Skip Navigation LinksHome > January 5, 2001 - Volume 15 - Issue 1 > Efavirenz plasma levels can predict treatment failure and ce...
AIDS:
Clinical Science: Concise Communication

Efavirenz plasma levels can predict treatment failure and central nervous system side effects in HIV-1-infected patients

Marzolini, Catiaa; Telenti, Amaliob; Decosterd, Laurent A.a; Greub, Gilbertb; Biollaz, Jérômea; Buclin, Thierrya

Free Access
Article Outline
Collapse Box

Author Information

From the aDivision of Clinical Pharmacology, Department of Medicine, and bDivision of Infectious Diseases, University Hospital of Lausanne, Switzerland.

Received: 22 August 2000; accepted: 10 October 2000.

Sponsorship: This work was supported by a grant from the Swiss National Science Foundation (no. 3344-062092.00).

Correspondence to: Thierry Buclin, Division of Clinical Pharmacology, Beaumont 06-633, Department of Medicine, University Hospital (CHUV), 1011 Lausanne, Switzerland. Tel: +41 21 314 42 65; fax: +41 21 314 42 66; e-mail: thierry.buclin@chuv.hospvd.ch

Collapse Box

Abstract

Objective: Limited information exists on the clinical usefulness of drug level monitoring for efavirenz, a once-daily non-nucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitor (NNRTI). The aim of this study was to determine whether efavirenz plasma concentration monitoring could predict treatment failure and central nervous system (CNS) tolerability.

Methods: Blood samples were obtained from 130 HIV-infected patients receiving efavirenz in combination with other antiretroviral agents for more than 3 months. Efavirenz plasma concentrations were measured by high-performance liquid chromatography. An evaluation of CNS side-effects was performed and the viral load, CD4 cell count and other clinical and laboratory data were assessed. In 85 patients, these measures were repeated at 3 month intervals.

Results: Efavirenz plasma levels (n = 226) were measured at an average of 14 h after drug intake. Drug concentrations ranged from 125 to 15 230 μg/l (median 2188). Large inter-patient (CV 118%) and limited intra-patient (CV 30%) variabilities were observed in efavirenz levels. Virological failure was observed in 50% of patients with low efavirenz levels (< 1000 μg/l) versus 22 and 18% in patients with 1000–4000 μg/l or more than 4000 μg/l, respectively. CNS toxicity was approximately three times more frequent in patients with high efavirenz levels (> 4000 μg/l) compared with patients with 1000–4000 μg/l.

Conclusion: Treatment failure and CNS side-effects are associated with low and high efavirenz plasma levels, respectively. The important inter-individual variability in efavirenz levels strongly argues for dose adjustment on the basis of therapeutic drug monitoring to optimize treatment.

Back to Top | Article Outline

Introduction

Efavirenz is a non-nucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitor (NNRTI) with a prolonged half-life [1–3]. allowing once-daily dosing, and therefore presenting an advantage for treatment compliance and efficacy [4–10]. Despite its potency, efavirenz is a drug with a low genetic barrier as a single mutation, most frequently K103N in the reverse transcriptase gene, and induces a high level of phenotypic resistance [3]. The emergence of efavirenz-resistant mutants is likely to be facilitated by repeated exposure to subtherapeutic drug levels. Treatment failure seems to be more frequent in patients with low efavirenz trough levels, compared with those with high levels (> 1100 μg/l) [11]. Moreover, 20–40% of patients receiving efavirenz have central nervous system (CNS) side-effects [12]. CNS disturbances range from dizziness to hallucinations, including frequent nightmares, dreams and insomnia [1,2]. The symptoms are usually mild to moderate in severity, and are reported to subside progressively over a few weeks after the initiation of efavirenz therapy [13]. Nevertheless, efavirenz is discontinued in 4% of patients because of the severity or persistence of such adverse effects [14].

As pharmacological differences among patients introduce wide heterogeneity in the response to antiretroviral therapy [15], monitoring of the drug levels could be useful in the clinical management of HIV disease [16]. Whereas this could apply to efavirenz, no evaluation of the target concentrations to be reached to ensure treatment success and toxicity avoidance has yet been reported. The aims of this study were to evaluate the inter- and intra-patient variability, to assess the influence of various factors on efavirenz disposition, and to explore the relationship between treatment failure or CNS side-effects and efavirenz plasma concentrations, by measuring plasma concentrations of efavirenz in field conditions.

Back to Top | Article Outline

Materials and methods

Patients were recruited at the outpatient HIV clinic at the university hospital of Lausanne, Switzerland, from January 1999 to June 2000. The study was approved by the local Ethics Committee. HIV-positive individuals treated for at least 3 months with efavirenz 600 mg a day in combination with other antiretroviral agents were included.

As efavirenz is generally administered at bedtime to improve its tolerability [1], it is difficult to determine trough levels in an outpatient setting. Blood samples were thus taken during the day, between 8 and 20 h post-dosing, at the patient's convenience. A blood sample (5 ml) was collected into lithium heparin Monovettes (Sarstedt, Nümbrecht, Germany). Plasma was isolated by centrifugation, viro-inactivated in a water bath at 60°C for 60 min and stored at −20°C until analysis. Plasma efavirenz levels were determined by reverse-phase high-performance liquid chromatography according to a validated method [17], enabling the simultaneous quantification in plasma of HIV protease inhibitors (PI) and efavirenz.

Concomitant medications at the time of sample collection were recorded. A standardized evaluation of CNS side-effects (insomnia, dizziness, headache, faint) was performed, together with the determination of viral load, CD4 cell count and other clinical and laboratory variables. These measures were repeated at 3 month intervals for a subset of patients.

The efavirenz concentration results and the viral load values were log transformed. Associations with discrete factors (patient, sex, PI, CNS toxicity) were explored using one-way analysis of variance, whereas linear regression was used for continuous covariates (viral load, body mass index, efavirenz treatment duration, sampling time, CD4 cell count). The predictive value of efavirenz concentrations for viral suppression (Amplicor test, level of detection 400 copies/ml and modified ultrasensitive method, level of detection < 20 copies/ml; Roche Diagnostics, Basel, Switzerland) or CNS adverse effects was assessed by logistic regression analysis.

Back to Top | Article Outline

Results

The plasma level of efavirenz was determined at mid-interval in 130 patients (93 men) aged 23–74 years, treated either with a combination therapy of two nucleosidic reverse transcriptase inhibitors (NRTI) or PI with or without NRTI. The most frequent NRTI and PI combined with efavirenz were zidovudine, lamivudine and nelfinavir, respectively. The blood sampling occurred between 3 and 18 months after the initiation of efavirenz treatment (average 8 months). Eighty-five patients provided two to eight samples at 3 month intervals. In total, 226 drug levels were determined. Patients and treatment characteristics, laboratory values, CNS toxicity and range of efavirenz plasma levels are summarized in Table 1.

Table 1
Table 1
Image Tools

Drug concentrations ranged from 125 to 15 230 μg/l (median 2188 μg/l). The average (SD) sampling time interval was 14.0 ± 2.7 h after dose intake. The efavirenz levels were only slightly influenced by the sampling time, which explained only 3% of the total variance (P = 0.006) in accordance with the long plasma half-life reflected in the small log-linear slope (0.055 h−1) (Fig. 1a). The repeated determinations performed in 85 patients revealed a low intra-patient variability [coefficient of variation (CV) 30%] over 3 month intervals, whereas inter-patient variability was much larger (CV 118%), accounting for 90% of the total variance.

Fig. 1
Fig. 1
Image Tools

Among the covariates tested to explain the pharmacokinetic variability of efavirenz, neither sex, age, or body mass index influenced efavirenz plasma levels. Data gathered from the 40 patients receiving efavirenz in combination with a PI indicated that this co-medication did not influence efavirenz plasma levels.

Viral load values ranged from 20 to over 379 000 copies/ml; 76% had viral load levels below 400 copies/ml. A significant inverse correlation was found between efavirenz levels and viral load in this heterogeneous group of patients. Indeed, virological failure was observed in five out of 10 (50%) patients with low (< 1000 μg/l) efavirenz levels and in 23 out of 103 (22%) and three out of 17 (18%) with 1000–4000 μg/l or over 4000 μg/l, respectively. The CD4 cell count ranged from 6 to 1145 × 106 cells/l (median 376).

Thirteen patients (10%) had sustained adverse effects. CNS toxicity was observed in four out of 17 (24%) patients with high (> 4000 μg/l) efavirenz levels and in nine out of 103 (9%) with 1000–4000 μg/l. A range of mid-interval drug levels (1000–4000 μg/l) was proposed according to observed drug levels, toxicity and efficacy in viral suppression. This is expressed in the predictive value of efavirenz concentration for the probability of viral suppression and CNS adverse effects (Fig. 1b).

Back to Top | Article Outline

Discussion

Clinicians are often confronted with treatment failure or side-effects, and are in need of methods to evaluate drug exposure in patients. The large range of concentrations observed underlines the pharmacokinetic differences among patients. The marked inter-patient and low intra-patient variability suggest that a therapeutic drug monitoring (TDM) strategy may be useful for individualizing the treatment. According to Joshi et al.[11], trough plasma levels represent an important predictor of virological failure in compliant patients. On the other hand, the trough concentration adequately predicts the extent of drug exposure as expressed by the area under the curve [18]. However, efavirenz trough sampling is not convenient because the drug is normally given at bedtime. In this study, we demonstrate that, given the long half-life of efavirenz, mid-interval sampling times between 8 and 20 h post-dose are feasible without a significant loss of information.

The patients with treatment failure had lower efavirenz concentrations than the non-failure patients. However, the overlap in plasma concentrations between the two groups is large, as previously reported [11]. One major cause of low plasma levels is non-compliance. Drug level determination could be used for treatment adherence evaluation, because efavirenz has a long half-life. Low levels would thus suggest the omission of several consecutive doses. Nevertheless, one patient in our collective had repeatedly low levels (200 μg/l) despite good compliance. This epileptic patient was on phenobarbital, a known potent inducer of cytochrome CYP 3A4, the enzyme responsible for the metabolism of efavirenz. Other conditions may also be associated with significant pharmacokinetic variations. Our data do not suggest, however, that the co-administration of PI influences the levels of efavirenz as suggested by others [18,19], despite sharing a common cytochrome P450 metabolic pathway.

In our study, 10% of patients had persistent CNS side-effects. Descriptions of CNS adverse effects included light-headedness, feeling faint, dizzy, drunk, ‘out of control’ or restless. A few patients had nightmares, dreams or impaired concentration. Dose splitting did not substantially shorten the duration of symptoms, or reduce their intensity [13]. However, it has been proposed that a dose-escalating regimen may provide a better tolerance profile, without evidence of decreased antiviral activity in the short term [20]. We demonstrated that CNS side-effects were more frequent in patients with high drug levels. Tolerance towards this adverse effect improved with time. In one patient, we observed exceptionally high efavirenz levels (> 10 000 μg/l) but all CNS symptoms had disappeared 9 months after the beginning of treatment, despite persisting high efavirenz levels.

Antiretroviral therapy for HIV-1 infection has become more and more complex. The numerous dosing regimens proposed, the associated toxicities, and the potential for drug–drug and food–drug interactions further complicate patient care. Patient non-compliance represents a further problem. In this situation, TDM may represent a valuable tool for the clinician, provided the drug pharmacokinetics have good intra-individual reproducibility, and the circulating levels are predictive of treatment success and tolerability. These conditions are seemingly met by efavirenz, and further studies aimed at validating the clinical usefulness of TDM for individualizing the dosing regimen are warranted. From our exploratory study, a 1000–4000 μg/l range at mid-dosing interval seems to represent a suitable target for dose individualization, which should be adapted considering the clinical condition of the patient.

