Skip Navigation LinksHome > January 5, 2001 - Volume 15 - Issue 1 > Effect of computer-assisted self-interviews on reporting of...
AIDS:
Epidemiology & Social: Concise Communication

Effect of computer-assisted self-interviews on reporting of sexual HIV risk behaviours in a general population sample: a methodological experiment

Johnson, Anne M.a; Copas, Andrew J.a; Erens, Bobb; Mandalia, Sundhiyaa; Fenton, Kevina; Korovessis, Christosb; Wellings, Kayec; Field, Juliab

Free Access
Article Outline
Collapse Box

Author Information

From the aDepartment of Sexually Transmitted Diseases, Royal Free and University College Medical School, Mortimer Market Centre, off Capper Street, London WC1, UK; bNational Centre for Social Research (formerly Social and Community Planning Research), 35 Northampton Square, London EC1, UK; and cDepartment of Public Health and Policy, London School of Hygiene and Tropical Medicine, Keppel Street, London WC1, UK.

Received: 16 December 1999;

revised: 20 July 2000; accepted: 1 September 2000.

Sponsorship: This study was funded by a grant from the Medical Research Council.

Correspondence to: Professor Anne M. Johnson, Department of Sexually Transmitted Diseases, Royal Free and University College Medical School, London WC1E 6AU. E-email: ajohnson@gum.ucl.ac.uk

The paper is dedicated to the memory of Jane Wadsworth, who died in 1997 and was a grantholder.

The study was approved by the Joint UCL/UCH Committees on the Ethics of Human Research.

Collapse Box

Abstract

Objectives: To develop methods to maximize the accuracy of reporting HIV risk behaviours in a general population survey. We assessed the feasibility of using a computer-assisted self-completion interview (CASI) in comparison with pen-and-paper self-completion interview (PAPI).

Design: A probability sample survey of residents aged 16–44 years in Britain, with alternate assignment of addresses to interview by CASI (462) or PAPI (439).

Methods: Personal interviews exploring demographic and sexual behaviour variables. Principal outcome measures were the impact of CASI in relation to PAPI on data quality and rates of reporting a range of behaviours.

Results: A total of 901 interviews were completed; 829 individuals were eligible for and accepted the self-completion module. Internal consistency of data items was greater with CASI than PAPI and item non-response was lower. Overall, there was no significant difference in rates of reporting between CASI and PAPI. The main effect for CASI compared with PAPI in a generalized estimating equation (GEE) analysis was an OR (95% CI) of 1.04 (0.92–1.17). Variables were also examined individually, including homosexual partnership (adjusted OR 1.26 95% CI 0.69–2.29), payment for sex (adjusted OR 0.68 95% CI 0.29–1.59), masturbation (adjusted OR 0.89 95% CI 0.66–1.22) and five or more partners in the past 5 years (OR 0.85 95% CI 0.61–1.19).

Conclusion: We found no evidence of a consistent effect of CASI on rates of reporting sexual HIV risk behaviours in this sample. CASI resulted in improvement in internal consistency and a reduction in missed questions.

Back to Top | Article Outline

Introduction

Sexual behaviour research is central to understanding HIV epidemiology, but the validity of parameter estimates depends on the ability of respondents to answer questions about sensitive behaviours accurately.

Since the surveys of the early 1990s [1–4], there have been important technological advances in survey methodology. In particular, computer-assisted self-completion interviews (CASI) allow respondents to key responses directly to questions displayed on a laptop computer screen. Studies comparing CASI with identical questions using pen-and-paper self-completion interviews (PAPI), have demonstrated the potential of CASI to improve the quality of data, and may increase the willingness of respondents to report sensitive behaviours [5,6].

