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Non-adherence to highly active antiretroviral therapy predicts progression to AIDS

Bangsberg, David R.ab; Perry, Sharonc; Charlebois, Edwin D.a; Clark, Richard A.c; Roberston, Marjoried; Zolopa, Andrew R.e; Moss, Andrewc

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aThe Epidemiology and Prevention Interventions Center, Division of Infectious Diseases, San Francisco General Hospital, University of California, San Francisco, CA, USA; bThe Positive Health Program, San Francisco General Hospital, University of California, San Francisco, CA, USA; cDepartment of Epidemiology and Biostatistics, San Francisco General Hospital, University of California, San Francisco, CA, USA; dAlcohol Research Group, Public Health Institute, Berkeley, CA, USA; and eDivision of Infectious Diseases and Geographic Medicine, Stanford University School of Medicine, Palo Alto, CA, USA.

Sponsorship: This study was funded by NIMH no 58985-01, NIMH no. 54907-04A1, the University-Wide AIDS Research Program Award no. R97-SF-1104, the Center for AIDS Research Award no. P30 MH59037. Dr Bangsberg also received funding from the Doris Duke Charitable Foundation to conduct this work.

Received: 24 November 2000;

revised: 26 February 2001; accepted: 8 March 2001.

The introduction of highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART) has produced a dramatic reduction in mortality among HIV-infected individuals [1–4]. Whereas the level of adherence to HAART is closely associated with suppression of the HIV viral load in plasma [5–14], a relationship between adherence and disease progression has not been established. Here we examine the relationship between pill-count adherence [10] and progression to AIDS, in a representative cohort of homeless and marginally housed individuals.

Three hundred and thirty HIV-positive individuals were recruited into the Research in Access to Care in the Homeless (REACH) cohort between July 1996 and April 2000. We performed adherence assessments in 76 of the 81 (94%) individuals without AIDS who were taking HAART on or after January 1998. Pill counts are conducted every 3–6 weeks at the subject's usual place of residence (single room occupancy hotel, shelter, or other) on an unannounced day as previously described [10]. The HIV-1 viral load was determined monthly and the CD4 cell count was determined quarterly. Record match, through the San Francisco Department of Public Health AIDS Surveillance Registry, was used to identify opportunistic infections not otherwise detected by study protocol. No patients were lost to follow-up during the study.

Progression was defined as a decline in the CD4 cell count to below 200 cells/μl or the development of an opportunistic infection during follow-up. Adherence to antiretroviral medication was based on unannounced pill counts, and was measured as the mean percentage of pills taken over the observation period (0–100%), and categorized as 50% or less, 51–90%, or over 90%. The relationship between adherence and progression-free survival was assessed using the Kaplan–Meier method with the three adherence groups compared by log-rank test. A Cox proportional hazards model was used to calculate relative risk (RR) with 95% confidence intervals (CI), and to adjust the relationship of adherence with progression-free survival for CD4 cell count, viral load, and months of HAART therapy at baseline. Baseline characteristics with a P value of less than 0.10 were considered candidates for adjustment. We tested each potential confounder in a two-predictor Cox proportional hazards model that included the potential confounder and adherence.

The sample was composed mostly of non-white (59%) men (86%) who had a high prevalence of recent injection drug use (29%), lifetime psychiatric hospitalization (32%), and homelessness (93%).

At entry, 47 individuals (62%) were on a protease inhibitor-containing regimen; 23 (30%) were on a non-nucleoside-based regimen; five (7%) were taking a regimen containing both a protease inhibitor and a non-nucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitor; and one (1%) was taking three nucleoside analog reverse transcriptase inhibitor. A total of 47 (61%) individuals were antiretroviral naive before their current HAART regimen. At baseline, subjects had already received a median of 14 months of HAART.

Median pill-count adherence in the 76 individuals was 65%. One-third (31%) had low adherence (≤ 50%); half (49%) had moderate adherence (51–90%); and 20% had high adherence (> 90%).

None of the high-adherence group developed an AIDS event during observation (mean observation time 16 months), compared with 8% with moderate adherence (13 months) and 41% with low adherence (11 months) (P = 0.0012, log-rank test).

In a bivariate analysis, each 10% difference in mean adherence was associated with a 28% reduction in risk of progression to AIDS (RR 0.72; 95% CI 0.59–0.87). In addition to adherence, baseline CD4 cell count, baseline viral load, and the proportion of months with viral suppression all predicted progression to AIDS (P < 0.05). Failure to complete high school (P = 0.07), total months of HAART therapy at enrollment (P = 0.10), and injection drug use within 30 days of baseline (P = 0.08) were marginally associated with progression to AIDS. A 10% difference in average adherence was associated with a 21% reduction in relative risk (RR 0.79; 95% CI 0.63–0.99) when adjusted for baseline CD4 cell count, a 22% reduction when adjusted for baseline viral load (RR 0.78; CI 0.62–1.00), a 27% reduction when adjusted for baseline number of months of HAART therapy (RR 0.73; CI 0.60–0.89), a 28% reduction when adjusted for failure to complete high school (RR 0.72; CI 0.60–0.88), and a 27% reduction when adjusted for baseline injection drug use (RR 0.73; CI 0.59–0.89) (see Fig. 1).