Back to Top | Article Outline

Acknowledgement

The authors thank Natacha Bélaz for excellent technical assistance and the team of the outpatient HIV clinic for data collection.

Back to Top | Article Outline

References

1. Sustiva. US prescribing information. DuPont Pharma; 1998.

2. Adkins JC, Noble S. Efavirenz. Drugs 1998, 56: 1055 –1064.

3. Joly V, Yeni P. Non nucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitors. AIDS Rev 1999, 1: 37 –44.

4. Katlama C. Review of NNRTIs: today and tomorrow. Int J Clin Pract 1999, Suppl. 103: 16 –20.

5. Bartlett J, Demasi R, Quinn J, et al. Pharmacologic considerations for therapeutic success with antiretroviral agents. 7th Conference on Retroviruses and Opportunistic Infections. San Francisco. January–February 2000 [Abstract 519].

6. Gazzard BG. What are the perceived advantages and disadvantages of non-nucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitors as first-line therapy? HIV Med 2000, 1: 11 –14.

7. Havlir D, Hicks C, Kahn J, et al.Durability of antiviral activity of efavirenz in combination with indinavir (IDV) . 38th Interscience Conference on Antimicrobial Agents and Chemotherapy. San Diego, September 1998 [Poster I-104].

8. Staszewski S, Morales-Ramirez J, Tashima K. et al. Efavirenz plus zidovudine and lamivudine, efavirenz plus indinavir, and indinavir plus zidovudine and lamivudine in the treatment of HIV-1 infection in adults. N Engl J Med 1999, 341: 1865 –1873.

9. Luskin-Hawk R, Cohen C, Lang J, et al. Efavirenz is well tolerated and highly efficacious in combination with the nucleoside stavudine (d4T) + didanosine (ddI) or d4T + lamivudine (3TC).37th Annual Meeting of the Infectious Diseases Society of America. Philadelphia, November 1999 [Abstract 349].

10. Youle M, Phillips AN, Loveday C. et al. Prolonged viral suppression after introduction of a post HAART salvage regimen. Chicago: Salvage Therapy Workshop; April 2000.

11. Joshi AS, Barrett JS, Fiske WD, et al. Population pharmacokinetics of efavirenz in phase II studies and relationship with efficacy. 39th Interscience Conference on Antimicrobial Agents and Chemotherapy. San Francisco, September 1999 [Poster 1201].

12. Gazzard BG. Efavirenz in the management of HIV infection. Int J Clin Pract 1999, 53: 60 –64.

13. Moyle G. Efavirenz: practicalities, considerations and new issues. Int J Clin Pract 1999, Suppl. 103: 29 –34.

14. Nelson M, Silleni M. Tolerability and efficacy of SUSTIVA in the European Expanded Access Programme. 7th European Conference on Clinical Aspects and Treatment of HIV-Infection. Lisbon, October 1999 [Abstract 489].

15. Fletcher C. Pharmacologic considerations for therapeutic success with antiretroviral agents. Ann Pharmacother 1999, 33: 989 –995.

16. Durant J, Clevenbergh P, Garraffo R. et al. Importance of protease inhibitor plasma levels in HIV-infected patients treated with genotypic-guided therapy: pharmacological data from the Viradapt Study. AIDS 2000, 14: 1333 –1339.

17. Marzolini C, Telenti A, Buclin T. et al. Simultaneous determination of the HIV protease inhibitors indinavir, amprenavir, saquinavir, ritonavir, nelfinavir and the non-nucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitor efavirenz by HPLC after solid-phase extraction. J Chromatogr B 2000, 740: 43 –58.

18. Villani P, Regazzi MB, Castelli F. et al. Pharmacokinetics of efavirenz (efavirenz) alone and in combination therapy with nelfinavir (NFV) in HIV-1 infected patients. Br J Clin Pharmacol 1999, 48: 712 –715.

19. Hendrix CW, Fiske WD, Fuchs EJ, et al. Pharmacokinetics of the triple combination of saquinavir, ritonavir and efavirenz in HIV positive patients. 7th Conference on Retroviruses and Opportunistic Infections. San Francisco, January–February 2000 [Poster 79].

20. Cahn P, Zala C, Ben G, et al. Dose-escalating prescription of efavirenz (EFV) reduces the incidence of central nervous system (CNS) severe adverse events. 13th International AIDS Conference. Durban, July 2000 [Poster WePpB1376].

Cited By:

This article has been cited 304 time(s).

Pharmacogenomics
Would a CYP2B6 test help HIV patients being treated with efavirenz?
Sukasem, C; Sungkanuparph, S
Pharmacogenomics, 14(9): 999-1001.
10.2217/PGS.69
CrossRef
Antimicrobial Agents and Chemotherapy
Pharmacokinetics and Pharmacodynamics of ASP2151, a Helicase-Primase Inhibitor, in a Murine Model of Herpes Simplex Virus Infection
Katsumata, K; Chono, K; Kato, K; Ohtsu, Y; Takakura, S; Kontani, T; Suzuki, H
Antimicrobial Agents and Chemotherapy, 57(3): 1339-1346.
10.1128/AAC.01803-12
CrossRef
British Journal of Clinical Pharmacology
Neuropsychometric correlates of efavirenz pharmacokinetics and pharmacogenetics following a single oral dose
Johnson, DH; Gebretsadik, T; Shintani, A; Mayo, G; Acosta, EP; Stein, CM; Haas, DW
British Journal of Clinical Pharmacology, 75(4): 997-1006.
10.1111/j.1365-2125.2012.04454.x
CrossRef
Journal of Pharmaceutical Sciences
Biowaiver monographs for immediate release solid oral dosage forms: Efavirenz
Cristofoletti, R; Nair, A; Abrahamsson, B; Groot, DW; Kopp, S; Langguth, P; Polli, JE; Shah, VP; Dressman, JB
Journal of Pharmaceutical Sciences, 102(2): 318-329.
10.1002/jps.23380
CrossRef
Hepatology
Hepatotoxicity associated with nevirapine or efavirenz-containing antiretroviral therapy: Role of hepatitis C and B infections
Sulkowski, MS; Thomas, DL; Mehta, SH; Chaisson, RE; Moore, RD
Hepatology, 35(1): 182-189.
10.1053/jhep.2002.30319
CrossRef
Archives of Pathology & Laboratory Medicine
Therapeutic drug monitoring in human immunodeficiency virus/acquired immunodeficiency syndrome - Quo vadis?
Soldin, OP; Elin, RJ; Soldin, SJ
Archives of Pathology & Laboratory Medicine, 127(1): 102-104.

Clinical Pharmacology & Therapeutics
Population pharmacokinetics and effects of efavirenz in patients with human immunodeficiency virus infection
Csajka, C; Marzolini, C; Fattinger, K; Decosterd, LA; Fellay, J; Telenti, A; Biollaz, J; Buclin, T
Clinical Pharmacology & Therapeutics, 73(1): 20-30.
10.1067/mcp.2003.22
CrossRef
Infectious Disease Clinics of North America
Pharmacodynamics and clinical use of anti-HIV drugs
Preston, SL; Piliero, PJ; Drusano, GL
Infectious Disease Clinics of North America, 17(3): 651-+.
10.1016/S0891-5520(03)00064-3
CrossRef
Antimicrobial Agents and Chemotherapy
Quality assurance program for clinical measurement of antiretrovirals: AIDS Clinical Trials Group proficiency testing program for pediatric and adult pharmacology laboratories
Holland, DT; DiFrancesco, R; Stone, J; Hamzeh, F; Connor, JD; Morse, GD
Antimicrobial Agents and Chemotherapy, 48(3): 824-831.
10.1128/AAC.48.3.824-831.2004
CrossRef
Hiv Clinical Trials
Usefulness of therapeutic drug monitoring of antiretrovirals in routine clinical practice
Duong, M; Golzi, A; Peytavin, G; Piroth, L; Froidure, M; Grappin, M; Buisson, M; Kohli, E; Chavanet, P; Portier, H
Hiv Clinical Trials, 5(4): 216-223.

Lancet Infectious Diseases
Is it safe to switch between efavirenz and nevirapine in the event of toxicity?
Mehta, U; Maartens, G
Lancet Infectious Diseases, 7(): 733-738.

Enfermedades Infecciosas Y Microbiologia Clinica
P-glycoprotein and human immunodeficiency virus infection
Peralta, G; Sanchez, MB; Echevarria, S; Valdizan, EM; Armijo, JA
Enfermedades Infecciosas Y Microbiologia Clinica, 26(3): 150-159.

Journal of Chromatography B-Analytical Technologies in the Biomedical and Life Sciences
Quantification of the HIV-integrase inhibitor raltegravir (MK-0518) in human plasma by high-performance liquid chromatography with fluorescence detection
Poirier, JM; Robidou, P; Jaillon, P
Journal of Chromatography B-Analytical Technologies in the Biomedical and Life Sciences, 867(2): 277-281.
10.1016/j.jchromb.2008.03.026
CrossRef
Journal of Clinical Pharmacology
Pharmacologic consideration for the use of antiretroviral agents in the elderly
Rhee, MS; Greenblatt, DJ
Journal of Clinical Pharmacology, 48(): 1212-1225.
10.1177/0091270008322177
CrossRef
Journal of Antimicrobial Chemotherapy
Pharmacokinetic variability of antiretroviral drugs and correlation with virological outcome: 2 years of experience in routine clinical practice
Fabbiani, M; Di Giambenedetto, S; Bracciale, L; Bacarelli, A; Ragazzoni, E; Cauda, R; Navarra, P; De Luca, A
Journal of Antimicrobial Chemotherapy, 64(1): 109-117.
10.1093/jac/dkp132
CrossRef
Xenobiotica
Hepatic CYP2B6 is altered by genetic, physiologic, and environmental factors but plays little role in nicotine metabolism
Al Koudsi, N; Tyndale, RF
Xenobiotica, 40(6): 381-392.
10.3109/00498251003713958
CrossRef
Clinical Infectious Diseases
Antiretroviral drug pharmacokinetics in hepatitis with hepatic dysfunction
Wyles, DL; Gerber, JG
Clinical Infectious Diseases, 40(1): 174-181.

Presse Medicale
Antiretroviral agents in HIV-infected patients with cirrhosis
Salmon-Ceron, D; Sogni, P; Spiridon, G; Taburet, AM
Presse Medicale, 34(): 1S45-1S52.

Antiviral Therapy
Early virological failure with a combination of tenofovir, didanosine and efavirenz
Podzomczer, D; Ferrer, E; Gatell, JM; Niubo, J; Dalmau, D; Leon, A; Knobel, H; Polo, C; Iniguez, D; Ruiz, I
Antiviral Therapy, 10(1): 171-177.

Clinical Pharmacokinetics
Pharmacokinetics of antiretroviral therapy in HIV-1-infected children
Fraaij, PLA; van Kampen, JJA; Burger, DM; de Groot, R
Clinical Pharmacokinetics, 44(9): 935-956.

Current Pharmaceutical Design
Update on the pharmacokinetic aspects of antiretroviral agents: Implications in therapeutic drug monitoring
Slish, JC; Catanzaro, LM; Ma, Q; Okusanya, OO; Demeter, L; Albrecht, M; Morse, GD
Current Pharmaceutical Design, 12(9): 1129-1145.

