; 1993.

19.Willumsen JF, Filteau SM, Coutsoudis A, Uebel KE, Newell ML, Tomkins AM. Subclinical mastitis as a risk factor for mother–infant HIV transmission. In Short and Long Term Effects of Breast Feeding on Child Health, Edited by Koletzko B, Michaelsen KF, Hernell O. London: Kluwer Academic/Plenum; 2000:211–223.

20.John GC, Nduati RW, Mbori-Ngacha DA, Richardson BA, Panteleef D, Mwatha A, et al. Correlates of mother-to-child human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) transmission: association with maternal plasma HIV-1 RNA load, genital HIV-1 DNA shedding, and breast infections. J Infect Dis 2001, 183:206–212.

21.Leroy V, Montcho C, Manigart O, van de Perre P, Dabis F, Msellati P, et al. Maternal plasma viral load, zidovudine and mother-to-child transmission of HIV-1 in Africa: DITRAME ANRS 049a trial. AIDS 2001, 15:517– 522.

22.van de Perre P, Simonon A, Hitimana DG, Dabis F, Msellati P, Mukamabano B, et al. Infective and anti-infective properties of breastmilk from HIV-1-infected women. Lancet 1993, 341: 914–918.

23.Embree JE, Njenga S, Datta P, Nagelkerke NJ, Ndinya-Achola JD, Mohammed Z, et al. Risk factors for postnatal mother-child transmission of HIV-1. AIDS 2000, 14:2535–2541.

24.Dunn DT, Newell ML, Ades AE, Peckham CS. Risk of human immunodeficiency virus type 1 transmission through breastfeeding. Lancet 1992, 340:585–588.

25.Lawrence R. Breastfeeding: a Guide for the Medical Profession, 4th edn. St Louis, MO: Mosby; 1994.

Cited By:

This article has been cited 48 time(s).

Science Translational Medicine
HIV-1 Concentrations in Human Breast Milk Before and After Weaning
Kuhn, L; Kim, HY; Walter, J; Thea, DM; Sinkala, M; Mwiya, M; Kankasa, C; Decker, D; Aldrovandi, GM
Science Translational Medicine, 5(): -.
ARTN 181ra51
CrossRef
Acta Paediatrica
Low-cost intervention to decrease mastitis among lactating women
Filteau, S
Acta Paediatrica, 93(9): 1156-1158.
10.1080/08035250410017059
CrossRef
Journal of Tropical Pediatrics
Effect of antibiotic treatment of subclinical mastitis on human immunodeficiency virus type 1 RNA in human milk
Nussenblatt, V; Kumwenda, N; Lema, V; Quinn, T; Neville, MC; Broadhead, R; Taha, TE; Semba, RD
Journal of Tropical Pediatrics, 52(5): 311-315.
10.1093/tropej/fml011
CrossRef
Bmc Public Health
A qualitative investigation into knowledge, beliefs, and practices surrounding mastitis in sub-Saharan Africa: what implications for vertical transmission of HIV?
De Allegri, M; Sarker, M; Hofmann, J; Sanon, M; Bohler, T
Bmc Public Health, 7(): -.
ARTN 22
CrossRef
Reviews in Medical Virology
Biological mechanisms of vertical human immunodeficiency virus (HIV-1) transmission
Lehman, DA; Farquhar, C
Reviews in Medical Virology, 17(6): 381-403.
10.1002/rmv.543
CrossRef
Jognn-Journal of Obstetric Gynecologic and Neonatal Nursing
An Update on HIV and Infant Feeding Issues in Developed and Developing Countries
Jackson, DJ; Goga, AE; Doherty, T; Chopra, M
Jognn-Journal of Obstetric Gynecologic and Neonatal Nursing, 38(2): 219-229.
10.1111/j.1552-6909.2009.01014.x
CrossRef
Protecting Infants Through Human Milk
Human immunodeficiency virus transmission during breastfeeding - Knowledge, gaps, and challenges for the future
Piwoz, EG; Ross, J; Humphrey, J
Protecting Infants Through Human Milk, 554(): 195-210.

AIDS
Post-weaning breast milk HIV-1 viral load, blood prolactin levels and breast milk volume
Thea, DM; Aldrovandi, G; Kankasa, C; Kasonde, P; Decker, WD; Semrau, K; Sinkala, M; Kuhn, L
AIDS, 20(): 1539-1547.

Transactions of the Royal Society of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene
Reducing childhood mortality in poor countries - Infant-feeding strategies to prevent post-natal HIV transmission
Filteau, S
Transactions of the Royal Society of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene, 97(1): 25-29.