Fig. 1
Fig. 1
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In summary, we found a strong relationship between the level of adherence to antiretroviral therapy and the risk of progression to AIDS in a population-based cohort of HIV-positive, urban poor adults with a high risk of non-adherence. These findings are consistent with findings presented by Hogg et al.[15], indicating that failure to obtain scheduled pharmacy refills is associated with a more rapid progression to AIDS and death.

There are several limitations to our analysis. Although we found a strong and statistically significant relationship between adherence and disease progression, the number of events is small. Because of the small number of events, we controlled for several important confounders in separate two-predictor models including adherence and the potential confounder, and found that the effect persisted. We were not able to control for all potential confounders simultaneously. The median follow-up of the group was 13 months; thus our observations are relevant to short-term disease progression, and factors predicting long-term disease progression may be different. Finally, it is possible that adherence assessment may have changed adherence behavior in some individuals.

Whereas most subjects did not achieve the more than 90% level of adherence required for reliable viral suppression [10,13], few individuals progressed to AIDS in the moderate (50–89%) adherence group and no one progressed in the 90–100% adherence group. Although moderate adherence is suboptimal for virological control, few individuals in this group progressed to AIDS when compared with the group with less than 50% adherence. This observation raises the hypothesis that the level of adherence required to produce clinical benefit may be lower than that required for viral suppression. If true, this hypothesis would explain the apparent contradiction between the dramatic declines in AIDS-related mortality [1–4] throughout the developed world after the introduction of HAART, in spite of both suboptimal adherence and viral suppression in most clinical cohorts [13,16]. Although the adequacy of a less rigorous adherence level for clinical benefit would be reassuring, our conclusion requires confirmation, and the goal of treatment should be 100% adherence in all patients on HAART.

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Acknowledgements

The authors would like to acknowledge Dr Peter Bacchetti for comments regarding the statistical analysis; Ms Paula Zenti, Ms Johanna Crane, and Ms Maureen Morgan for conducting the patient adherence assessments; and Ms Nelia Dela Cruz, Mr John Day, and Mr Jason Bonafacio for assisting with the REACH Cohort. They would also like to thank Ms Priscilla Chu at the San Francisco Department of Public Health for assistance performing the AIDS surveillance registry match.

David R. Bangsbergab

Sharon Perryc

Edwin D. Charleboisa

Richard A. Clarkc

Marjorie Roberstond

Andrew R. Zolopae

Andrew Mossc

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References

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Antiviral Therapy, 12(6): 909-917.

Lancet
Mortality in HIV-infected Ugandan adults receiving antiretroviral treatment and survival of their HIV-uninfected children: a prospective cohort study
Mermin, J; Were, W; Ekwaru, JP; Moore, D; Downing, R; Behumbiize, P; Lule, JR; Coutinho, A; Tappero, J; Bunnell, R
Lancet, 371(): 752-759.

Clinical Infectious Diseases
Evaluating adherence to highly active antiretroviral therapy with use of pill counts and viral load measurement in the drug resources enhancement against AIDS and malnutrition program in Mozambique
Lio, MMS; Carbini, R; Germano, P; Guidotti, G; Mancinelli, S; Magid, NA; Narciso, P; Palombi, L; Renzi, E; Zimba, I; Marazzi, MC
Clinical Infectious Diseases, 46(): 1609-1616.
10.1086/587659
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AIDS and Behavior
Adherence to Both Cotrimoxazole and Placebo is Associated with Improved Survival Among HIV-Infected Zambian Children
Walker, AS; Ford, D; Mulenga, V; Thomason, MJ; Nunn, A; Chintu, C; Gibb, DM; Bangsberg, DR
AIDS and Behavior, 13(1): 33-41.
10.1007/s10461-008-9382-4
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Journal of Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndromes
Impact of adherence and highly active antiretroviral therapy on survival in HIV-infected patients
de Olalla, PG; Knobel, H; Carmona, A; Guelar, A; Lopez-Colomes, JL; Cayla, JA
Journal of Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndromes, 30(1): 105-110.

Jaids-Journal of Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndromes
Computer-assisted self-interviewing (CASI) to improve provider assessment of adherence in routine clinical practice
Bangsberg, DR; Bronstone, A; Chesney, MA; Hecht, FM
Jaids-Journal of Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndromes, 31(): S107-S111.

Current Pharmaceutical Design
Anti-HIV therapy: Current and future directions
Agrawal, L; Lu, XH; Jin, QW; Alkhatib, G
Current Pharmaceutical Design, 12(): 2031-2055.