AIDS Patient Care and Stds
Adherence and plasma drug concentrations are predictors of confirmed virologic response after 24-week salvage highly active antiretroviral therapy
Quiros-Roldan, E; Torti, C; Lapadula, G; Ladisa, N; Micheli, V; Patroni, A; Cusato, M; Pierotti, P; Tirelli, V; Uccelli, MC; Di Giambenedetto, S; Castelnuovo, F; Gargiulo, F; Manca, N; Carosi, G
AIDS Patient Care and Stds, 21(2): 92-99.
10.1089/apc.2005.0037
CrossRef
Clinical Pharmacology & Therapeutics
The Relationships of ABCB1 3435C > T and CYP2B6 516G > T With High-Density Lipoprotein Cholesterol in HIV-Infected Patients Receiving Efavirenz
Mahungu, TW; Nair, D; Smith, CJ; Egan, D; Youle, M; Johnson, MA; Khoo, SH; Back, DJ; Owen, A
Clinical Pharmacology & Therapeutics, 86(2): 204-211.
10.1038/clpt.2009.78
CrossRef
Journal of Chromatography B-Analytical Technologies in the Biomedical and Life Sciences
Simple and rapid quantification of the non-nucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitors nevirapine, delavirdine, and efavirenz in human blood plasma using high-performance liquid chromatography with ultraviolet absorbance detection
Rezk, NL; Tidwell, RR; Kashuba, ADM
Journal of Chromatography B-Analytical Technologies in the Biomedical and Life Sciences, 774(1): 79-88.
PII S1570-0232(02)00210-6
CrossRef
Journal of Chromatographic Science
Performance analysis of a rapid HPLC determination with the solvent demixing extraction of HIV antiproteases and efavirenz in plasma
Cociglio, M; Hillaire-Buys, D; Peyriere, H; Alric, R
Journal of Chromatographic Science, 41(2): 80-86.

Biochemical and Biophysical Research Communications
A new method for analysis of AZT-triphosphate and nucleotide-triphosphates
van Kampen, JJA; Fraaij, PLA; Hira, V; van Rossum, AMC; Hartwig, NG; de Groot, R; Luider, TM
Biochemical and Biophysical Research Communications, 315(1): 151-159.
10.1016/j.bbrc.2004.01.032
CrossRef
Hiv Medicine
Pharmacokinetics of emtricitabine, didanosine and efavirenz administered once-daily for the treatment of HIV-infected adults (pharmacokinetic substudy of the ANRS 091 trial)
Molina, JM; Peytavin, G; Perusat, S; Lascoux-Combes, C; Sereni, D; Rozenbaum, W; Chene, G
Hiv Medicine, 5(2): 99-104.

Clinical Infectious Diseases
Utility of tuberculosis directly observed therapy programs as sites for access to and provision of antiretroviral therapy in resource-limited countries
Friedland, G; Karim, SA; Karim, QA; Lalloo, U; Jack, C; Gandhi, N; El Sadr, W
Clinical Infectious Diseases, 38(): S421-S428.

Analytica Chimica Acta
Development of a competitive immunoassay for efavirenz: Hapten design and validation studies
Roucairol, C; Azoulay, S; Nevers, MC; Creminon, C; Grassi, J; Burger, A; Duval, D
Analytica Chimica Acta, 589(1): 142-149.
10.1016/j.aca.2007.02.045
CrossRef
Journal of Clinical Psychiatry
Psychopharmacologic treatment response of HIV-infected patients to antipsychotic medications
Singh, D; Goodkin, K
Journal of Clinical Psychiatry, 68(4): 631-632.

AIDS Reader
Status epilepticus resulting from severe efavirenz toxicity in an HIV-infected patient
Nijhawan, AE; Zachary, KC; Kwara, A; Venna, N
AIDS Reader, 18(7): 386-+.

Current Medicinal Chemistry
Therapeutic drug monitoring in the management of HIV-infected patients
Jelena, I; Emanuele, N; Paolo, A; Rita, B; Elisabetta, DM; Stefania, N; Paolo, PL; Valerio, T; Giuseppe, I; Pasquale, N
Current Medicinal Chemistry, 15(): 1925-1939.

British Journal of Clinical Pharmacology
Efavirenz concentrations in HIV-infected patients with and without viral hepatitis
Pereira, SA; Caixas, U; Branco, T; Germano, I; Lampreia, F; Papoila, AL; Monteiro, EC
British Journal of Clinical Pharmacology, 66(4): 551-555.
10.1111/j.1365-2125.2008.03238.x
CrossRef
Metabolic Brain Disease
Effects of the HIV treatment drugs nevirapine and efavirenz on brain creatine kinase activity
Streck, EL; Scaini, G; Rezin, GT; Moreira, J; Fochesato, CM; Romao, PRT
Metabolic Brain Disease, 23(4): 485-492.
10.1007/s11011-008-9109-2
CrossRef
Antimicrobial Agents and Chemotherapy
Stable concentrations of zidovudine, stavudine, lamivudine, abacavir, and nevirapine in serum and cerebrospinal fluid during 2 years of therapy
van Praag, RME; van Weert, ECM; van Heeswijk, RPG; Zhou, XJ; Sommadossi, JP; Jurriaans, S; Lange, JMA; Hoetelmans, RMW; Prins, JM
Antimicrobial Agents and Chemotherapy, 46(3): 896-899.
10.1128/AAC.46.3.896-899.2002
CrossRef
Therapie
Simultaneous assay of antiretroviral drugs in human plasma by high performance liquid chromatography
Titier, K; Lagrange, E; Pehourcq, F; Edno-Mcheik, L; Moore, N; Molimard, M
Therapie, 57(2): 169-174.

Drug Development Research
Pharmacogenomics of antiretroviral therapy
Haas, DW
Drug Development Research, 62(3): 213-220.
10.1002/ddr.10359
CrossRef
International Journal of Std & AIDS
The use of therapeutic drug monitoring in the management of protease inhibitor-related toxicity
Forsyth, SF; French, PD; Macfarlane, E; Gibbons, SE; Miller, RF
International Journal of Std & AIDS, 16(2): 139-141.

Hiv Medicine
Clinical benefit of interventions driven by therapeutic drug monitoring
Rendon, AL; Nunez, M; Jimenez-Nacher, I; de Requena, DG; Gonzalez-Lahoz, J; Soriano, V
Hiv Medicine, 6(5): 360-365.

AIDS
Pharmacokinetic interactions between efavirenz and rifampicin in the treatment of HIV and tuberculosis: one size does not fit all
Brennan-Benson, P; Lyus, R; Harrison, T; Pakianathan, M; Macallan, D
AIDS, 19(): 1541-1543.

Journal of Clinical Pharmacology
Evaluation of 227 drugs for in vitro inhibition of cytochrome P4502B6
Walsky, RL; Astuccio, AV; Obach, RS
Journal of Clinical Pharmacology, 46(): 1426-1438.
10.1177/0091270006293753
CrossRef
Pharmacogenomics
Impact of CYP2B6 polymorphism on hepatic efavirenz metabolism in vitro
Desta, Z; Saussele, T; Ward, B; Blievernicht, J; Li, L; Klein, K; Flockhart, D; Zanger, UM
Pharmacogenomics, 8(6): 547-558.
10.2217/14622416.8.6.547
CrossRef
Clinical Pharmacology & Therapeutics
Pharmacokinetics and pharmacodynamics of efavirenz and nelfinavir in HIV-infected children participating in an area-under-the-curve controlled trial
Fletcher, CV; Brundage, RC; Fenton, T; Alvero, CG; Powell, C; Mofenson, LM; Spector, SA
Clinical Pharmacology & Therapeutics, 83(2): 300-306.
10.1038/sj.clpt.6100282
CrossRef
Current Drug Metabolism
CYP2B6: New insights into a historically overlooked cytochrome P450 isozyme
Wang, HB; Tompkins, LM
Current Drug Metabolism, 9(7): 598-610.

Journal of Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndromes
Higher efavirenz plasma levels correlate with development of insomnia
Nunez, M; de Requena, DG; Gallego, L; Jimenez-Nacher, I; Gonzalez-Lahoz, J; Soriano, V
Journal of Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndromes, 28(4): 399.

AIDS
Therapeutic drug monitoring as a tool in treating HIV infection
Khoo, SH; Gibbons, SE; Back, DJ
AIDS, 15(): S171-S181.

Journal of Chromatography B-Analytical Technologies in the Biomedical and Life Sciences
Determination of lopinavir and nevirapine by high-performance liquid chromatography after solid-phase extraction: application for the assessment of their transplacental passage at delivery
Marzolini, C; Beguin, A; Telenti, A; Schreyer, A; Buclin, T; Biollaz, J; Decosterd, LA
Journal of Chromatography B-Analytical Technologies in the Biomedical and Life Sciences, 774(2): 127-140.
PII S1570-0232(02)00169-1
CrossRef
AIDS
PharmAdapt: a randomized prospective study to evaluate the benefit of therapeutic monitoring of protease inhibitors: 12 week results
Clevenbergh, P; Garraffo, R; Durant, J; Dellamonica, P
AIDS, 16(): 2311-2315.

Deutsche Medizinische Wochenschrift
Challenges in the care of HIV-infected persons
Furrer, H; Battegay, M; Spirig, R; Flepp, M
Deutsche Medizinische Wochenschrift, 128(): 1064-1069.

Journal of Virological Methods
"All-in-One Assay", a direct phenotypic anti-human immunodeficiency virus type 1 drug resistance assay for three-drug combination therapies that takes into consideration in vivo drug concentrations
Hachiya, A; Matsuoka-Aizawa, S; Tsuchiya, K; Gatanaga, H; Kimura, S; Tatsumi, M; Oka, S
Journal of Virological Methods, 111(1): 43-53.
10.1016/S0166-0934(03)00150-2
CrossRef
European Journal of Clinical Pharmacology
Variations of CYP3A activity induced by antiretroviral treatment in HIV-1 infected patients
Fellay, J; Marzolini, C; Decosterd, L; Golay, KP; Baumann, P; Buclin, T; Telenti, A; Eap, CB
European Journal of Clinical Pharmacology, 60(): 865-873.
10.1007/s00228-004-0855-8
CrossRef
AIDS
HIV-1 intermittent viraemia in patients treated by non-nucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitor-based regimen
Martinez, V; Marcelin, AG; Morini, JP; Deleuze, J; Krivine, A; Gorin, I; Yerly, S; Perrin, L; Peytavin, G; Calvez, V; Dupin, N
AIDS, 19(): 1065-1069.

Clinical Infectious Diseases
Detection of nonnucleoside reverse-transcriptase inhibitor-resistant HIV-1 after discontinuation of virologically suppressive antiretroviral therapy
Hare, CB; Mellors, J; Krambrink, A; Su, ZH; Skiest, D; Margolis, DM; Patel, SS; Barnas, D; Frenkel, L; Coombs, RW; Aweeka, F; Morse, GD; Haas, DW; Boltz, V; Palmer, S; Coffin, J; Havlir, DV
Clinical Infectious Diseases, 47(3): 421-424.
10.1086/589867
CrossRef
Clinical Pharmacology & Therapeutics
Pharmacogenetics-Based Population Pharmacokinetic Analysis of Efavirenz in HIV-1-Infected Individuals
Arab-Alameddine, M; Di Iulio, J; Buclin, T; Rotger, M; Lubomirov, R; Cavassini, M; Fayet, A; Decosterd, LA; Eap, CB; Biollaz, J; Telenti, A; Csajka, C
Clinical Pharmacology & Therapeutics, 85(5): 485-494.
10.1038/clpt.2008.271
CrossRef
Antiviral Therapy
Plasma efavirenz concentrations and the association with CYP2B6-516G > T polymorphism in HIV-infected Thai children
Puthanakit, T; Tanpaiboon, P; Aurpibul, L; Cressey, TR; Sirisanthana, V
Antiviral Therapy, 14(3): 315-320.