The first British National Survey of Sexual Attitudes and Lifestyles (NATSSAL1) was carried out in 1990/1991 to inform HIV/AIDS projections and sexual health strategy [1,7,8]. In this paper, we report on a methodological experiment undertaken as part of a programme of feasibility work for a second National Survey of Sexual Attitudes and Lifestyles (NATSSAL2) being undertaken this year. We investigated whether the use of CASI was acceptable and feasible for the general population; and could obtain data of similar or improved quality to pen-and-paper methods. We measured the effect of CASI by comparing rates of reported behaviours in respondents assigned to CASI and PAPI. This was important, not only to assess whether CASI could reduce measurement error, but also to provide hypotheses concerning the magnitude of any method effect in assessing changes in behaviour between the 1990 and 1999 surveys.

Back to Top | Article Outline

Methods

A questionnaire was developed for a combination of face-to-face interviews with a trained interviewer, and self-completion of the most sensitive questions. The majority of questions were identical to those used in NATSSAL1 [7,8], although with some additions. Topics covered include age at first intercourse; homosexual and heterosexual experiences including numbers of partners; and sexual practices. Those with no sexual experience of any kind, and 16 and 17-year-olds with some heterosexual experience, but no heterosexual intercourse or homosexual experience reported in a screening face-to-face question, were ineligible for the self-completion module.

Answers to the face-to-face component of the questionnaire were keyed in directly by the interviewer. The self-completion component was developed both for CASI (90 questions) and for pen-and-paper (82 questions). Question wording was generally identical between the two formats. The additional eight questions in CASI were restricted to this method because they required complex routing.

A sample of 3360 addresses was selected from the small-user postcode address file for Britain, using a multi-stage stratified probability cluster design with over-sampling from Greater London.

Interviews were undertaken by the National Centre for Social Research between November 1997 and January 1998. Alternate households were assigned to either CASI or PAPI self-completion. A total of 3222 out of 3360 (95.9%) addresses were successfully screened for eligibility; residents aged 16–44 years were enumerated, and one was randomly selected to participate. Interviewers were present for self-completion interviews to provide assistance if required, but were not permitted to view the responses.

The study sample size was calculated to give 80% power to detect as significant (at the 5% level) a doubling due to CASI in the reporting of behaviours with a prevalence of 5%. We used the odds ratio (OR) of reporting behaviours in CASI compared with PAPI as the outcome measure. Initially, questions were considered separately. To test our primary hypothesis, that CASI may affect the reporting of behaviours broadly according to their sensitivity, we then grouped behaviours according to our perception of their sensitivity as high (e.g. reporting payment for sex), moderate (e.g. no heterosexual sex last year), or low (e.g. never donated blood). A CASI effect would be expected to result in OR above one for the highly sensitive behaviours, declining to around one for those of low sensitivity. This avoids multiple testing and has high power to detect a moderate CASI effect. We also used a generalized estimating equation (GEE)-based regression method [9] to provide a summary adjusted estimate of the effect of CASI across behaviours of moderate or high sensitivity and to test for a significant interaction between CASI and high question sensitivity.

As a secondary analysis we also examined the possibility of CASI effects arising only within four subgroups: men and women, London and outside. We tested for each question to see whether the CASI effect differed by either region or sex (i.e. significant interaction). We also considered behaviours according to their sensitivity as in the primary analysis, looking for a trend in the OR. Finally, we used GEE to test for a significant interaction between CASI and either sex or region.

Initial estimates of the effect of CASI compared with PAPI are reported after adjusting by logistic regression for demographic factors. The GEE analysis used an unstructured correlation matrix, but the features of the sampling (e.g. clustering) could not be incorporated. For the GEE analysis, only those questions asked of both sexes were included. The main effects for each behaviour and demographic terms (age, household size, sex, and location) were included in the GEE model. Because these factors determine the selection probabilities, all regression analysis was unweighted. All analyses were performed in stata release 6.

Back to Top | Article Outline

Results

The household screening identified 1389 households with a selected eligible resident aged 16–44 years; 901 interviews were completed. The overall unweighted response rate was 61.2%, but after weighting for the over-sampling of London, the response rate was 64.7%. Response rates were calculated excluding those who did not speak English, or were sick or away from home during the fieldwork period (75 selected residents and estimated ineligibles in uncontacted households). Of the 901 people interviewed, 56 were ineligible for self-completion because they had no sexual experience. Sixteen of those who were eligible (1%) refused the self-completion module (eight in the CASI arm, eight in the PAPI arm) leaving 829 self-completion interviews on which our main results are based (including three who declined CASI but accepted PAPI instead). There was no difference in mean overall interview length between CASI (56 min) and PAPI (55 min).