Plos One
Antiretroviral Therapy Initiation Before, During, or After Pregnancy in HIV-1-Infected Women: Maternal Virologic, Immunologic, and Clinical Response
Melekhin, VV; Shepherd, BE; Stinnette, SE; Rebeiro, PF; Barkanic, G; Raffanti, SP; Sterling, TR
Plos One, 4(9): -.
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AIDS and Behavior
Validation and Abbreviation of an HIV Stigma Scale in an Adult Spanish-Speaking Population in Urban Peru
Franke, MF; Munoz, M; Finnegan, K; Zeladita, J; Sebastian, JL; Bayona, JN; Shin, SS
AIDS and Behavior, 14(1): 189-199.
10.1007/s10461-008-9474-1
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Current Medical Research and Opinion
Medication nonfulfillment rates and reasons: narrative systematic review
Gadkari, AS; McHorney, CA
Current Medical Research and Opinion, 26(3): 683-705.
10.1185/03007990903550586
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Nursing & Health Sciences
Antiretroviral therapy adherence among patients living with HIV/AIDS in Thailand
Li, L; Lee, SJ; Wen, Y; Lin, CQ; Wan, D; Jiraphongsa, C
Nursing & Health Sciences, 12(2): 212-220.
10.1111/j.1442-2018.2010.00521.x
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Journal of Infectious Diseases
Preventing HIV antiretroviral resistance through better monitoring of treatment adherence
Bangsberg, DR
Journal of Infectious Diseases, 197(): S272-S278.
10.1086/533415
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Addiction
Adherence to antiretroviral therapy for human immunodeficiency virus/acquired immune deficiency syndrome among drug users: a systematic review
Malta, M; Strathdee, SA; Magnanini, MMF; Bastos, FI
Addiction, 103(8): 1242-1257.
10.1111/j.1360-0443.2008.02269.x
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Sahara J-Journal of Social Aspects of Hiv-AIDS
Barriers and facilitators to antiretroviral medication adherence among HIV-infected paediatric patients in Ethiopia: A qualitative study
Biadgilign, S; Deribew, A; Amberbir, A; Deribe, K
Sahara J-Journal of Social Aspects of Hiv-AIDS, 6(4): 148-154.

AIDS Care-Psychological and Socio-Medical Aspects of AIDS/Hiv
Relationship quality among HIV patients and their caregivers
Miller, IW; Bishop, DS; Herman, DS; Stein, MD
AIDS Care-Psychological and Socio-Medical Aspects of AIDS/Hiv, 19(2): 203-211.
10.1080/09540120600624278
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Journal of Internal Medicine
One-year adherence to clinic visits after highly active antiretroviral therapy: a predictor of clinical progress in HIV patients
Park, WB; Choe, PG; Kim, SH; Jo, JH; Bang, JH; Kim, HB; Kim, NJ; Oh, M; Choe, KW
Journal of Internal Medicine, 261(3): 268-275.
10.1111/j.1365-2796.2006.01762.x
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Janac-Journal of the Association of Nurses in AIDS Care
Strategies for improving patient adherence to therapy and long-term patient outcomes
Battaglioli-DeNero, AM
Janac-Journal of the Association of Nurses in AIDS Care, 18(1): S17-S22.
10.1016/j.jana.2006.11.020
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AIDS Reader
Seven steps to better adherence: A practical approach to promoting adherence to antiretroviral therapy
Machtinger, EL; Bangsberg, DR
AIDS Reader, 17(1): 43-50.

Annals of Internal Medicine
Adherence to nonnucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitor-based HIV therapy and virologic outcomes
Nachega, JB; Hislop, M; Dowdy, DW; Chaisson, RE; Regensberg, L; Maartens, G
Annals of Internal Medicine, 146(8): 564-U16.

Bulletin of Mathematical Biology
Emergence of HIV-1 drug resistance during antiretroviral treatment
Rong, LB; Feng, ZL; Perelson, AS
Bulletin of Mathematical Biology, 69(6): 2027-2060.
10.1007/s11538-007-9203-3
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AIDS Patient Care and Stds
Prior illicit drug use and missed prenatal vitamins predict nonadherence to antiretroviral therapy in pregnancy: Adherence analysis A5084
Cohn, SE; Umbleja, T; Mrus, J; Bardeguez, AD; Andersen, JW; Chesney, MA
AIDS Patient Care and Stds, 22(1): 29-40.
10.1089/apc.2007.0053
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Operations Research
The optimal time to initiate HIV therapy under ordered health states
Shechter, SM; Bailey, MD; Schaefer, AJ; Roberts, MS
Operations Research, 56(1): 20-33.

Clinical Infectious Diseases
Better Adherence with Once-Daily Antiretroviral Regimens: A Meta-Analysis
Parienti, JJ; Bangsberg, DR; Verdon, R; Gardner, EM
Clinical Infectious Diseases, 48(4): 484-488.
10.1086/596482
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AIDS Patient Care and Stds
Utilization of Medical Treatments and Adherence to Antiretroviral Therapy among HIV-Positive Adults with Histories of Childhood Sexual Abuse
Meade, CS; Hansen, NB; Kochman, A; Sikkema, KJ
AIDS Patient Care and Stds, 23(4): 259-266.
10.1089/apc.2008.0210
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Archives of Internal Medicine
Adherence to HAART: Why is it so difficult?
Paech, V; Lorenzen, T; Stoehr, A; Plettenberg, A
Archives of Internal Medicine, 162(): 1197.