AIDS Reviews
Neuropsychiatric Symptoms Associated with Efavirenz: Prevalence, Correlates, and Management. A Neurobehavioral Review
Munoz-Moreno, JA; Fumaz, CR; Ferrer, MJ; Gonzalez-Garcia, M; Molto, J; Negredo, E; Clotet, B
AIDS Reviews, 11(2): 103-109.

Drug Metabolism and Disposition
Glucuronidation of the Antiretroviral Drug Efavirenz by UGT2B7 and an in Vitro Investigation of Drug-Drug Interaction with Zidovudine
Belanger, AS; Caron, P; Harvey, M; Zimmerman, PA; Mehlotra, RK; Guillemette, C
Drug Metabolism and Disposition, 37(9): 1793-1796.
10.1124/dmd.109.027706
CrossRef
Enfermedades Infecciosas Y Microbiologia Clinica
Spanish GESIDA/National AIDS Plan recommendations for antiretroviral therapy in HIV-infected adults in the year 2002
Rubio, R; Berenguer, J; Miro, JM; Antela, A; Iribarren, JA; Gonzalez, J; Guerra, L; Moreno, S; Arrizabalaga, J; Clotet, B; Gatell, JM; Laguna, F; Martinez, E; Parras, F; Santamaria, JM; Tuset, M; Viciana, P
Enfermedades Infecciosas Y Microbiologia Clinica, 20(6): 244-303.

Biomedical Chromatography
Simultaneous determination of six HIV protease inhibitors (amprenavir, indinavir, lopinavir, nelfinavir, ritonavir and saquinavir), the active metabolite of nelfinavir (M8) and non-nucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitor (efavirenz) in human plasma by high-performance liquid chromatography
Hirabayashi, Y; Tsuchiya, K; Kimura, S; Oka, S
Biomedical Chromatography, 20(1): 28-36.
10.1002/bmc.521
CrossRef
Pharmacogenomics Journal
Overview of the pharmacogenetics of HIV therapy
Rodriguez-Novoa, S; Barreiro, P; Jimenez-Nacher, I; Soriano, V
Pharmacogenomics Journal, 6(4): 234-245.
10.1038/sj.tpj.6500374
CrossRef
European Journal of Medical Research
Need for therapeutic drug monitoring in HIV-1 infected children receiving efavirenz doses according to international guidelines
von Hentig, N; Koenigs, C; Elanjikal, S; Linde, R; Dunsch, D; Kreuz, W; Funk, MB
European Journal of Medical Research, 11(9): 377-380.

Journal of Antimicrobial Chemotherapy
Efavirenz trough levels are not associated with virological failure throughout therapy with 800 mg daily and a rifampicin-containing antituberculosis regimen
Lopez-Cortes, LF; Ruiz-Valderas, R; Ruiz-Morales, J; Leon, E; de Campos, AV; Marin-Niebla, A; Marquez-Solero, M; Lozano, F; Valiente, R
Journal of Antimicrobial Chemotherapy, 58(5): 1017-1023.
10.1093/jac/dk1357
CrossRef
International Journal of Antimicrobial Agents
Influence of viral chronic hepatitis co-infection on plasma drug concentrations and liver transaminase elevations upon therapy switch in HIV-positive patients
Torti, C; Lapadula, G; Uccelli, MC; Quiros-Roldan, E; Regazzi, M; Ladisa, N; Micheli, V; Orani, A; Patroni, A; Lo Caputo, S; Tirelli, V; Di Giambenedetto, S; Cologni, G; Costarelli, S; Gargiulo, F; Manca, N; Carosi, G
International Journal of Antimicrobial Agents, 29(2): 185-190.
10.1016/j.ijantimicag.2006.08.015
CrossRef
Current Hiv Research
Multiple-dose pharmacokinetics of efavirenz with and without the use of rifampicin in HIV-positive patients
Matteelli, A; Regazzi, M; Villani, P; De Iaco, G; Cusato, M; Carvalho, ACC; Caligaris, S; Tomasoni, L; Manfrin, M; Capone, S; Carosi, G
Current Hiv Research, 5(3): 349-353.

Antimicrobial Agents and Chemotherapy
Indinavir, efavirenz, and abacavir pharmacokinetics in human immunodeficiency virus-infected subjects
DiCenzo, R; Forrest, A; Squires, KE; Hammer, SM; Fischl, MA; Wu, HL; Cha, R; Morse, GD
Antimicrobial Agents and Chemotherapy, 47(6): 1929-1935.
10.1128/AAC.47.6.1929-1935.2003
CrossRef
Journal of Infectious Diseases
Antiretroviral concentrations in untimed plasma samples predict therapy outcome in a population with advanced disease
Alexander, CS; Asselin, JJ; Ting, LSL; Montaner, JSG; Hogg, RS; Yip, B; O'Shaughnessy, MV; Harrigan, PR
Journal of Infectious Diseases, 188(4): 541-548.

AIDS Patient Care and Stds
Therapeutic drug monitoring of antiretroviral therapy
Rakhmanina, NY; Van den Anker, JN; Soldin, SJ
AIDS Patient Care and Stds, 18(1): 7-14.

Clinical Infectious Diseases
Influence of 516G > T polymorphisms at the gene encoding the CYP450-2B6 isoenzyme on efavirenz plasma concentrations in HIV-infected subjects
Rodriguez-Novoa, S; Barreiro, P; Rendon, A; Jimenez-Nacher, I; Gonzalez-Lahoz, J; Soriano, V
Clinical Infectious Diseases, 40(9): 1358-1361.

Antiviral Therapy
Current status and future prospects of therapeutic drug monitoring and applied clinical pharmacology in antiretroviral therapy
Boffito, M; Acosta, E; Burger, D; Fletcher, CV; Flexner, C; Garaffo, R; Gatti, G; Kurowski, M; Perno, CF; Peytavin, G; Regazzi, M; Back, D
Antiviral Therapy, 10(3): 375-392.

Antiviral Therapy
Are adverse events of nevirapine and efavirenz related to plasma concentrations?
Kappelhoff, BS; van Leth, F; Robinson, PA; MacGregor, TR; Baraldi, E; Montella, F; Uip, DE; Thompson, MA; Russell, DB; Lange, JMA; Beijnen, JH; Huitema, ADR
Antiviral Therapy, 10(4): 489-498.

Antiviral Therapy
A pharmacokinetic and pharmacogenetic study of efavirenz in children: dosing guidelines can result in subtherapeutic concentrations
Heine, R; Scherpbier, HJ; Crommentuyn, KML; Bekker, V; Beijnen, JH; Kuijpers, TW; Huitema, ADR
Antiviral Therapy, 13(6): 779-787.

Asian Biomedicine
Clinical pharmacology and pharmacokinetics of antiretrovirals in Asia
van der Lugt, J; Avihingsanon, A
Asian Biomedicine, 3(1): 53-62.

Clinical Infectious Diseases
A Randomized Trial Comparing Plasma Drug Concentrations and Efficacies between 2 Nonnucleoside Reverse-Transcriptase Inhibitor-Based Regimens in HIV-Infected Patients Receiving Rifampicin: The N2R Study
Manosuthi, W; Sungkanuparph, S; Tantanathip, P; Lueangniyomkul, A; Mankatitham, W; Prasithsirskul, W; Burapatarawong, S; Thongyen, S; Likanonsakul, S; Thawornwa, U; Prommool, V; Ruxrungtham, K
Clinical Infectious Diseases, 48(): 1752-1759.
10.1086/599114
CrossRef
Indian Journal of Pediatrics
Comparison of levels of antiretroviral drugs with efficacy in children with HIV infection
Nso, AP; Larru, B; Bellon, JM; Mellado, MJ; Ramos, JT; Gonzalez, MI; Navarro, ML; Munoz-Fernandez, MA; de Jose, MI
Indian Journal of Pediatrics, 77(4): 397-402.
10.1007/s12098-010-0052-y
CrossRef
Antiviral Therapy
Pharmacological exposure and the development of drug resistance in HIV
Hoetelmans, R
Antiviral Therapy, 6(): 37-47.

Journal of Infectious Diseases
Pharmacokinetic and pharmacodynamic investigation of efavirenz in the semen and blood of human immunodeficiency virus type 1-infected men
Reddy, YS; Gotzkowsky, SK; Eron, JJ; Kim, JY; Fiske, WD; Fiscus, SA; Petch, L; Cohen, MS; Kashuba, ADM
Journal of Infectious Diseases, 186(9): 1339-1343.

Enfermedades Infecciosas Y Microbiologia Clinica
Plasma antiretroviral levels in children with human immunodeficiency virus infection. Influence of sex and age
Nso-Roca, AP; Larru, B; Bellon, JM; Mellado, MJ; Ramos, JT; Gonzalez, MI; Navarro, ML; Munoz-Fernandez, MA; de Jose, MI
Enfermedades Infecciosas Y Microbiologia Clinica, 28(5): 278-283.
10.1016/j.eimc.2009.09.004
CrossRef
Japanese Journal of Infectious Diseases
Skin eruption 8 days after a single dose of efavirenz-containing combination therapy
Yazaki, H; Kikuchi, Y; Oka, S
Japanese Journal of Infectious Diseases, 54(6): 246-247.

Clinical Pharmacokinetics
Pharmacokinetic interactions between efavirenz and rifampicin in HIV-infected patients with tuberculosis
Lopez-Cortes, LF; Ruiz-Valderas, R; Viciana, P; Alarcon-Gonzalez, A; Gomez-Mateos, J; Leon-Jimenez, E; Sarasa-Nacenta, M; Lopez-Pua, Y; Pachon, J
Clinical Pharmacokinetics, 41(9): 681-690.

AIDS
HIV and antiretroviral drug distribution in plasma and fat tissue of HIV-infected patients with lipodystrophy
Dupin, N; Buffet, M; Marcelin, AG; Lamotte, C; Gorin, I; Ait-Arkoub, Z; Treluyer, JM; Bui, P; Calvez, V; Peytavin, G
AIDS, 16(): 2419-2424.

Journal of Pharmacology and Experimental Therapeutics
The cytochrome P4502B6 (CYP2B6) is the main catalyst of efavirenz primary and secondary metabolism: Implication for HIV/AIDS therapy and utility of efavirenz as a substrate marker of CYP2B6 catalytic activity
Ward, BA; Gorski, JC; Jones, DR; Hall, SD; Flockhart, DA; Desta, Z
Journal of Pharmacology and Experimental Therapeutics, 306(1): 287-300.
10.1124/jpet.103.049601
CrossRef
Antiviral Therapy
Neuropsychiatric adverse events after switching from an antiretroviral regimen containing efavirenz without tenofovir to an efavirenz regimen containing tenofovir: a report of nine cases
Allavena, C; Le Moal, G; Michau, C; Chiffoleau, A; Raffi, F
Antiviral Therapy, 11(2): 263-265.

Hiv Medicine
British HIV Association (BHIVA) guidelines for the treatment of HIV-infected adults with antiretroviral therapy (2005)
Gazzard, B
Hiv Medicine, 6(): 1-61.