No significant differences were observed between the groups assigned to CASI and PAPI in age, sex or marital status (data not shown).

We compared item non-response rates (defined as not answered, don't know and refusal) and the internal consistency of data between the two methods. Questions were found significantly more likely to have missing data using PAPI (P < 0.001 McNemar's test). In an analysis of 70 questions, 46 out of 70 (65.7%) in PAPI had at least one answer missing (range of non-response 0–14%) whereas in CASI only nine out of 70 (12.8%) questions had any missing data (range 0–1%).

In CASI, 24 consistency checks were built into the program, and queries to the respondent were raised on screen so that respondents could change the answer or suppress the query and move on. Other internal consistency checks were tested on the completed data. Sixty-two key consistency checks were analysed. The mean number of fails per record was 2.4 with PAPI and 1.8 with CASI, whereas similar proportions of PAPI and CASI respondents had no fails (18% PAPI and 16% CASI). Taking no fails and one fail together, the outcome was 29% PAPI and 59% CASI.

Table 1 shows the ORs of reporting a number of behaviours for CASI compared with PAPI, adjusting for age and the number of eligible adults in the household (grouped 1, 2, and 3+). The behaviours are grouped according to their presumed sensitivity.

Table 1
Table 1
Image Tools

There is no evidence that the summary OR are above one for the most sensitive questions, declining to around one for the least sensitive questions, as might be hypothesized if there is a CASI effect (P = 0.43, Mann–Whitney test comparing high with moderate sensitivity). The results of the GEE analysis are consistent. The observed main effect of CASI as an adjusted OR (95% confidence interval; CI) is 1.04 (0.92–1.17). No significant interaction was found between CASI and high question sensitivity. Equally, when each question is examined individually, there are no significant effects in the summary column.

There was no evidence of a pattern of declining OR with lower sensitivity in any of the four sex and region subgroups (Table 1). In the GEE analysis (detailed results not presented), we found no significant interaction between CASI and either sex or region (London or outside).

We examined heterogeneity in the OR for the CASI effect for individual questions by region and by sex. We found a significant difference (interaction) in the CASI effect by region for homosexual sex and some difference for heterosexual anal sex (P = 0.056), and a significant difference by sex for never a blood donor together with some difference for ever had a sexually transmitted disease diagnosis (P = 0.056). There is no consistency in the nature of the CASI effect found within subgroups for these questions. For example, the findings suggest that CASI may possibly lead to higher reporting of homosexual sex outside London, but lower reporting of heterosexual anal sex.

Back to Top | Article Outline

Discussion

CASI was found to be highly acceptable. Compared with PAPI, there were no differences in unit response rates but there were substantial improvements in data quality. The CASI module was carefully developed so that respondents only used limited ranges of keys, so it needed no greater ‘computer literacy’ than that required to obtain cash from an automatic cashpoint machine. Qualitative research carried out to aid the design of the study showed that even those with no computer experience found CASI easy to use, appreciated the chance to correct mistakes and felt that the method enhanced confidentiality [10]. The lower rates of item non-response of CASI reflect the programmed routing of questions. In PAPI, respondents need to follow written instructions, which they may misinterpret or misread, but in CASI once a question is answered the programme moves to the next relevant question.

Our primary hypothesis was that CASI might affect reporting rates according to the sensitivity of the question asked, but we found no evidence of such a general CASI effect either overall or within sex or location subgroups. The lack of consistency in the suggested effects for individual questions within subgroups is consistent with these effects arising by chance, given the multiple testing, but the possibility that they represent real effects cannot be excluded.