Paediatric and Perinatal Epidemiology
Risk factors for subclinical mastitis among HIV-infected and uninfected women in Lusaka, Zambia
Kasonka, L; Makasa, M; Marshall, T; Chisenga, M; Sinkala, M; Chintu, C; Kaseba, C; Kasolo, F; Gitau, R; Tomkins, A; Murray, S; Filteau, S
Paediatric and Perinatal Epidemiology, 20(5): 379-391.

Breastfeeding Medicine
Subclinical Mastitis May Not Reduce Breastmilk Intake During Established Lactation
Aryeetey, RNO; Marquis, GS; Brakohiapa, L; Timms, L; Lartey, A
Breastfeeding Medicine, 4(3): 161-166.
10.1089/bfm.2008.0131
CrossRef
Clinical Infectious Diseases
Breast health problems are rare in both HIV-infected and HIV-uninfected women who receive Counseling and support for breast-feeding in South Africa
Bland, RM; Becquet, R; Rollins, NC; Coutsoudis, A; Coovadia, HM; Newell, ML
Clinical Infectious Diseases, 45(): 1502-1510.
10.1086/523320
CrossRef
International Journal of Std & AIDS
Epidemiology and microbiology of subclinical mastitis among HIV-infected women in Malawi
Nussenblatt, V; Lema, V; Kumwenda, N; Broadhead, R; Neville, MC; Taha, TE; Semba, RD
International Journal of Std & AIDS, 16(3): 227-232.

Best Practice & Research in Clinical Obstetrics & Gynaecology
Breastfeeding and HIV
Coutsoudis, A
Best Practice & Research in Clinical Obstetrics & Gynaecology, 19(2): 185-196.
10.1016/j.bpobgyn.2004.10.006
CrossRef
Hiv Medicine
British HIV Association and Children's HIV Association guidelines for the management of HIV infection in pregnant women 2008
de Ruiter, A; Mercey, D; Anderson, J; Chakraborty, R; Clayden, P; Foster, G; Gilling-Smith, C; Hawkins, D; Low-Beer, N; Lyall, H; O'Shea, S; Penn, Z; Short, J; Smith, R; Sonecha, S; Tookey, P; Wood, C; Taylor, G
Hiv Medicine, 9(7): 452-502.
10.1111/j.1468-1293.2008.00619.x
CrossRef
Seminars in Fetal & Neonatal Medicine
Protection, promotion and support of breastfeeding in low-income countries
Cattaneo, A; Quintero-Romero, S
Seminars in Fetal & Neonatal Medicine, 11(1): 48-53.
10.1016/j.siny.2005.10.007
CrossRef
Food Australia
Use of the Australian Milk Biscuit to combat infant malnutrition and mother-to-child transmission of HIV
Nasra, R
Food Australia, 58(): 469.

Acta Paediatrica
Induction of anti-secretory factor in human milk may prevent mastitis
Svensson, K; Lange, S; Lonnroth, I; Widstrom, AM; Hanson, LA
Acta Paediatrica, 93(9): 1228-1231.
10.1080/08035250410032890
CrossRef
Journal of Human Lactation
Alternative modified infant-feeding practices to prevent postnatal transmission of human immunodeficiency virus type 1 through breast milk: Past, present, and future
Hartmann, SU; Berlin, CM; Howett, MK
Journal of Human Lactation, 22(1): 75-88.
10.1177/0890334405280650
CrossRef
Virology
Diversity of HIV-1 RNA and DNA in breast milk from HIV-1-infected mothers
Becquart, P; Courgnaud, V; Willumsen, J; Van de Perre, P
Virology, 363(2): 256-260.
10.1016/j.virol.2007.02.003
CrossRef
Journal of Human Lactation
Subdinical mastitis is common among Ghanaian women lactating 3 to 4 months postpartum
Aryeetey, RNO; Marquis, GS; Timms, L; Lartey, A; Brakohiapa, L
Journal of Human Lactation, 24(3): 263-267.
10.1177/0890334408316077
CrossRef
Journal of Infectious Diseases
Laboratory indicators of mastitis are not associated with elevated HIV-1 DNA loads or predictive of HIV-1 RNA loads in breast milk
Gantt, S; Shetty, AK; Seidel, KD; Matasa, K; Musingwini, G; Woelk, G; Zijenah, LS; Katzenstein, DA; Frenkel, LM
Journal of Infectious Diseases, 196(4): 570-576.
10.1086/519843
CrossRef
Tropical Medicine & International Health
Preserving breastfeeding practice through the HIV pandemic
Coovadia, HM; Bland, RM
Tropical Medicine & International Health, 12(9): 1116-1133.
10.1111/j.1365-3156.2007.01895.x
CrossRef
Journal of Nutrition
Infant feeding dilemmas created by HIV: South African experiences
Coutsoudis, A
Journal of Nutrition, 135(4): 956-959.