Hiv Clinical Trials
Comparison of neuropsychiatric side effects in an observational cohort of efavirenz- and protease inhibitor-treated patients
Hawkins, T; Geist, C; Young, B; Giblin, A; Mercier, RC; Thornton, K; Haubrich, R
Hiv Clinical Trials, 6(4): 187-196.

Clinical Infectious Diseases
Efficacy of cerebrospinal fluid (CSF)-penetrating antiretroviral drugs against HIV in the neurological compartment: Different patterns of phenotypic resistance in CSF and plasma
Antinori, A; Perno, CF; Giancola, ML; Forbici, F; Ippolito, G; Hoetelmans, RM; Piscitelli, SC
Clinical Infectious Diseases, 41(): 1787-1793.

Drug Safety
Neuropsychiatric complications of antiretroviral therapy
Cespedes, MS; Aberg, JA
Drug Safety, 29(): 865-874.

Clinical Pharmacokinetics
Efavirenz and nevirapine in HIV-1 infection - Is there a role for clinical pharmacokinetic monitoring?
Dahri, K; Ensom, MHH
Clinical Pharmacokinetics, 46(2): 109-132.

Drug Metabolism Reviews
Polymorphism of human cytochrome P450 enzymes and its clinical impact
Zhou, SF; Liu, JP; Chowbay, B
Drug Metabolism Reviews, 41(2): 89-295.
10.1080/03602530902843483
CrossRef
AIDS Research and Human Retroviruses
No observable correlation between central nervous system side effects and EFV plasma concentrations in Japanese HIV type 1-infected patients treated with EFV containing HAART
Takahashi, M; Ibe, S; Kudaka, Y; Okumura, N; Hirano, A; Suzuki, T; Mamiya, N; Hamaguchi, M; Kaneda, T
AIDS Research and Human Retroviruses, 23(8): 983-987.
10.1089/aid.2006.0193
CrossRef
Current Opinion in Drug Discovery & Development
Improving non-nucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitors for first-line treatment of HIV infection: The development pipeline and recent clinical data
Sweeney, ZK; Klumpp, K
Current Opinion in Drug Discovery & Development, 11(4): 458-470.

Hiv Clinical Trials
Long-Term Impact of Efavirenz on Neuropsychological Performance and Symptoms in HIV-Infected Individuals (ACTG 5097s)
Clifford, DB; Evans, S; Yang, YJ; Acosta, EP; Ribaudo, H; Gulick, RM
Hiv Clinical Trials, 10(6): 343-355.
10.1310/hct1006-343
CrossRef
Clinical Drug Investigation
Long-Term Efficacy and Safety of Efavirenz Dose Reduction to 200 mg Once Daily in a Caucasian Patient with HIV
Figueroa, SC; Gomez, AI; Martin, AS; Merino, MDV; Hurle, ADG; Sanchez, MC
Clinical Drug Investigation, 30(6): 405-411.

Pharmacotherapy
Central nervous system adverse effects with efavirenz: Case report and review
Puzantian, T
Pharmacotherapy, 22(7): 930-933.

Clinical Infectious Diseases
A potentially significant interaction between efavirenz and phenytoin: A case report and review of the literature
Robertson, SM; Penzak, SR; Lane, J; Pau, AK; Mican, JM
Clinical Infectious Diseases, 41(2): E15-E18.

Journal of Chromatography B-Analytical Technologies in the Biomedical and Life Sciences
Simple and rapid method for the simultaneous determination of the non-nucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitors efavirenz and nevirapine in human plasma using liquid chromatography
Kappelhoff, BS; Rosing, H; Huitema, ADR; Beijnen, JH
Journal of Chromatography B-Analytical Technologies in the Biomedical and Life Sciences, 792(2): 353-362.
10.1016/S1570-0232(03)00325-8
CrossRef
Clinical Pharmacokinetics
Once-daily administration of antiretrovirals - Pharmacokinetics of emerging therapies
Taburet, AM; Paci-Bonaventure, S; Peytavin, G; Molina, JM
Clinical Pharmacokinetics, 42(): 1179-1191.

Antiviral Therapy
Relative prognostic value of self-reported adherence and plasma NNRTI/PI concentrations to predict virological rebound in patients initially responding to HAART
Antinori, A; Cozzi-Lepri, A; Ammassari, A; Trotta, MP; Nauwelaers, D; Hoetelmans, R; Murri, R; Melzi, S; Narciso, P; Nasta, P; Zaccarelli, M; Santopadre, P; Vecchiet, J; Izzo, CM; Monforte, AD
Antiviral Therapy, 9(2): 291-296.

Clinical Infectious Diseases
Marked intraindividual variability in antiretroviral concentrations may limit the utility of therapeutic drug monitoring
Nettles, RE; Kieffer, TL; Parsons, T; Johnson, J; Cofrancesco, J; Gallant, JE; Carson, KA; Siliciano, RF; Flexner, C
Clinical Infectious Diseases, 42(8): 1189-1196.

Annals of Internal Medicine
Adherence to nonnucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitor-based HIV therapy and virologic outcomes
Nachega, JB; Hislop, M; Dowdy, DW; Chaisson, RE; Regensberg, L; Maartens, G
Annals of Internal Medicine, 146(8): 564-U16.

Antiviral Therapy
A computer-based system to aid in the interpretation of plasma concentrations of antiretrovirals for therapeutic drug monitoring
Goicoechea, M; Vidal, A; Capparelli, E; Rigby, A; Kemper, C; Diamond, C; Witt, MD; Haubrich, R
Antiviral Therapy, 12(1): 55-62.

AIDS Research and Human Retroviruses
Efavirenz in plasma from HIV-infected patients does not directly block reverse transcriptase activity in cell-free assays but inhibits HIV replication in cellular assays
Burrer, R; Spiridon, G; Einius-Haessig, S; Richert, S; Salmon-Ceron, D; Pancino, G; Aubertin, AM; Moog, C
AIDS Research and Human Retroviruses, 22(9): 865-869.

Expert Opinion on Pharmacotherapy
Efavirenz/emtricitabine/tenofovir disoproxil fumarate fixed-dose combination: first-line therapy for all?
Goicoechea, M; Best, B
Expert Opinion on Pharmacotherapy, 8(3): 371-382.
10.1517/14656566.8.3.371
CrossRef
Journal of the National Medical Association
Sociodemographic Factors Predict Early Discontinuation of HIV Non-Nucleoside Reverse Transcriptase Inhibitors and Protease Inhibitors
Asad, S; Hulgan, T; Raffanti, SP; Daugherty, J; Ray, W; Sterling, TR
Journal of the National Medical Association, 100(): 1417-1424.

Antiviral Therapy
Effect of rifampicin-based antitubercular therapy and the cytochrome P450 2B6 516G > T polymorphism on efavirenz concentrations in adults in South Africa
Cohen, K; Grant, A; Dandara, C; McIlleron, H; Pemba, L; Fielding, K; Charalombous, S; Churchyard, G; Smith, P; Maartens, G
Antiviral Therapy, 14(5): 687-695.

British Journal of Clinical Pharmacology
A novel polymorphism in ABCB1 gene, CYP2B6*6 and sex predict single-dose efavirenz population pharmacokinetics in Ugandans
Mukonzo, JK; Roshammar, D; Waako, P; Andersson, M; Fukasawa, T; Milani, L; Svensson, JO; Ogwal-Okeng, J; Gustafsson, LL; Aklillu, E
British Journal of Clinical Pharmacology, 68(5): 690-699.
10.1111/j.1365-2125.2009.03516.x
CrossRef
Journal of Chromatography B-Analytical Technologies in the Biomedical and Life Sciences
Validation of a rapid and sensitive high-performance liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (HPLC-MS/MS) assay for the simultaneous determination of existing and new antiretroviral compounds
Else, L; Watson, V; Tjia, J; Hughes, A; Siccardi, M; Khoo, S; Back, D
Journal of Chromatography B-Analytical Technologies in the Biomedical and Life Sciences, 878(): 1455-1465.
10.1016/j.jchromb.2010.03.036
CrossRef
Annals of Pharmacotherapy
Pharmacologic perspectives for once-daily antiretroviral therapy
Anderson, PL
Annals of Pharmacotherapy, 38(): 1924-1934.
10.1345/aph.1E036
CrossRef
Enfermedades Infecciosas Y Microbiologia Clinica
Spanish GESIDA/Nacional AIDS plan recommendations for antiretroviral therapy in HIV-infected adults (October 2004)
Iribarren, JA; Labarga, P; Rubio, R; Berenguer, J; Miro, JM; Antela, A; Gonzalez, J; Moreno, S; Arrizabalaga, J; Chamorro, L; Clotet, B; Gatell, JM; Lopez-Aldeguer, J; Martinez, E; Polo, R; Tuset, M; Viciana, P; Santamaria, JM; Kindelan, JM; Ribera, E; Segura, F
Enfermedades Infecciosas Y Microbiologia Clinica, 22(): 564-642.

AIDS Reviews
Pharmacogenetics in HIV therapy
Rodriguez-Novoa, S; Barreiro, P; Jimenez-Nacher, I; Rendon, A; Soriano, V
AIDS Reviews, 7(2): 103-112.

AIDS
Efavirenz levels and 24-week efficacy in HIV-infected patients with tuberculosis receiving highly active antiretroviral therapy and rifampicin
Manosuthi, W; Sungkanuparph, S; Thakkinstian, A; Vibhagool, A; Kiertiburanakul, S; Rattanasiri, S; Prasithsirikul, W; Sankote, J; Mahanontharit, A; Ruxrungtham, K
AIDS, 19(): 1481-1486.

Hiv Clinical Trials
Atazanavir plasma concentrations vary significantly between patients and correlate with increased serum bilirubin concentrations
Smith, DE; Jeganathan, S; Ray, J
Hiv Clinical Trials, 7(1): 34-38.

Hiv Clinical Trials
Therapeutic drug monitoring in HIV treatment: A literature review
Wertheimer, BZ; Freedberg, KA; Walensky, RP; Yazdanapah, Y; Losina, E
Hiv Clinical Trials, 7(2): 59-69.

AIDS Care-Psychological and Socio-Medical Aspects of AIDS/Hiv
Which method of adherence measurement is most suitable for daily use to predict virological failure among immigrant and non-immigrant HIV-1 infected patients?
Nellen, JFJB; Nieuwkerk, PT; Burger, DM; Wibaut, M; Gras, LA; Prins, JM
AIDS Care-Psychological and Socio-Medical Aspects of AIDS/Hiv, 21(7): 842-850.
10.1080/09540120802612816
CrossRef
Expert Opinion on Drug Metabolism & Toxicology
Dose adjustment of the non-nucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitors during concurrent rifampicin-containing tuberculosis therapy: one size does not fit all
Kwara, A; Ramachandran, G; Swaminathan, S
Expert Opinion on Drug Metabolism & Toxicology, 6(1): 55-68.
10.1517/17425250903393752
CrossRef
Journal of Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndromes
Quality of life, emotional status, and adherence of HIV-1-infected patients treated with efavirenz versus protease inhibitor-containing regimens
Fumaz, CR; Tuldra, A; Ferrer, J; Paredes, R; Bonjoch, A; Jou, T; Negredo, E; Romeu, J; Sirera, G; Tural, C; Clotet, B
Journal of Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndromes, 29(3): 244-253.