We are now undertaking a large-scale survey using the CASI methodology developed in this study. On the basis of our findings, any substantial changes in the reporting of behaviours that are evident in the new survey are unlikely to be in any large part attributable to a change in the method of data collection.

Our results contrast with the findings of Turner et al. [6], who reported significant CASI effects for the reporting of several sensitive behaviours. However, their sample was restricted to adolescent males, many from disadvantaged backgrounds, and the study used audio CASI to overcome potential literacy problems in this group. Method effects will be related to the degree of perceived social censure of particular behaviours, and these may vary between cultures and demographic groups. We have previously demonstrated the more tolerant attitudes to homosexuality and other sexual behaviours in Britain compared with the United States [4], which may partly explain the difference in method effect between studies.

The second National Survey of Sexual Attitudes and Lifestyles is being undertaken with funding from the Medical Research Council. We hope to interview 12 000 people in Britain aged 16–44 years, half of whom will also be invited to provide a urine sample for testing for genital Chlamydia trachomatis. The survey will provide up-dated estimates of the population prevalence of HIV risk behaviours, and allow an analysis of changes since 1990.

Back to Top | Article Outline

Acknowledgements

The authors would like to thank the interviewers from the National Centre for Social Research, and the participants for their essential contributions; Vern Farewell and Susan Purdon for statistical advice; and Sandy Gale for manuscript preparation. A more detailed version of this manuscript is available from the authors.

Back to Top | Article Outline

References

1. Johnson AM, Wadsworth J, Wellings K, Bradshaw S, Field J. Sexual lifestyles and HIV risk. Nature 1992, 360: 410 -412.

2. ACSF investigators. AIDS and sexual behaviour in France. Nature 1992, 360: 407 –409.

3. Cleland J, Ferry B. Sexual behaviour and AIDS in the developing world. London: Taylor Francis; 1995.

4. Michael RT, Wadsworth J, Feinleib J, Johnson AM, Laumann EO, Wellings K. Private sexual behavior, public opinion, and public health policy related to sexually transmitted diseases: a US–British comparison. Am J Public Health 1998, 88: 749 –754.

5. Weeks MF. Computer assisted survey information collection: a review of CASI methods and their implications for survey operations. J Official Statistics 1992, 8: 445 –465.

6. Turner CF, Ku L, Rogers SM, Lindberg LD, Pleck JH, Sonenstein FL. Adolescent sexual behaviour, drug use and violence: increased reporting with computer survey technology. Science 1998, 280: 867 –873.

7. Johnson AM, Wadsworth J, Wellings K, Field J. Sexual attitudes and lifestyles. Oxford: Blackwell Scientific Press; 1994.

8. Wellings K, Field J, Johnson AM, Wadsworth J. Sexual behaviour in Britain. London: Penguin; 1994.

9. Zeger SL, Liang KY. Longitudinal data analysis for discrete and continuous outcomes. Biometrics 1986, 42: 121 –130.

10. Mitchell K, Wellings K, Elam G. NATSSAL 2 survey design and implementation report of the qualitative stage. Report to Medical Research Council, June 1998. pp. 1–40.

Cited By:

This article has been cited 49 time(s).

AIDS and Behavior
The Effect of Interview Method on Self-Reported Sexual Behavior and Perceptions of Community Norms in Botswana
Anglewicz, P; Gourvenec, D; Halldorsdottir, I; O'Kane, C; Koketso, O; Gorgens, M; Kasper, T
AIDS and Behavior, 17(2): 674-687.
10.1007/s10461-012-0224-z
CrossRef
Journal of Infectious Diseases
Reported sexually transmitted disease clinic attendance and sexually transmitted infections in britain: Prevalence, risk factors, and proportionate population burden
Fenton, KA; Mercer, CH; Johnson, AM; Byron, CL; McManus, S; Erens, B; Copas, AJ; Nanchahal, K; Macdowall, W; Wellings, K
Journal of Infectious Diseases, 191(): S127-S138.

Croatian Medical Journal
Prevalence of and risk factors for self-reported sexually transmitted infections in Slovenia in 2000
Grgic-Vitek, M; Svab, I; Klavs, I
Croatian Medical Journal, 47(5): 722-729.