Journal of Infectious Diseases
Antiretroviral concentrations in untimed plasma samples predict therapy outcome in a population with advanced disease
Alexander, CS; Asselin, JJ; Ting, LSL; Montaner, JSG; Hogg, RS; Yip, B; O'Shaughnessy, MV; Harrigan, PR
Journal of Infectious Diseases, 188(4): 541-548.

Journal of Antimicrobial Chemotherapy
Paradoxes of adherence and drug resistance to HIV antiretroviral therapy
Bangsberg, DR; Moss, AR; Deeks, SG
Journal of Antimicrobial Chemotherapy, 53(5): 696-699.
10.1093/jac/dkh162
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Journal of Infectious Diseases
Modeling the HIV protease inhibitor adherence-resistance curve by use of empirically derived estimates
Bangsberg, DR; Porco, TC; Kagay, C; Charlebois, ED; Deeks, SG; Guzman, D; Clark, R; Moss, A
Journal of Infectious Diseases, 190(1): 162-165.

AIDS and Behavior
Patient-clinician relationships and treatment system effects on HIV medication adherence
Ingersoll, KS; Heckman, CJ
AIDS and Behavior, 9(1): 89-101.
10.1007/s10461-005-1684-1
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Hiv Medicine
Regimen-dependent variations in adherence to therapy and virological suppression in patients initiating protease inhibitor-based highly active antiretroviral therapy
Moore, DM; Hogg, RS; Yip, B; Wood, E; Harris, M; Montaner, JSG
Hiv Medicine, 7(5): 311-316.

Faseb Journal
Short cycles of antiretroviral drugs provide intermittent yet effective therapy: a pilot study in 48 patients with chronic HIV infection
Leibowitch, J; Mathez, D; de Truchis, P; Perronne, C; Melchior, JC
Faseb Journal, 24(6): 1649-1655.
10.1096/fj.09-148676
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Revue Du Praticien
Seropositive people infected through intravenous drug use: a persistent vulnerability
Peretti-Watel, P; Spire, B; Lert, F; Obadia, N
Revue Du Praticien, 55(): 2093-2100.

Expert Opinion on Pharmacotherapy
Economic implications of nonadherence to highly active antiretroviral treatment in HIV patients
Lamiraud, K; Moatti, JP
Expert Opinion on Pharmacotherapy, 7(2): 135-143.
10.1517/14656566.7.2.135
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Annals of Behavioral Medicine
Reductions in depressed mood and denial coping during cognitive behavioral stress management with HIV-positive gay men treated with HAART
Carrico, AW; Antoni, MH; Duran, RE; Ironson, G; Penedo, F; Fletcher, MA; Klimas, N; Schneiderman, N
Annals of Behavioral Medicine, 31(2): 155-164.

AIDS and Behavior
Medication beliefs as mediators of the health literacy-antiretroviral adherence relationship in HIV-infected individuals
Graham, J; Bennett, IM; Holmes, WC; Gross, R
AIDS and Behavior, 11(3): 385-392.
10.1007/s10461-006-9164-9
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Antiviral Therapy
The effect of depressive symptoms at ART initiation on HIV clinical progression implications in clinical and mortality: implications in clinical practice
Villes, V; Spire, B; Lewden, C; Perronn, C; Besnier, JM; Garre, M; Chene, G; Leport, C; Carrieri, MP; Le Moing, V
Antiviral Therapy, 12(7): 1067-1074.

Bmc Health Services Research
Good adherence to HAART and improved survival in a community HIV/AIDS treatment and care programme: the experience of The AIDS Support Organization (TASO), Kampala, Uganda
Abaasa, AM; Todd, J; Ekoru, K; Kalyango, JN; Levin, J; Odeke, E; Karamagi, CAS
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Lancet Infectious Diseases
Overcoming challenges to the implementation of antiretroviral therapy in Kenya
Taegtmeyer, M; Chebet, K
Lancet Infectious Diseases, 2(1): 51-53.

Jaids-Journal of Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndromes
Adherence to antiretroviral therapy among patients with HIV: A critical link between behavioral and biomedical sciences
Ickovics, JR; Meade, CS
Jaids-Journal of Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndromes, 31(): S98-S102.

AIDS Care-Psychological and Socio-Medical Aspects of AIDS/Hiv
Outpatient pharmacy care and HIV viral load response among patients on HAART
Castillo, E; Palepu, A; Beardsell, A; Akagi, L; Yip, B; Montaner, JSG; Hogg, RS
AIDS Care-Psychological and Socio-Medical Aspects of AIDS/Hiv, 16(4): 446-457.
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Journal of Antimicrobial Chemotherapy
Antiretroviral adherence, drug resistance, viral fitness and HIV disease progression: a tangled web is woven
Lucas, GM
Journal of Antimicrobial Chemotherapy, 55(4): 413-416.
10.1093/jac/dki042
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Journal of Infectious Diseases
Relationship between adherence and the development of resistance in antiretroviral-naive, HIV-1-infected patients receiving lopinavir/ritonavir or nelfinavir
King, MS; Brun, SC; Kempf, DJ
Journal of Infectious Diseases, 191(): 2046-2052.