AIDS Research and Human Retroviruses
Position paper on therapeutic drug monitoring of antiretroviral agents
Acosta, EP; Gerber, JG
AIDS Research and Human Retroviruses, 18(): 825-834.

Journal of Clinical Virology
Effect of therapeutic drug monitoring on outcome in antiretroviral experienced HIV-infected individuals
Mallon, PWG; Ray, J; Cooper, DA
Journal of Clinical Virology, 26(2): 223-227.
PII S1386-6532(02)00120-8
CrossRef
Journal of Clinical Virology
Therapeutic drug monitoring in the treatment of HIV-infection
Gerber, JG; Acosta, EP
Journal of Clinical Virology, 27(2): 117-128.
10.1016/S1386-6532(03)00033-7
CrossRef
British Journal of Clinical Pharmacology
Variability in non-nucleoside reverse transcriptase and protease inhibitor concentrations among HIV-infected adults in routine clinical practice
Molto, J; Blanco, A; Miranda, C; Miranda, J; Puig, J; Valle, M; DelaVarga, M; Fumaz, CR; Barbanoj, MJ; Clotet, B
British Journal of Clinical Pharmacology, 62(5): 560-566.
10.1111/j.1365-2125.2006.02694.x
CrossRef
Hiv Clinical Trials
Effect of adherence to HAART on viroloaic outcome and on the selection of resistance-conferring mutations in NNRTI- or PI-Treated patients
Maggiolo, F; Airoldi, M; Kleinloog, HD; Callegaro, A; Ravasio, V; Arici, C; Bombana, E; Suter, F
Hiv Clinical Trials, 8(5): 282-292.
10.1310/hct0805-282
CrossRef
European Journal of Clinical Pharmacology
High prevalence of the CYP2B6 516G -> T(*6) variant and effect on the population pharmacokinetics of efavirenz in HIV/AIDS outpatients in Zimbabwe
Nyakutira, C; Roshammar, D; Chigutsa, E; Chonzi, P; Ashton, M; Nhachi, C; Masimirembwa, C
European Journal of Clinical Pharmacology, 64(4): 357-365.
10.1007/s00228-007-0412-3
CrossRef
Journal of Antimicrobial Chemotherapy
Stavudine plasma concentrations and lipoatrophy
ter Hofstede, HJM; Koopmans, PP; Burger, DM
Journal of Antimicrobial Chemotherapy, 61(4): 933-938.
10.1093/jac/dkn041
CrossRef
Hiv Medicine
Standard-dose efavirenz vs. standard-dose nevirapine in antiretroviral regimens among HIV-1 and tuberculosis co-infected patients who received rifampicin
Manosuthi, W; Mankatitham, W; Lueangniyomkul, A; Chimsuntorn, S; Sungkanuparph, S
Hiv Medicine, 9(5): 294-299.
10.1111/j.1468-1293.2008.00563.x
CrossRef
Antiviral Therapy
Absence of a relation between efavirenz plasma concentrations and toxicity-driven efavirenz discontinuations in the EuroSIDA study
van Luin, M; Bannister, WP; Mocroft, A; Reiss, P; Di Perri, G; Peytavin, G; Molto, J; Karlson, A; Castagna, A; Beniowski, M; Lundgren, JD; Burger, DM
Antiviral Therapy, 14(1): 75-83.

Clinical Pharmacokinetics
Population pharmacokinetics of efavirenz in an unselected cohort of HIV-1-infected individuals
Kappelhoff, BS; Huitema, ADR; Yalvac, Z; Prins, JM; Mulder, JW; Meenhorst, PL; Beijnen, JH
Clinical Pharmacokinetics, 44(8): 849-861.

Journal of Antimicrobial Chemotherapy
Intracellular and plasma pharmacokinetics of efavirenz in HIV-infected individuals
Almond, LM; Hoggard, PG; Edirisinghe, D; Khoo, SH; Back, DJ
Journal of Antimicrobial Chemotherapy, 56(4): 738-744.
10.1093/jac/dki308
CrossRef
Janac-Journal of the Association of Nurses in AIDS Care
Neurologic and psychiatric complications of antiretroviral agents
Raines, C; Radcliffe, O; Treisman, GJ
Janac-Journal of the Association of Nurses in AIDS Care, 16(5): 35-48.
10.1016/j.jana.2005.07.004
CrossRef
Enfermedades Infecciosas Y Microbiologia Clinica
Neuro-psychiatric adverse effects associated with efavirenz
Ramirez-Duque, N; Lopez-Cortes, L
Enfermedades Infecciosas Y Microbiologia Clinica, 24(1): 64-66.

European Journal of Clinical Pharmacology
Prevalence of CYP2B6 alleles in malaria-endemic populations of West Africa and Papua New Guinea
Mehlotra, RK; Ziats, MN; Bockarie, MJ; Zimmerman, PA
European Journal of Clinical Pharmacology, 62(4): 267-275.
10.1007/s00228-005-0092-9
CrossRef
Social Science & Medicine
Potency and vulnerability: Troubled 'selves' in the context of antiretroviral therapy
Persson, A; Newman, C
Social Science & Medicine, 63(6): 1586-1596.
10.1016/j.socscimed.2006.04.001
CrossRef
Jaids-Journal of Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndromes
Relationship between antiretroviral drug plasma concentrations and viral load in children
Treluyer, JM; Burgard, M; Cazali, N; Quartier, P; Veber, F; Rey, E; Alkaer, G; Rouzioux, C; Pons, G; Blanche, S
Jaids-Journal of Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndromes, 32(1): 112-115.

Hiv Clinical Trials
Long-term safety and efficacy of NNRTI within the central nervous system
von Giesen, HJ; Koller, H; de Nocker, D; Haslinger, BA; Arendt, G
Hiv Clinical Trials, 4(6): 382-390.

Lancet
Treatment of anti retroviral-drug-resistant HIV-1 infection
Deeks, SG
Lancet, 362(): 2002-2011.

European Journal of Clinical Pharmacology
No relationship between high nevirapine plasma concentration and hepatotoxicity in HIV-1-infected patients naive of antiretroviral treatment or switched from protease inhibitors
Dailly, E; Billaud, E; Reliquet, V; Breurec, S; Perre, P; Leautez, S; Jolliet, P; Bourin, M; Raffi, F
European Journal of Clinical Pharmacology, 60(5): 343-348.
10.1007/s00228-004-0769-5
CrossRef
AIDS
Penetration of enfuvirtide, tenofovir, efavirenz, and protease inhibitors in the genital tract of HIV-1-infected men
Ghosn, J; Chaix, ML; Peytavin, G; Rey, E; Bresson, JL; Goujard, C; Katlama, C; Viard, JP; Treluyer, JM; Rouzioux, C
AIDS, 18(): 1958-1961.

Journal of Infectious Diseases
Pharmacogenomics and HIV therapeutics
Haas, DW
Journal of Infectious Diseases, 191(9): 1397-1400.

Biopharmaceutics & Drug Disposition
Artemisinin-A Possible CYP2B6 Probe Substrate?
Asimus, S; Ashton, M
Biopharmaceutics & Drug Disposition, 30(5): 265-275.
10.1002/bdd.665
CrossRef
Anales De La Real Academia Nacional De Farmacia
Pharmaceutical intervention in the follow-up of antiretroviral therapy
Figueroa, SC; Merino, MPV; Sanchez, MJG; Martin, AS; Martin, MCG
Anales De La Real Academia Nacional De Farmacia, 75(1): 43-62.

Antimicrobial Agents and Chemotherapy
Body Weight Cutoff for Daily Dosage of Efavirenz and 60-Week Efficacy of Efavirenz-Based Regimen in Human Immunodeficiency Virus and Tuberculosis Coinfected Patients Receiving Rifampin
Manosuthi, W; Sungkanuparph, S; Tantanathip, P; Mankatitham, W; Lueangniyomkul, A; Thongyen, S; Eampokarap, B; Uttayamakul, S; Suwanvattana, P; Kaewsaard, S; Ruxrungtham, K
Antimicrobial Agents and Chemotherapy, 53(): 4545-4548.
10.1128/AAC.00492-09
CrossRef
AIDS Research and Human Retroviruses
Efavirenz Plasma Concentrations at 1, 3, and 6 Months Post-Antiretroviral Therapy Initiation in HIV Type 1-Infected South African Children
Viljoen, M; Gous, H; Kruger, HS; Riddick, A; Meyers, TM; Rheeders, M
AIDS Research and Human Retroviruses, 26(6): 613-619.
10.1089/aid.2009.0200
CrossRef
Current Therapeutic Research-Clinical and Experimental
The pharmacology of antiretroviral drugs in pediatric patients
Treluyer, JM; Chappuy, H; Rey, E; Blanche, S; Pons, G
Current Therapeutic Research-Clinical and Experimental, 63(): 682-694.

Antimicrobial Agents and Chemotherapy
Population pharmacokinetics and pharmacodynamics of efavirenz, nelfinavir, and indinavir: Adult AIDS clinical trial group study 398
Pfister, M; Labbe, L; Hammer, SM; Mellors, J; Bennett, KK; Rosenkranz, S; Sheiner, LB
Antimicrobial Agents and Chemotherapy, 47(1): 130-137.
10.1128/AAC.47.1.130-137.2003
CrossRef
AIDS Research and Human Retroviruses
Nonnucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitor fold change or plasma concentration as a predictor of virological response over 48 weeks in highly treatment experienced HIV-positive individuals
Winston, A; Amin, J; Hales, G; Cooper, DA; Emery, S
AIDS Research and Human Retroviruses, 22(4): 338-341.

Plos Pathogens
Potent nonnucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitors target HIV-1 Gag-Pol
Figueiredo, A; Moore, KL; Mak, J; Sluis-Cremer, N; de Bethune, MP; Tachedjian, G
Plos Pathogens, 2(): 1051-1059.
ARTN e119
CrossRef
Gender Medicine
Antiretroviral pharmacokinetic profile: A review of sex differences
Ofotokun, I; Chuck, SK; Hitti, JE
Gender Medicine, 4(2): 106-119.

Deutsche Medizinische Wochenschrift
Plasma concentration measurement of antiretrovirals in HIV therapy
von Hentig, N
Deutsche Medizinische Wochenschrift, 133(5): 191-195.
10.1055/s-2008-1017496
CrossRef
AIDS Research and Human Retroviruses
Concomitant use of nonnucleoside analogue reverse transcriptase inhibitors and rifampicin in TB/HIV type 1-coinfected patients
Sathia, L; Obiorah, I; Taylor, G; Kon, O; O'Donoghue, M; Gibbins, S; Walsh, J; Winston, A
AIDS Research and Human Retroviruses, 24(7): 897-901.
10.1089/aid.2007.0277
CrossRef
Virology
Mutations at human immunodeficiency virus type 1 reverse transcriptase tryptophan repeat motif attenuate the inhibitory effect of efavirenz on virus production
Chiang, CC; Wang, SM; Tseng, YT; Huang, KJ; Wang, CT
Virology, 383(2): 261-270.
10.1016/j.virol.2008.10.027
CrossRef
Hiv Medicine
GENOPHAR: a randomized study of plasma drug measurements in association with genotypic resistance testing and expert advice to optimize therapy in patients failing antiretroviral therapy
Bossi, P; Peytavin, G; Ait-Mohand, H; Delaugerre, C; Ktorza, N; Paris, L; Bonmarchand, M; Cacace, R; David, DJ; Simon, A; Lamotte, C; Marcelin, AG; Calvez, V; Bricaire, F; Costagliola, D; Katlama, C
Hiv Medicine, 5(5): 352-359.