Nutrition Reviews
Vitamin A, mastitis, and mother-to-child transmission of HIV-1 through breast-feeding: Current information and gaps in knowledge
Dorosko, SA
Nutrition Reviews, 63(): 332-346.
10.1301/nr.2005.oct.332.346
CrossRef
American Journal of Obstetrics and Gynecology
Prevention of human immunodeficiency virus-1 transmission to the infant through breastfeeding: new developments
Kourtis, AP; Jamieson, DJ; de Vincenzi, I; Taylor, A; Thigpen, MC; Dao, H; Farley, T; Fowler, MG
American Journal of Obstetrics and Gynecology, 197(3): S113-S122.
10.1016/j.ajog.2007.03.003
CrossRef
Clinical Infectious Diseases
Associations between Breast Milk Viral Load, Mastitis, Exclusive Breast-Feeding, and Postnatal Transmission of HIV
Lunney, KM; Iliff, P; Mutasa, K; Ntozini, R; Magder, LS; Moulton, LH; Humphrey, JH
Clinical Infectious Diseases, 50(5): 762-769.
10.1086/650535
CrossRef
Sahara J-Journal of Social Aspects of Hiv-AIDS
Considering childbearing in the age of highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART): Views of HIV-positive couples
Ndlovu, V
Sahara J-Journal of Social Aspects of Hiv-AIDS, 6(2): 58-68.

Lancet Infectious Diseases
Breast milk and HIV-1: vector of transmission or vehicle of protection?
Kourtis, AP; Butera, S; Ibegbu, C; Belec, L; Duerr, A
Lancet Infectious Diseases, 3(): 786-793.

Lancet Infectious Diseases
Mother-to-child transmission of HIV-1: timing and implications for prevention
Kourtis, AP; Lee, FK; Abrams, EJ; Jamieson, DJ; Bulterys, M
Lancet Infectious Diseases, 6(): 726-732.

Breast-Feeding: Early Influences on Later Health
Exclusive Breast-Feeding and Hiv Infection
Kasonka, L; Filteau, S
Breast-Feeding: Early Influences on Later Health, 639(): 291-298.

Current Hiv Research
Mother-to-child transmission of HIV infection and its prevention
Thorne, C; Newell, ML
Current Hiv Research, 1(4): 447-462.

AIDS Research and Human Retroviruses
Breast milk alpha-defensins are associated with HIV type 1 RNA and CC chemokines in breast milk but not vertical HIV type 1 transmission
Bosire, R; John-Stewart, GC; Mabuka, JM; Wariua, G; Gichuhi, C; Wamalwa, D; Ruzinski, J; Goodman, R; Lohman, B; Mbori-Ngacha, DA; Overbaugh, J; Farquhar, C
AIDS Research and Human Retroviruses, 23(2): 198-203.
10.1089/aid.2006.0125
CrossRef
Journal of Infectious Diseases
Effect of perinatal zidovudine prophylaxis on the evolution of cell-free HIV-1 RNA in breast milk and on postnatal transmission
Manigart, O; Crepin, M; Leroy, V; Meda, N; Valea, D; Janoff, EN; Rouet, F; Dequae-Merchadoux, L; Dabis, F; Rouzioux, C; Van de Perre, P
Journal of Infectious Diseases, 190(8): 1422-1428.

Talanta
FIA-potentiometry in the sub-Nernstian response region for rapid and direct chloride assays in milk and in coconut water
da Silva, IS; Richter, EM; do Lago, CL; Gutz, IGR; Tanaka, AA; Angnes, L
Talanta, 67(3): 651-657.
10.1016/j.talanta.2005.03.010
CrossRef
AIDS Research and Human Retroviruses
Factors influencing breast milk HIV RNA viral load among Zambian women
Phiri, W; Kasonka, L; Collin, S; Makasa, M; Sinkala, M; Chintu, C; Kasolo, F; Kaseba, C; Tomkins, AM; Filteau, SM
AIDS Research and Human Retroviruses, 22(7): 607-614.