Lancet Infectious Diseases
When to initiate antiretroviral therapy in HIV-1-infected adults: a review for clinicians and patients
Wood, E; Hogg, RS; Harrigan, PR; Montaner, JSG
Lancet Infectious Diseases, 5(7): 407-414.

American Journal of Health-System Pharmacy
Drug-related problems in hospitalized patients with HIV infection
Mok, S; Minson, Q
American Journal of Health-System Pharmacy, 65(1): 55-59.
10.2146/ajhp070011
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Journal of Infectious Diseases
Increased resilience to the development of drug resistance with modern boosted protease inhibitor-based highly active antiretroviral therapy
Lima, VD; Gill, VS; Yip, B; Hogg, RS; Montaner, JSG; Harrigan, PR
Journal of Infectious Diseases, 198(1): 51-58.
10.1086/588675
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Hiv Medicine
British HIV Association guidelines for the treatment of HIV-1-infected adults with antiretroviral therapy 2008
Gazzard, BG
Hiv Medicine, 9(8): 563-608.
10.1111/j.1468-1293.2008.00636.x
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AIDS Patient Care and Stds
Development and Efficacy of an Intervention to Enhance Readiness for Adherence among Adults Who Had Previously Failed HIV Treatment
Enriquez, M; Cheng, AL; McKinsey, DS; Stanford, J
AIDS Patient Care and Stds, 23(3): 177-184.
10.1089/apc.2008.0170
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AIDS Research and Human Retroviruses
Predictors of Success with Highly Active Antiretroviral Therapy in an Antiretroviral-Naive Urban Population
Zaragoza-Macias, E; Cosco, D; Nguyen, ML; del Rio, C; Lennox, J
AIDS Research and Human Retroviruses, 26(2): 133-138.
10.1089/aid.2009.0001
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National Medical Journal of India
Two-year treatment outcomes of patients enrolled in India's national first-line antiretroviral therapy programme
Bachani, D; Garg, R; Rewari, BB; Hegg, L; Rajasekaran, S; Deshpande, A; Emmanuel, KV; Chan, P; Rao, KS
National Medical Journal of India, 23(1): 7-12.

Jaids-Journal of Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndromes
Adherence and potency with antiretroviral therapy: A combination for success
Gathe, J
Jaids-Journal of Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndromes, 34(): S118-S122.

Psychological Reports
Relationship with health care provider and adherence to HIV medications
Demmer, C
Psychological Reports, 93(2): 494-496.

AIDS
Medication adherence in HIV-infected adults: effect of patient age, cognitive status, and substance abuse
Hinkin, CH; Hardy, DJ; Mason, KI; Castellon, SA; Durvasula, RS; Lam, MN; Stefaniak, M
AIDS, 18(): S19-S25.

Hiv Clinical Trials
Higher rates of viral suppression with nonnucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitors compared to single protease inhibitors are not explained by better adherence
Weiser, SD; Guzman, D; Riley, ED; Clark, R; Bangsberg, DR
Hiv Clinical Trials, 5(5): 278-287.

AIDS Patient Care and Stds
Retrospective analysis of suspending HAART in selected patients with controlled HIV replication
Jacobs, B; Neil, N; Aboulafia, DM
AIDS Patient Care and Stds, 19(7): 429-438.

Psychosomatic Medicine
Randomized clinical trial of cognitive behavioral stress management on human immunodeficiency virus viral load in gay men treated with highly active antiretroviral therapy
Antoni, MH; Carrico, AW; Duran, RE; Spitzer, S; Penedo, F; Ironson, G; Fletcher, MA; Klimas, N; Schneiderman, N
Psychosomatic Medicine, 68(1): 143-151.
10.1097/01.psy.0000195749.60049.63
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AIDS Patient Care and Stds
Prevalence, predictors, and outcomes of early adherence after starting or changing antiretroviral therapy
Mathews, WC; Mar-Tang, M; Ballard, C; Colwell, B; Abulhosn, K; Noonan, C; Barber, RE; Wall, TL
AIDS Patient Care and Stds, 16(4): 157-172.

Lancet
Antiretroviral treatment in resource-poor settings: clinical research priorities
Rabkin, M; El-Sadr, W; Katzenstein, DA; Mukherjee, J; Masur, H; Mugyenyi, P; Munderi, P; Darbyshire, J
Lancet, 360(): 1503-1505.

Diabetes Care
Polypharmacy and medication adherence in patients with type 2 diabetes
Grant, RW; Devita, NG; Singer, DE; Meigs, JB
Diabetes Care, 26(5): 1408-1412.