American Journal of Public Health
Women who report having sex with women: British national probability data on prevalence, sexual behaviors, and health outcomes
Mercer, CH; Bailey, JV; Johnson, AM; Erens, B; Wellings, K; Fenton, KA; Copas, AJ
American Journal of Public Health, 97(6): 1126-1133.
10.2105/AJPH.2006.086439
CrossRef
Journal of Applied Social Psychology
The Effects of Assessment Mode and Privacy Level on Self-Reports of Risky Sexual Behaviors and Substance Use Among Young Women1
Brown, JL; Vanable, PA
Journal of Applied Social Psychology, 39(): 2756-2778.

Sexually Transmitted Infections
Audio computer assisted interviewing to measure HIV risk behaviours in a clinic population
Rogers, SM; Willis, G; Al-Tayyib, A; Villarroel, MA; Turner, CF; Ganapathi, L; Zenilman, J; Jadack, R
Sexually Transmitted Infections, 81(6): 501-507.
10.1136/sti.2004.014266
CrossRef
American Journal of Epidemiology
Test-Retest Reliability of a Sexual Behavior Interview for Men Residing in Brazil, Mexico, and the United States
Nyitray, AG; Kim, J; Hsu, CH; Papenfuss, M; Villa, L; Lazcano-Ponce, E; Giuliano, AR
American Journal of Epidemiology, 170(8): 965-974.
10.1093/aje/kwp225
CrossRef
AIDS
Prevention with gay and bisexual men living with HIV: rationale and methods of the Seropositive Urban Men's Intervention Trial (SUMIT)
Wolitski, RJ; Parsons, JT; Gomez, CA; Purcell, DW; Hoff, CC; Halkitis, PN
AIDS, 19(): S1-S11.

International Journal of Std & AIDS
Client acceptability of the use of computers in a sexual health clinic
Tideman, RL; Pitts, MK; Fairley, CK
International Journal of Std & AIDS, 17(2): 121-123.

Archives of Sexual Behavior
Prevalence of masturbation and associated factors in a British national probability survey
Gerressu, M; Mercer, CH; Graham, CA; Wellings, K; Johnson, AM
Archives of Sexual Behavior, 37(2): 266-278.
10.1007/s10508-006-9123-6
CrossRef
Lancet
Sexual behaviour in Britain: partnerships, practices, and HIV risk behaviours
Johnson, AM; Mercer, CH; Erens, B; Copas, AJ; McManus, S; Wellings, K; Fenton, KA; Korovessis, C; Macdowall, W; Nanchahal, K; Purdon, S; Field, H
Lancet, 358(): 1835-1842.

Demography
The reporting of sensitive behavior by adolescents: A methodological experiment in Kenya
Mensch, BS; Hewett, PC; Erulkar, AS
Demography, 40(2): 247-268.

Asc 2003: the Impact of Technology on the Survey Process
How much can technology help research?
Glass, N
Asc 2003: the Impact of Technology on the Survey Process, (): 1-9.

Sexually Transmitted Infections
Consistency in the reporting of sexual behaviour by adolescent girls in Kenya: a comparison of interviewing methods
Hewett, PC; Mensch, BS; Erulkar, AS
Sexually Transmitted Infections, 80(): 43-48.
10.1136/sti.2004.013250
CrossRef
Transfusion Medicine Reviews
Computer-based blood donor screening: A status report
Katz, LM; Cumming, PD; Wallace, EL
Transfusion Medicine Reviews, 21(1): 13-25.
10.1016/j.tmrv.2006.08.001
CrossRef
Sexually Transmitted Diseases
Core group evolution over time - High-risk sexual Behavior in a birth cohort between sexual debut and age 26
Humblet, O; Paul, C; Dickson, N
Sexually Transmitted Diseases, 30(): 818-824.
10.1097/01.OLQ.000097102.42149.11
CrossRef
International Journal of Nursing Studies
Evaluating the Theory of Planned Behavior to explain intention to engage in premarital sex amongst Korean college students: A questionnaire survey
Cha, ES; Doswell, WM; Kim, KH; Charron-Prochownik, D; Patrick, TE
International Journal of Nursing Studies, 44(7): 1147-1157.
10.1016/j.ijnurstu.2006.04.015
CrossRef
Sexually Transmitted Infections
The accuracy of reported sensitive sexual behaviour in Britain: exploring the extent of change 1990-2000
Copas, AJ; Wellings, K; Erens, B; Mercer, CH; McManus, S; Fenton, KA; Korovessis, C; Macdowall, W; Nanchahal, K; Johnson, AM
Sexually Transmitted Infections, 78(1): 26-30.