Clinical Pharmacokinetics
Practical guidelines to interpret plasma concentrations of antiretroviral drugs
Kappelhoff, BS; Crommentuyn, KML; de Maat, MMR; Mulder, JW; Huitema, ADR; Beijnen, JH
Clinical Pharmacokinetics, 43(): 845-853.

Clinical Infectious Diseases
Efavirenz intoxication due to slow hepatic metabolism
Hasse, B; Gunthard, HF; Bleiber, G; Krause, M
Clinical Infectious Diseases, 40(3): E22-E23.

Drug Safety
Drug treatment of depression in HIV-positive patients - Safety considerations
Pieper, AA; Treisman, GJ
Drug Safety, 28(9): 753-762.

Clinical Infectious Diseases
Evaluation of the drug interaction between rifabutin and efavirenz in patients with HIV infection and tuberculosis
Weiner, M; Benator, D; Peloquin, CA; Burman, W; Vernon, A; Engle, M; Khan, A; Zhao, Z
Clinical Infectious Diseases, 41(9): 1343-1349.

AIDS Research and Human Retroviruses
Pharmacokinetic parameters of nevirapine and efavirenz in relation to antiretroviral efficacy
Van Leth, F; Kappelhoff, BS; Johnson, D; Losso, MH; Boron-Kaczmarska, A; Saag, MS; Livrozet, JM; Hall, DB; Leith, J; Huitema, ADR; Wit, FW; Beijnen, JH; Lange, JMA
AIDS Research and Human Retroviruses, 22(3): 232-239.

British Journal of Clinical Pharmacology
CYP2B6 (c.516G -> T) and CYP2A6 (*9B and/or*17) polymorphisms are independent predictors of efavirenz plasma concentrations in HIV-infected patients
Kwara, A; Lartey, M; Sagoe, KW; Rzek, NL; Court, MH
British Journal of Clinical Pharmacology, 67(4): 427-436.
10.1111/j.1365-2125.2009.03368.x
CrossRef
Expert Opinion on Drug Metabolism & Toxicology
Efavirenz in the therapy of HIV infection
Rakhmanina, NY; van den Anker, JN
Expert Opinion on Drug Metabolism & Toxicology, 6(1): 95-103.
10.1517/17425250903483207
CrossRef
European Journal of Clinical Pharmacology
The relation between treatment outcome and efavirenz, atazanavir or lopinavir exposure in the NORTHIV trial of treatment-na < ve HIV-1 infected patients
Josephson, F; Andersson, MCH; Flamholc, L; Gisslen, M; Hagberg, L; Ormaasen, V; Sonnerborg, A; Vesterbacka, J; Bottiger, Y
European Journal of Clinical Pharmacology, 66(4): 349-357.
10.1007/s00228-009-0763-z
CrossRef
AIDS
Management of sudden psychiatric disorders related to efavirenz
Peyriere, H; Mauboussin, JM; Rouanet, I; Fabre, J; Reynes, J; Hillaire-Buys, D
AIDS, 15(): 1323-1324.

Drugs
Therapeutic drug monitoring - An aid to optimising response to antiretroviral drugs?
Aarnoutse, RE; Schapiro, JM; Boucher, CAB; Hekster, YA; Burger, DM
Drugs, 63(8): 741-753.

AIDS
Sex differences in nevirapine disposition in HIV-infected patients
Regazzi, M; Villani, P; Seminari, E; Ravasi, G; Cusato, M; Marubbi, F; Meneghetti, G; Maserati, R
AIDS, 17(): 2399-2400.
10.1097/01.aids.0000088231.55968.3d
CrossRef
Hiv Medicine
Concomitant use of gastric acid-reducing agents is frequent among HIV-1-infected patients receiving protease inhibitor-based highly active antiretroviral therapy
van Lunzen, J; Liess, H; Arasteh, K; Walli, R; Daut, B; Schurmann, D
Hiv Medicine, 8(4): 220-225.

British Journal of Clinical Pharmacology
Variability in non-nucleoside reverse transcriptase and protease inhibitors concentrations among HIV-infected adults in routine clinical practice
Molto, J; Blanco, A; Miranda, C; Miranda, J; Puig, J; Valle, M; DelaVarga, M; Fumaz, CR; Barbanoj, MJ; Clotet, B
British Journal of Clinical Pharmacology, 63(6): 715-721.
10.1111/j.1365-2125.2006.02834.x
CrossRef
Pharmacogenomics
Polymorphic CYP2B6: molecular mechanisms and emerging clinical significance
Zanger, UM; Klein, K; Saussele, T; Blievernicht, J; Hofmann, MH; Schwab, M
Pharmacogenomics, 8(7): 743-759.
10.2217/14622416.8.7.743
CrossRef
Drug Discovery Today
Combined therapy for tuberclosis and HIV-1: the challenge for drug discovery
Pepper, DJ; Meintjes, GA; Mcllleron, H; Wilkinson, RJ
Drug Discovery Today, 12(): 980-989.
10.1016/j.drudis.2007.08.001
CrossRef
Antimicrobial Agents and Chemotherapy
Intracellular efavirenz levels in peripheral blood mononuclear cells from human immunodeficiency virus-infected individuals
Tanaka, R; Hanabusa, H; Kinai, E; Hasegawa, N; Negishi, M; Kato, S
Antimicrobial Agents and Chemotherapy, 52(2): 782-785.
10.1128/AAC.01613-06
CrossRef
Drug Discovery Today
How developing world concerns need to be part of drug development plans: a case study of four emerging antiretrovirals
van Roey, J; von Schoen-Angerer, T; Ford, N; Calmy, A
Drug Discovery Today, 13(): 601-605.
10.1016/j.drudis.2008.04.009
CrossRef
Hiv Medicine
British HIV Association (BHIVA)/British Association for Sexual Health and HIV (BASHH) guidelines on provision of adherence support to individuals receiving antiretroviral therapy (2003)
Poppa, A; Davidson, O; Deutsch, J; Godfrey, D; Fisher, M; Head, S; Horne, R; Sherr, L
Hiv Medicine, 5(): 46-60.

American Journal of Health-System Pharmacy
Identification, management, and prevention of adverse effects associated with highly active antiretroviral therapy
Schiller, DS
American Journal of Health-System Pharmacy, 61(): 2507-2522.

Neuroimmunomodulation
Efavirenz induces depressive-like behaviour, increased stress response and changes in the immune response in rats
O'Mahony, SM; Myint, AM; Steinbusch, H; Leonard, BE
Neuroimmunomodulation, 12(5): 293-298.
10.1159/000087107
CrossRef
Annals of Internal Medicine
Impact of efavirenz on neuropsychological performance and symptoms in HIV-infected individuals
Clifford, DB; Evans, S; Yang, YJ; Acosta, EP; Goodkin, K; Tashima, K; Simpson, D; Dorfman, D; Ribaudo, H; Gulick, RM
Annals of Internal Medicine, 143(): 714-721.

British Journal of Clinical Pharmacology
Interpatient variability in the pharmacokinetics of the HIV non-nucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitor efavirenz: the effect of gender, race, and CYP2B6 polymorphism
Burger, D; van der Heiden, I; la Porte, C; van der Ende, M; Groeneveld, P; Richter, C; Koopmans, P; Kroon, F; Sprenger, H; Lindemans, J; Schenk, P; van Schaik, R
British Journal of Clinical Pharmacology, 61(2): 148-154.
10.1111/j.1365-2125.2005.02536.x
CrossRef
Lancet Infectious Diseases
Approach to salvage antiretroviral therapy in heavily anti retroviral-experienced HIV-positive adults
Temesgen, Z; Cainelli, F; Poeschla, EM; Vlahakis, SAR; Vento, S
Lancet Infectious Diseases, 6(8): 496-507.

Antiviral Therapy
Variability in the plasma concentration of efavirenz and nevirapine is associated with genotypic resistance after treatment interruption
Darwich, L; Esteve, A; Ruiz, L; Bellido, R; Clotet, B; Martinez-Picado, J
Antiviral Therapy, 13(7): 945-951.

Journal of Antimicrobial Chemotherapy
Influence of liver fibrosis stage on plasma levels of efavirenz in HIV-infected patients with chronic hepatitis B or C
Meynard, JL; Lacombe, K; Poirier, JM; Legrand, J; Morand-Joubert, L; Girard, PM
Journal of Antimicrobial Chemotherapy, 63(3): 579-584.
10.1093/jac/dkn531
CrossRef
AIDS Patient Care and Stds
Hyperhidrosis in Association with Efavirenz
Martin, AF; Figueroa, SC; Merino, MDV; Hurle, ADG
AIDS Patient Care and Stds, 23(3): 143-145.
10.1089/apc.2008.0176
CrossRef
Personalized Medicine
Personalizing antiretroviral therapy: is it a reality?
Phillips, EJ; Mallal, SA
Personalized Medicine, 6(4): 393-408.
10.2217/PME.09.12
CrossRef
International Journal of Std & AIDS
Post-exposure prophylaxis
van der Ende, ME; Regez, RM; Schreij, G; van der Meer, JTM; Danner, SA
International Journal of Std & AIDS, 13(): 30-34.

Biochemical and Biophysical Research Communications
Homozygous CYP2B6 *6 (Q172H and K262R) correlates with high plasma efavirenz concentrations in HIV-1 patients treated with standard efavirenz-containing regimens
Tsuchiya, K; Gatanaga, H; Tachikawa, N; Teruya, K; Kikuchi, Y; Yoshino, M; Kuwahara, T; Shirasaka, T; Kimura, S; Oka, S
Biochemical and Biophysical Research Communications, 319(4): 1322-1326.
10.1016/j.bbrc.2004.05.116
CrossRef
Nature Reviews Drug Discovery
Toxicity of antiretroviral therapy and implications for drug development
Carr, A
Nature Reviews Drug Discovery, 2(8): 624-634.
10.1038/nrd1151
CrossRef
Pharmacology
Therapeutic drug monitoring of the HIV/AIDS drugs abacavir, zidovudine, efavirenz, nevirapine, indinavir, lopinavir, and nelfinavir
Donnerer, J; Kronawetter, M; Kapper, A; Haas, I; Kessler, HH
Pharmacology, 69(4): 197-204.
10.1159/000073664
CrossRef
AIDS
Pharmacogenetics of efavirenz and central nervous system side effects: an Adult AIDS Clinical Trials Group study
Haas, DW; Ribaudo, H; Kim, RB; Tierney, C; Wilkinson, GR; Gulick, RA; Clifford, DB; Hulgan, T; Marzolini, C; Acosta, EP
AIDS, 18(): 2391-2400.

Scandinavian Journal of Infectious Diseases
Genotyping of CYP2B6 and therapeutic drug monitoring in an HIV-infected patient with high efavirenz plasma concentrations and severe CNS side-effects
Mathiesen, S; Justesen, US; Von Luttichau, HR; Hansen, ABE
Scandinavian Journal of Infectious Diseases, 38(8): 733-735.
10.1080/00365540500504109
CrossRef
Expert Opinion on Pharmacotherapy
Efavirenz: a review
Vrouenraets, SME; Wit, FWNM; Van Tongeren, J; Lange, JMA
Expert Opinion on Pharmacotherapy, 8(6): 851-871.
10.1517/14656566.8.6.851
CrossRef
International Journal of Std & AIDS
Efavirenz-induced neurological symptoms in rare homozygote CYP2B6*2/*2 (C64T)
Usami, O; Ashino, Y; Komaki, Y; Tomaki, M; Irokawa, T; Tamada, T; Hayashida, T; Teruya, K; Hattori, T
International Journal of Std & AIDS, 18(8): 575-576.