Bmc Pediatrics
Supporting children to adhere to anti-retroviral therapy in urban Malawi: multi method insights
Weigel, R; Makwiza, I; Nyirenda, J; Chiunguzeni, D; Phiri, S; Theobald, S
Bmc Pediatrics, 9(): -.
ARTN 45
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Plos One
Not All Missed Doses Are the Same: Sustained NNRTI Treatment Interruptions Predict HIV Rebound at Low-to-Moderate Adherence Levels
Parienti, JJ; Das-Douglas, M; Massari, V; Guzman, D; Deeks, SG; Verdon, R; Bangsberg, DR
Plos One, 3(7): -.
ARTN e2783
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Psychology & Health
Affective and behavioural reactions to positive and negative health-related social control in HIV plus men
Fekete, E; Geaghan, TR; Druley, JA
Psychology & Health, 24(5): 501-515.
10.1080/08870440801894674
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Plos One
The Risk of Virologic Failure Decreases with Duration of HIV Suppression, at Greater than 50% Adherence to Antiretroviral Therapy
Rosenblum, M; Deeks, SG; van der Laan, M; Bangsberg, DR
Plos One, 4(9): -.
ARTN e7196
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AIDS Care-Psychological and Socio-Medical Aspects of AIDS/Hiv
Voices on adherence to ART in Ethiopia and Uganda: a matter of choice or simply not an option?
Gusdal, AK; Obua, C; Andualem, T; Wahlstrom, R; Tomson, G; Peterson, S; Ekstrom, AM; Thorson, A; Chalker, J; Fochsen, G
AIDS Care-Psychological and Socio-Medical Aspects of AIDS/Hiv, 21(): 1381-1387.
10.1080/09540120902883119
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Drug and Alcohol Dependence
Effect of incentives for medication adherence on health care use and costs in methadone patients with HIV
Barnett, PG; Sorensen, JL; Wong, W; Haug, NA; Hall, SM
Drug and Alcohol Dependence, 100(): 115-121.
10.1016/j.drugalcdep.2008.09.017
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AIDS Patient Care and Stds
Factors Associated with Psychotherapy Longevity among HIV-Positive Patients
Bottonari, KA; Stepleman, LM
AIDS Patient Care and Stds, 23(2): 109-118.
10.1089/apc.2008.0081
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Jama-Journal of the American Medical Association
Adherence to antiretroviral therapy in sub-Saharan Africa and North America - A meta-analysis
Mills, EJ; Nachega, JB; Buchan, I; Orbinski, J; Attaran, A; Singh, S; Rachlis, B; Wu, P; Cooper, C; Thabane, L; Wilson, K; Guyatt, GH; Bangsberg, DR
Jama-Journal of the American Medical Association, 296(6): 679-690.

Jaids-Journal of Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndromes
Sustained benefit from a long-term antiretroviral adherence intervention - Results of a large randomized clinical trial
Mannheimer, SB; Morse, E; Matts, JP; Andrews, L; Child, C; Schmetter, B; Friedland, GH
Jaids-Journal of Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndromes, 43(): S41-S47.

International Journal of Drug Policy
Adherence to HIV treatment among IDUs and the role of opioid substitution treatment (OST)
Spire, B; Lucas, GM; Carrieri, MP
International Journal of Drug Policy, 18(4): 262-270.
10.1016/j.drugpo.2006.12.014
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AIDS
Effect of twice-daily nevirapine on adherence in HIV-1-infected patients: a randomized controlled study
Parienti, JJ; Massari, V; Reliquet, V; Chaillot, F; Le Moal, G; Arvieux, C; Vabret, A; Verdon, R
AIDS, 21(): 2217-2222.

Internal Medicine Journal
Evidence-based, multifactorial approach to addressing non-adherence to antiretroviral therapy and improving standards of care
Herrmann, S; McKinnon, E; John, M; Hyland, N; Martinez, OP; Cain, A; Turner, K; Coombs, A; Manolikos, C; Mallal, S
Internal Medicine Journal, 38(1): 8-15.
10.1111/j.1445-5994.2007.01477.x
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Health Promotion International
The DREAM model's effectiveness in health promotion of AIDS patients in Africa
San Lio, MM; Mancinelli, S; Palombi, L; Buonomo, E; Altan, AD; Germano, P; Magid, NA; Pesaresi, A; Renzi, E; Scarcella, P; Zimba, I; Marazzi, MC
Health Promotion International, 24(1): 6-15.
10.1093/heapro/dan043
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Quality of Life Research
Reliability and validity of the SF-36 in HIV-infected homeless and marginally housed individuals
Riley, ED; Bangsberg, DR; Perry, S; Clark, RA; Moss, AR; Wu, AW
Quality of Life Research, 12(8): 1051-1058.

Clinical Infectious Diseases
Adherence to highly active antiretroviral therapy in the homeless population in San Francisco: A prospective study
Moss, AR; Hahn, JA; Perry, S; Charlebois, ED; Guzman, D; Clark, RA; Bangsberg, DR
Clinical Infectious Diseases, 39(8): 1190-1198.

Chinese Medical Journal
Highly active antiretroviral therapy per se decreased mortality and morbidity of advanced human immunodeficiency virus disease in Hong Kong
Chan, CW; Cheng, LS; Chan, WK; Wong, KH
Chinese Medical Journal, 118(): 1338-1345.

Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews
Patient support and education for promoting adherence to highly active antiretroviral therapy for HIV/AIDS (Review)
Rueda, S; Park-Wyllie, LY; Bayoumi, AM; Tynan, AM; Antoniou, TA; Rourke, SB; Glazier, RH
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Jaids-Journal of Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndromes
Moving from theory to research to practice - Implementing an effective dyadic intervention to improve antiretroviral adherence for clinic patients
Remien, RH; Stirratt, MJ; Dognin, J; Day, E; El-Bassel, N; Warne, P
Jaids-Journal of Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndromes, 43(): S69-S78.

Drug and Alcohol Dependence
Voucher reinforcement improves medication adherence in HIV-positive methadone patients: A randomized trial
Sorensen, JL; Haug, NA; Delucchi, KL; Gruber, V; Kletter, E; Batki, SL; Tulsky, JP; Barnett, P; Hall, S
Drug and Alcohol Dependence, 88(1): 54-63.
10.1016/j.drugalcdep.2006.09.019
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AIDS Research and Human Retroviruses
Assessing self-reported adherence to HIV therapy by questionnaire: The SERAD (self-reported adherence) study
Munoz-Moreno, JA; Fumaz, CR; Ferrer, MJ; Tuldra, A; Rovira, T; Viladrich, C; Bayes, R; Burger, DM; Negredo, E; Clotet, B
AIDS Research and Human Retroviruses, 23(): 1166-1175.
10.1089/aid.2006.0120
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International Journal of Std & AIDS
Inadequate adherence to antiretroviral treatment and prevention in hospital and community sites in Burkina Faso and Mali: a study by the ATARAO group
Aboubacrine, SA; Niamba, P; Boileau, C; Zunzunegui, MV; Machouf, N; Nguyen, VK; Rashed, S
International Journal of Std & AIDS, 18(): 741-747.

AIDS Patient Care and Stds
Adherence to Antiretroviral Therapy in Conflict Areas: A Study among Patients Receiving Treatment from Lacor Hospital, Uganda
Garang, PG; Odoi, RA; Kalyango, JN
AIDS Patient Care and Stds, 23(9): 743-747.
10.1089/apc.2009.0073
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Psychosomatic Medicine
Overload: Impact of Incident Stressful Events on Antiretroviral Medication Adherence and Virologic Failure in a Longitudinal, Multisite Human Immunodeficiency Virus Cohort Study
Mugavero, MJ; Raper, JL; Reif, S; Whetten, K; Leserman, J; Thielman, NM; Pence, BW
Psychosomatic Medicine, 71(9): 920-926.
10.1097/PSY.0b013e3181bfe8d2
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Journal of General Internal Medicine
Is average adherence to HIV antiretroviral therapy enough?
Bangsberg, DR; Deeks, SG
Journal of General Internal Medicine, 17(): 812-813.

Patient Education and Counseling
HIV treatment-related knowledge and self-efficacy among caregivers of HIV-infected children
Nicholson, O; Mellins, C; Dolezal, C; Brackis-Cott, E; Abrams, EJ
Patient Education and Counseling, 61(3): 405-410.
10.1016/j.pec.2005.05.006
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AIDS Care-Psychological and Socio-Medical Aspects of AIDS/Hiv
A randomized comparison of two instruments for measuring self-reported antiretroviral adherence
Mannheimer, S; Thackeray, L; Hullsiek, KH; Chesney, M; Gardner, EM; Wu, AW; Telzak, EE; Lawrence, J; Baxter, J; Friedland, G
AIDS Care-Psychological and Socio-Medical Aspects of AIDS/Hiv, 20(2): 161-169.
10.1080/09540120701534699
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AIDS Research and Human Retroviruses
Relationship between Adherence Level, Type of the Antiretroviral Regimen, and Plasma HIV Type 1 RNA Viral Load: A Prospective Cohort Study
Martin, M; Del Cacho, E; Codina, C; Tuset, M; De Lazzari, E; Mallolas, J; Miro, JM; Gatell, JM; Ribas, J
AIDS Research and Human Retroviruses, 24(): 1263-1268.
10.1089/aid.2008.0141
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Journal of Clinical Pharmacy and Therapeutics
A prospective study evaluating clinical outcomes and costs of three NNRTI-based HAART regimens in Kerala, India
George, C; Yesoda, A; Jayakumar, B; Lal, L
Journal of Clinical Pharmacy and Therapeutics, 34(1): 33-40.
10.1111/j.1365-2710.2008.00988.x
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Health Psychology
A Randomized Controlled Trial of Cognitive Behavioral Therapy for Adherence and Depression (CBT-AD) in HIV-Infected Individuals
Safren, SA; O'Cleirigh, C; Tan, JY; Raminani, SR; Reilly, LC; Otto, MW; Mayer, KH
Health Psychology, 28(1): 1-10.
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Qualitative Health Research
Factors Sustaining Pediatric Adherence to Antiretroviral Therapy in Western Kenya
Vreeman, RC; Nyandiko, WM; Ayaya, SO; Walumbe, EG; Marrero, DG; Inui, TS
Qualitative Health Research, 19(): 1716-1729.
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Pediatrics
Nonadherence with pediatric human immunodeficiency virus therapy as medical neglect
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Pediatrics, 114(3): E346-E353.
10.1542/peds.2003-0588-F
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AIDS Patient Care and Stds
Health-related quality of life among men with HIV infection: Effects of social support, coping, and depression
Jia, HG; Uphold, CR; Wu, S; Reid, K; Findley, K; Duncan, PW
AIDS Patient Care and Stds, 18(): 594-603.