Social Forces
Gender differences in the prevalence of same-sex sexual partnering: 1988-2002
Butler, AC
Social Forces, 84(1): 421-449.

Transfusion
Risk-behavior reporting by blood donors with an automated telephone system
Fielding, R; Lam, TH; Hedley, A
Transfusion, 46(2): 289-297.
10.1111/j.1537-2995.2006.00714.x
CrossRef
AIDS
The feasibility of audio computer-assisted self-interviewing in international settings
Caceres, CF; Celentano, DD; Coates, TJ; Hartwell, TD; Kasprzyk, D; Kelly, JA; Kozlov, AP; Pequegnat, W; Rotheram-Borus, MJ; Solomon, S; Woelk, G; Wu, Z
AIDS, 21(): S49-S58.

Annual Review of Clinical Psychology
Internet methods for delivering behavioral and health-related interventions (eHealth)
Strecher, V
Annual Review of Clinical Psychology, 3(): 53-76.
10.1146/annurev.clinpsy.3.022806.091428
CrossRef
Behavior Research Methods
Computer-assisted self-interviews: A cost effectiveness analysis
Brown, JL; Vanable, PA; Eriksen, MD
Behavior Research Methods, 40(1): 1-7.
10.3758/BRM.40.1.1
CrossRef
AIDS
Increasing prevalence of male homosexual partnerships and practices in Britain 1990-2000: evidence from national probability surveys
Mercer, CH; Fenton, KA; Copas, AJ; Wellings, K; Erens, B; McManus, S; Nanchahal, K; Macdowall, W; Johnson, AM
AIDS, 18(): 1453-1458.
10.1097/01.aids.0000131331.36386.de
CrossRef
Social Science Computer Review
The feasibility of computer-assisted survey interviewing in Africa - Experience from two rural districts in Kenya
Hewett, PC; Erulkar, AS; Mensch, BS
Social Science Computer Review, 22(3): 319-334.
10.1177/0894439304263114
CrossRef
Transfusion
Audiovisual touch-screen computer-assisted self-interviewing for donor health histories: results from two years experience with the system
Katz, LM; Cumming, PD; Wallace, EL; Abrams, PS
Transfusion, 45(2): 171-180.

Journal of Epidemiology and Community Health
Changes in the circumstances of young mothers in Britain: 1990 to 2000
Nanchahal, K; Wellings, K; Barrett, G; Copas, AJ; Mercer, CH; Macmanus, S; Macdowall, W; Fenton, KA; Erens, B; Johnson, AM
Journal of Epidemiology and Community Health, 59(): 828-833.
10.1136/jech.2004.026021
CrossRef
American Journal of Epidemiology
Palmtop-assisted self-interviewing for the collection of sensitive behavioral data: Randomized trial with drug use urine testing
van Griensven, F; Naorat, S; Kilmarx, PH; Jeeyapant, S; Manopaiboon, C; Chaikummao, S; Jenkins, RA; Uthaivoravit, W; Wasinrapee, P; Mock, PA; Tappero, JW
American Journal of Epidemiology, 163(3): 271-278.
10.1093/aje/kwj038
CrossRef
Sexually Transmitted Diseases
A comparison between audio computer-assisted self-interviews and clinician interviews for obtaining the sexual history
Kurth, AE; Martin, DP; Golden, MR; Weiss, NS; Heagerty, PJ; Spielberg, F; Handsfield, HH; Holmes, KK
Sexually Transmitted Diseases, 31(): 719-726.
10.1097/01.olq.0000145855.36181.13
CrossRef
American Journal of Public Health
Differences in young people's reports of sexual behaviors according to interview methodology: A randomized trial in India
Jaya; Hindin, MJ; Ahmed, S
American Journal of Public Health, 98(1): 169-174.
10.2105/AJPH.2006.099937
CrossRef
International Journal of Std & AIDS
Behaviourally bisexual men as a bridge population for HIV and sexually transmitted infections? Evidence from a national probability survey
Mercer, CH; Hart, GJ; Johnson, AM; Cassell, JA
International Journal of Std & AIDS, 20(2): 87-94.
10.1258/ijsa.2008.008215
CrossRef
Jaids-Journal of Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndromes
Practical and conceptual challenges in measuring antiretroviral adherence
Berg, KM; Arnsten, JH
Jaids-Journal of Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndromes, 43(): S79-S87.