Vaccine
The influence of mastitis on antibody transfer to infants through breast milk
Filteau, S
Vaccine, 21(): 3377-3381.
10.1016/S0264-410X(03)00337-2
CrossRef
Current Hiv Research
CC and CXC chemokines in breastmilk are associated with mother-to-child HIV-1 transmission
Farquhar, C; Mbori-Ngacha, DA; Redman, MW; Bosire, RK; Lohman, BL; Piantadosi, AL; Goodman, RB; Ruzinski, JT; Emery, SR; Crudder, CH; Overbaugh, JM; John-Stewart, GC
Current Hiv Research, 3(4): 361-369.

Patient Education and Counseling
Investigating the decision-making needs of HIV-positive women in Africa using the Ottawa Decision-Support Framework: Knowledge gaps and opportunities for intervention
Doull, M; O'Connor, A; Jacobsen, MJ; Robinson, V; Cook, L; Nyamai-Kisia, C; Tugwell, P
Patient Education and Counseling, 63(3): 279-291.
10.1016/j.pec.2006.06.020
CrossRef
Current Hiv Research
The Role of Co-Infections in Mother-to-Child Transmission of HIV
King, CC; Ellington, SR; Kourtis, AP
Current Hiv Research, 11(1): 10-23.

American Journal of Clinical Nutrition
Exclusive breastfeeding reduces risk of mortality in infants up to 6 mo of age born to HIV-positive Tanzanian women
Natchu, UCM; Liu, E; Duggan, C; Msamanga, G; Peterson, K; Aboud, S; Spiegelman, D; Fawzi, WW
American Journal of Clinical Nutrition, 96(5): 1071-1078.
10.3945/ajcn.111.024356
CrossRef
Current Opinion in Obstetrics and Gynecology
HIV and pregnancy: is the outlook for mother and baby transformed?
Semprini, AE; Fiore, S
Current Opinion in Obstetrics and Gynecology, 16(6): 471-475.

PDF (86)
JAIDS Journal of Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndromes
Breast-feeding and Transmission of HIV-1
John-Stewart, G; Mbori-Ngacha, D; Ekpini, R; Janoff, EN; Nkengasong, J; Read, JS; Van de Perre, P; Newell, M; Ghent IAS Working Group on HIV in Women Children,
JAIDS Journal of Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndromes, 35(2): 196-202.

PDF (334)
JAIDS Journal of Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndromes
Triple Antiretroviral Prophylaxis Administered During Pregnancy and After Delivery Significantly Reduces Breast Milk Viral Load: A Study Within the Drug Resource Enhancement Against AIDS and Malnutrition Program
Palombi, L; Giuliano, M; Guidotti, G; Andreotti, M; Pirillo, MF; Villani, P; Liotta, G; Marazzi, MC; Mancini, MG; Cusato, M; Germano, P; Loureiro, S; Ceffa, S; Regazzi, M; Vella, S
JAIDS Journal of Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndromes, 44(3): 286-291.
10.1097/QAI.0b013e31802c5441
PDF (93) | CrossRef
JAIDS Journal of Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndromes
Temporal and Lateral Dynamics of HIV Shedding and Elevated Sodium in Breast Milk Among HIV-Positive Mothers During the First 4 Months of Breast-Feeding
Semrau, K; Ghosh, M; Kankasa, C; Sinkala, M; Kasonde, P; Mwiya, M; Thea, DM; Kuhn, L; Aldrovandi, GM
JAIDS Journal of Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndromes, 47(3): 320-328.
10.1097/QAI.0b013e31815e7436
PDF (278) | CrossRef
Current Opinion in Infectious Diseases
Prevention of mother-to-child transmission of HIV infection
Thorne, C; Newell, M
Current Opinion in Infectious Diseases, 17(3): 247-252.

PDF (96)
Current Opinion in Pediatrics
Breastfeeding and AIDS in the developing world
Kuhn, L; Reitz, C; Abrams, EJ
Current Opinion in Pediatrics, 21(1): 83-93.
10.1097/MOP.0b013e328320d894
PDF (162) | CrossRef
JAIDS Journal of Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndromes
Subclinical Mastitis, Cell-Associated HIV-1 Shedding in Breast Milk, and Breast-Feeding Transmission of HIV-1
Kantarci, S; Koulinska, IN; Aboud, S; Fawzi, WW; Villamor, E
JAIDS Journal of Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndromes, 46(5): 651-654.
10.1097/QAI.0b013e31815b2db2
PDF (76) | CrossRef
Back to Top | Article Outline
Keywords:

breastmilk RNA viral load; subclinical mastitis; breastmilk Na+/K+; exclusive breastfeeding

© 2003 Lippincott Williams & Wilkins, Inc.

Login

Search for Similar Articles
You may search for similar articles that contain these same keywords or you may modify the keyword list to augment your search.