Clinical Therapeutics
Impact of an adherence clinic on behavioral outcomes and virologic response in the treatment of HIV infection: A prospective, randomized, controlled pilot study
Rathbun, RC; Farmer, KC; Stephens, JR; Lockhart, SM
Clinical Therapeutics, 27(2): 199-209.
10.1016/j.clinthera.2005.02.010
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Journal of Adolescent Health
"Supposed to make you better but it doesn't really": HIV-positive youths' perceptions of HIV treatment
Veinot, TC; Flicker, SE; Skinner, HA; McClelland, A; Saulnier, P; Read, SE; Goldberg, E
Journal of Adolescent Health, 38(3): 261-267.
10.1016/j.jadohealth.2005.03.008
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Journal of Antimicrobial Chemotherapy
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Annals of Internal Medicine
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Plos One
Food Insecurity as a Barrier to Sustained Antiretroviral Therapy Adherence in Uganda
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Current Medical Research and Opinion
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Cognitive and Behavioral Practice
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Journal of General Internal Medicine
A prospective study of predictors of adherence to combination antiretroviral medication
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Journal of Neurovirology
Human immunodeficiency virus-associated dementia: An evolving disease
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Journal of General Internal Medicine
Food Insecurity is Associated with Incomplete HIV RNA Suppression Among Homeless and Marginally Housed HIV-infected Individuals in San Francisco
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Journal of Antimicrobial Chemotherapy
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AIDS and Behavior
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Current Pharmaceutical Design
Limitations of current antiretroviral agents and opportunities for development
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AIDS Care-Psychological and Socio-Medical Aspects of AIDS/Hiv
The CASE adherence index: A novel method for measuring adherence to antiretroviral therapy
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Hepatitis B among homeless and other impoverished US military veterans in residential care in Los Angeles
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International Journal of Behavioral Medicine
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Annals of Internal Medicine
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AIDS Patient Care and Stds
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Social Science & Medicine
Adherence, stereotyping and unequal HIV treatment for active users of illegal drugs
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Clinical Infectious Diseases
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AIDS and Behavior
The role of HIV serostatus disclosure in antiretroviral medication adherence
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Tropical Medicine & International Health
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Infectious Disease Clinics of North America
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AIDS Research and Human Retroviruses
Consistent ART Adherence Is Associated with Improved Quality of Life, CD4 Counts, and Reduced Hospital Costs in Central China
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AIDS, 16(): 1693-1695.

Journal of the American Medical Informatics Association
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Efficacy of an educational and counseling intervention on adherence to highly active antiretroviral therapy: French prospective controlled study
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Enfermedades Infecciosas Y Microbiologia Clinica
Strategies to optimize adherence to antiretroviral treatment. Interventions in the therapeutic regimen
Knobel, H; Guelar, A
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Jaids-Journal of Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndromes
Do new protease inhibitors offer improved outcome expectations? Issues of PI adherence
Sherer, RD; Volberding, PA
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Journal of General Internal Medicine
Gender differences in factors associated with adherence to antiretroviral therapy
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AIDS Patient Care and Stds
The effect of a multidisciplinary program on HAART adherence
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AIDS Patient Care and Stds, 20(7): 511-524.

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Clinical Infectious Diseases
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Janac-Journal of the Association of Nurses in AIDS Care
Kitchen table wisdom: A Freirian approach to medication adherence
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Medical Care
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Plos Medicine
Emergence of drug resistance is associated with an increased risk of death among patients first starting HAART
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Plos Medicine
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Nature Medicine
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AIDS
High levels of adherence do not prevent accumulation of HIV drug resistance mutations
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American Journal of Medicine
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Journal of Infectious Diseases
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Jaids-Journal of Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndromes
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Journal of General Internal Medicine
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Bmc Health Services Research
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Trotta, MP; Ammassari, A; Cozzi-Lepri, A; Zaccarelli, M; Castelli, F; Narciso, P; Melzi, S; Luca, AD; Monforte, A; Antinori, A; for the Adherence Italian Cohort Naive Antiretrovirals (AdICONA) and Adherence Spallanzani (AdeSpall) Study Groups,
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JAIDS Journal of Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndromes, 35(3): 261-268.

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JAIDS Journal of Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndromes
Assessing Usual Care in Clinical Trials of Adherence Interventions for Highly Active Antiretroviral Therapy
Wagner, GJ; Kanouse, DE
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