Culture Health & Sexuality
How can we facilitate reliable reporting in surveys of sexual behaviour? Evidence from qualitative research
Mitchell, K; Wellings, K; Elam, G; Erens, B; Fenton, K; Johnson, A
Culture Health & Sexuality, 9(5): 519-531.
10.1080/13691050701432561
CrossRef
Public Opinion Quarterly
Adolescents' inconsistency in self-reported smoking - A comparison of reports in school and in household settings
Griesler, PC; Kandel, DB; Schaffran, C; Hu, MC; Davies, M
Public Opinion Quarterly, 72(2): 260-290.
10.1093/poq/nfn016
CrossRef
Sexually Transmitted Infections
A randomised controlled trial comparing computer-assisted with face-to-face sexual history taking in a clinical setting
Tideman, RL; Chen, MY; Pitts, MK; Ginige, S; Slaney, M; Fairley, CK
Sexually Transmitted Infections, 83(1): 52-56.
10.1136/sti.2006.020776
CrossRef
Journal of the Royal Statistical Society Series A-Statistics in Society
The sensitivity of estimates of the change in population behaviour to realistic changes in bias in repeated surveys
Copas, AJ; Farewell, VT; Mercer, CH; Yao, GQ
Journal of the Royal Statistical Society Series A-Statistics in Society, 167(): 579-595.

Journal of Public Health
Mode of questionnaire administration can have serious effects on data quality
Bowling, A
Journal of Public Health, 27(3): 281-291.
10.1093/pubmed/fdi031
CrossRef
Sexually Transmitted Infections
Sex partner acquisition while overseas: results from a British national probability survey
Mercer, CH; Fenton, KA; Wellings, K; Copas, AJ; Erens, B; Johnson, AM
Sexually Transmitted Infections, 83(7): 517-522.
10.1136/sti.2007.026377
CrossRef
Plos One
Is Audio Computer-Assisted Self-Interview (ACASI) Useful in Risk Behaviour Assessment of Female and Male Sex Workers, Mombasa, Kenya?
van der Elst, EM; Okuku, HS; Nakamya, P; Muhaari, A; Davies, A; McClelland, RS; Price, MA; Smith, AD; Graham, SM; Sanders, EJ
Plos One, 4(5): -.
ARTN e5340
CrossRef
AIDS and Behavior
Conducting Internet-based HIV/STD prevention survey research: Considerations in design and evaluation
Pequegnat, W; Rosser, BRS; Bowen, AM; Bull, SS; DiClemente, RJ; Bockting, WO; Elford, J; Fishbein, M; Gurak, L; Horvath, K; Konstan, J; Noar, SM; Ross, MW; Sherr, L; Spiegel, D; Zimmerman, R
AIDS and Behavior, 11(4): 505-521.
10.1007/s10461-006-9172-9
CrossRef
Journal of Sex Research
A Comparison of Survey Techniques on Sensitive Sexual Behavior in Italy
Caltabiano, M; Dalla-Zuanna, G
Journal of Sex Research, 50(6): 537-547.
10.1080/00224499.2012.674573
CrossRef
JAIDS Journal of Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndromes
Web-Based Behavioral Surveillance Among Men Who Have Sex With Men: A Comparison of Online and Offline Samples in London, UK
Elford, J; Bolding, G; Davis, M; Sherr, L; Hart, G
JAIDS Journal of Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndromes, 35(4): 421-426.

PDF (80)
JAIDS Journal of Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndromes
Effects of a Coping Intervention on Transmission Risk Behavior Among People Living With HIV/AIDS and a History of Childhood Sexual Abuse
Sikkema, KJ; Wilson, PA; Hansen, NB; Kochman, A; Neufeld, S; Ghebremichael, MS; Kershaw, T
JAIDS Journal of Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndromes, 47(4): 506-513.
10.1097/QAI.0b013e318160d727
PDF (302) | CrossRef
Sexually Transmitted Diseases
Chlamydia trachomatis Testing in the Second British National Survey of Sexual Attitudes and Lifestyles: Respondent Uptake and Treatment Outcomes
McCadden, A; Fenton, KA; McManus, S; Mercer, CH; Erens, B; Carder, C; Ridgway, G; Macdowall, W; Nanchahal, K; Byron, CL; Copas, A; Wellings, K; Johnson, AM
Sexually Transmitted Diseases, 32(6): 387-394.

PDF (1249)
Sexually Transmitted Diseases
Changes in Sexual Behavior and STD Prevalence Among Heterosexual STD Clinic Attendees: 1993–1995 Versus 1999–2000
Satterwhite, CL; Kamb, ML; Metcalf, C; Douglas, JM; Malotte, CK; Paul, S; Peterman, TA
Sexually Transmitted Diseases, 34(10): 815-819.
10.1097/OLQ.0b013e31805c751d
PDF (179) | CrossRef
Sexually Transmitted Diseases
Efficacy of a Booster Counseling Session 6 Months After HIV Testing and Counseling: A Randomized, Controlled Trial (RESPECT-2)
Metcalf, CA; Malotte, CK; Douglas, JM; Paul, SM; Dillon, BA; Cross, H; Brookes, LC; DeAugustine, N; Lindsey, CA; Byers, RH; Peterman, TA; the RESPECT-2 Study Group,
Sexually Transmitted Diseases, 32(2): 123-129.

PDF (435)
Sexually Transmitted Diseases
Relative Efficacy of Prevention Counseling With Rapid and Standard HIV Testing: A Randomized, Controlled Trial (RESPECT-2)
Peterman, TA; the RESPECT-2 Study Group, ; Metcalf, CA; Douglas, JM; Malotte, CK; Cross, H; Dillon, BA; Paul, SM; Padilla, SM; Brookes, LC; Lindsey, CA; Byers, RH
Sexually Transmitted Diseases, 32(2): 130-138.

PDF (456)
Sexually Transmitted Diseases
Barebacking Among HIV-Positive Gay Men in London
Elford, J; Bolding, G; Davis, M; Sherr, L; Hart, G
Sexually Transmitted Diseases, 34(2): 93-98.
10.1097/01.olq.0000223247.68174.f9
PDF (210) | CrossRef
Sexually Transmitted Diseases
T-ACASI Reduces Bias in STD Measurements: The National STD and Behavior Measurement Experiment
Villarroel, MA; Turner, CF; Rogers, SM; Roman, AM; Cooley, PC; Steinberg, AB; Eggleston, E; Chromy, JR
Sexually Transmitted Diseases, 35(5): 499-506.
10.1097/OLQ.0b013e318165925a
PDF (272) | CrossRef
Back to Top | Article Outline
Keywords:

Epidemiology; knowledge; attitude; practice studies; sexual behaviour; surveillance

© 2001 Lippincott Williams & Wilkins, Inc.

Login

Search for Similar Articles
You may search for similar articles that contain these same keywords or you may modify the keyword list to augment your search.