Hiv Medicine
CYP2B6 G516T genotyping in a UK cohort of HIV-positive patients: polymorphism frequency and influence on efavirenz discontinuation
Powers, V; Ward, J; Gompels, M
Hiv Medicine, 10(8): 520-523.
10.1111/j.1468-1293.2009.00718.x
CrossRef
Antimicrobial Agents and Chemotherapy
Is the Recommended Dose of Efavirenz Optimal in Young West African Human Immunodeficiency Virus-Infected Children?
Hirt, D; Urien, S; Olivier, M; Peyriere, H; Nacro, B; Diagbouga, S; Zoure, E; Rouet, F; Hien, H; Msellati, P; De Perre, PV; Treluyer, JM
Antimicrobial Agents and Chemotherapy, 53(): 4407-4413.
10.1128/AAC.01594-08
CrossRef
Lancet Infectious Diseases
Successes, challenges, and limitations of current antiretroviral therapy in low-income and middle-income countries
Bartlett, JA; Shao, JF
Lancet Infectious Diseases, 9(): 637-649.

Current Drug Metabolism
Substrate Specificity, Regulation, and Polymorphism of Human Cytochrome P450 2B6
Mo, SL; Liu, YH; Duan, W; Wei, MQ; Kanwar, JR; Zhou, SF
Current Drug Metabolism, 10(7): 730-753.

European Journal of Medical Research
Efavirenz plasma levels for the prediction of treatment failure in heavily pretreated HIV-1 infected patients
Langmann, P; Weissbrich, B; Desch, S; Vath, T; Schirmer, D; Zilly, M; Klinker, H
European Journal of Medical Research, 7(7): 309-314.

AIDS
Efavirenz-induced catatonia
Sabato, S; Wesselingh, S; Fuller, A; Ray, J; Mijch, A
AIDS, 16(): 1841-1842.

Antimicrobial Agents and Chemotherapy
Pharmacokinetics of enfuvirtide in patients treated in typical routine clinical settings
Stocker, H; Kloft, C; Plock, N; Breske, A; Kruse, G; Herzmann, C; Schulbin, H; Kreckel, P; Weber, C; Goebel, F; Roeling, J; Staszewski, S; Plettenberg, A; Moecklinghoff, C; Arasteh, K; Kurowski, M
Antimicrobial Agents and Chemotherapy, 50(2): 667-673.
10.1128/AAC.50.2.667-673.2006
CrossRef
Clinical Infectious Diseases
Less than 95% adherence to nonnucleoside reverse-transcriptase inhibitor therapy can lead to viral suppression
Bangsberg, DR
Clinical Infectious Diseases, 43(7): 939-941.

Expert Opinion on Drug Safety
Neuropsychiatric side effects of efavirenz therapy
Arendt, G; de Nocker, D; von Giesen, HJ; Nolting, T
Expert Opinion on Drug Safety, 6(2): 147-154.
10.1517/14740338.6.2.147
CrossRef
European Journal of Clinical Pharmacology
Optimizing efavirenz treatment: CYP2B6 genotyping or therapeutic drug monitoring ?
Rotger, M; Telenti, A
European Journal of Clinical Pharmacology, 64(4): 335-336.
10.1007/s00228-007-0440-z
CrossRef
Journal of Clinical Pharmacology
Are literature references sufficient for dose recommendations? an FDA case study of efavirenz and rifampin
DiGiacinto, JL; Chan-Tack, KM; Robertson, SM; Reynolds, KS; Struble, KA
Journal of Clinical Pharmacology, 48(4): 518-523.
10.1177/0091270008315308
CrossRef
Journal of Antimicrobial Chemotherapy
Once- or twice-daily dosing of nevirapine in HIV-infected adults: a population pharmacokinetics approach
Molto, J; Valle, M; Miranda, C; Cedeno, S; Miranda, J; Santos, JR; Negredo, E; Vilaro, J; Costa, J; Clotet, B
Journal of Antimicrobial Chemotherapy, 62(4): 784-792.
10.1093/jac/dkn268
CrossRef
Molecular Pharmacology
Regulation of Human Vitamin D-3 25-Hydroxylases in Dermal Fibroblasts and Prostate Cancer LNCaP Cells
Ellfolk, M; Norlin, M; Gyllensten, K; Wikvall, K
Molecular Pharmacology, 75(6): 1392-1399.
10.1124/mol.108.053660
CrossRef
Antimicrobial Agents and Chemotherapy
Pharmacokinetics of Darunavir at 900 Milligrams and Ritonavir at 100 Milligrams Once Daily when Coadministered with Efavirenz at 600 Milligrams Once Daily in Healthy Volunteers
Soon, GH; Shen, P; Yong, EL; Pham, P; Flexner, C; Lee, L
Antimicrobial Agents and Chemotherapy, 54(7): 2775-2780.
10.1128/AAC.01564-09
CrossRef
AIDS
Penetration of efavirenz into the male genital tract: drug concentrations and antiviral activity in semen and blood of HIV-1-infected men
Taylor, S; Reynolds, H; Sabin, CA; Drake, SM; White, DJ; Back, DJ; Pillay, D
AIDS, 15(): 2051-2053.

Clinical Pharmacology & Therapeutics
The influence of efavirenz on the pharmacokinetics of a twice-daily combination of indinavir and low-dose ritonavir in healthy volunteers
Aarnoutse, RE; Grintjes, KJT; Telgt, DSC; Stek, M; Hugen, PWH; Reiss, P; Koopmans, PP; Hekster, YA; Burger, DM
Clinical Pharmacology & Therapeutics, 71(1): 57-67.

Indian Journal of Medical Research
Obstacles to successful antiretroviral treatment of HIV-1 infection: problems & perspectives
Potter, SJ; Chew, CB; Steain, M; Dwyer, DE; Saksena, NK
Indian Journal of Medical Research, 119(6): 217-237.

Medecine Et Maladies Infectieuses
Neurospychiatric symptoms in HIV infected patients and the role of efavirenz
Bary, M; David, F; Gasnault, J; Kerneis, H; Linard, F; Longuet, P; Pelissolo, A; Ravaux, I
Medecine Et Maladies Infectieuses, 34(): 435-449.
10.1016/j.medmal.2004.04.007
CrossRef
Current Pharmaceutical Analysis
Therapeutic drug monitoring: A tool to individualize highly active antiretroviral therapy in HIV infected patients
Langmann, P; Zilly, M; Winzer, R; Klinker, H
Current Pharmaceutical Analysis, 2(3): 205-217.

Clinical Infectious Diseases
Interactions between natural health products and antiretroviral drugs: Pharmacokinetic and pharmacodynamic effects
Lee, LS; Andrade, ASA; Flexner, C
Clinical Infectious Diseases, 43(8): 1052-1059.

Clinical Infectious Diseases
Successful efavirenz dose reduction in HIV type 1-infected individuals with cytochrome P4502B6*6 and*26
Gatanaga, H; Hayashida, T; Tsuchiya, K; Yoshino, M; Kuwahara, T; Tsukada, H; Fujimoto, K; Sato, I; Ueda, M; Horiba, M; Hamaguchi, M; Yamamoto, M; Takata, N; Kimura, A; Koike, T; Gejyo, F; Matsushita, S; Shirasaka, T; Kimura, S; Oka, S
Clinical Infectious Diseases, 45(9): 1230-1237.
10.1086/522175
CrossRef
Expert Opinion on Drug Metabolism & Toxicology
Efavirenz - Still first-line king?
Best, BM; Goicoechea, M
Expert Opinion on Drug Metabolism & Toxicology, 4(7): 965-972.
10.1517/17425250802204217
CrossRef
Current Hiv Research
Correlation Between HIV-1 RNA Load in Blood and Seminal Plasma Depending on Antiretroviral Treatment Status, Regimen and Penetration of Semen by Antiretroviral Drugs
Chan, DJ; Ray, JE; McNally, L; Batterham, M; Smith, DE
Current Hiv Research, 6(5): 477-484.

Immuno-Analyse & Biologie Specialisee
Biological follow-up of the HIV infection in the adult
Belan, AG; Chaplain, C; Boussairic, A
Immuno-Analyse & Biologie Specialisee, 23(2): 95-102.
10.1016/j.immbio.2008.03.002
CrossRef
Archives of Internal Medicine
Treatment Modification in Human Immunodeficiency Virus-Infected Individuals Starting Combination Antiretroviral Therapy Between 2005 and 2008
Elzi, L; Marzolini, C; Furrer, H; Ledergerber, B; Cavassini, M; Hirschel, B; Vernazza, P; Bernasconi, E; Weber, R; Battegay, M
Archives of Internal Medicine, 170(1): 57-65.

AIDS
Therapeutic drug monitoring in HIV infection: current status and future directions
Back, D; Gatti, G; Fletcher, C; Garaffo, R; Haubrich, R; Hoetelmans, R; Kurowski, M; Luber, A; Merry, C; Perno, CF
AIDS, 16(): S5-S37.

Clinical Pharmacokinetics
Drug interactions between antiretroviral drugs and comedicated agents
de Maat, MMR; Ekhart, GC; Huitema, ADR; Koks, CHW; Mulder, JW; Beijnen, JH
Clinical Pharmacokinetics, 42(3): 223-282.

Pharmacogenomics
Pharmacogenetics of antiretroviral therapy: genetic variation of response and toxicity
Martin, AM; Nolan, D; Gaudieri, S; Phillips, E; Mallal, S
Pharmacogenomics, 5(6): 643-655.

European Journal of Medical Research
Effect of first line therapy including efavirenz and two nucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitors in HIV-infected children
Funk, MB; Notheis, G; Schuster, T; Elanjkal, Z; von Hentig, N; Sturmer, M; Linde, R; Dunsch, D; Konigs, C; Wintergerst, U; Kreuz, W
European Journal of Medical Research, 10(): 503-508.

Antiviral Therapy
Role of the inhibitory quotient in HIV therapy
Hoefnagel, JGM; Koopmans, PP; Burger, DM; Schuurman, R; Galama, JM
Antiviral Therapy, 10(8): 879-892.

Clinical Pharmacology & Therapeutics
Cytochrome P4502B6 activity as measured by bupropion hydroxylation: Effect of induction by rifampin and ethnicity
Loboz, KK; Gross, AS; Williams, KM; Liauw, WS; Day, RO; Blievernicht, JK; Zanger, UM; McLachlan, AJ
Clinical Pharmacology & Therapeutics, 80(1): 75-84.
10.1016/j.clpt.2006.03.010
CrossRef
Journal of Antimicrobial Chemotherapy
Intracellular and plasma efavirenz concentrations in HIV-infected patients switching from successful protease inhibitor-based highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART) to efavirenz-based HAART (SUSTIPHAR Study)
Djabarouti, S; Breilh, D; Pellegrin, I; Lavit, M; Camou, F; Caubet, O; Fleury, H; Saux, MC; Pellegrin, JL
Journal of Antimicrobial Chemotherapy, 58(5): 1090-1093.
10.1093/jac/dkl348
CrossRef
Journal of Drug Targeting
Poly (propyleneimine) dendrimer based nanocontainers for targeting of efavirenz to human monocytes/macrophages in vitro
Dutta, T; Agashe, HB; Garg, M; Balasubramanium, P; Kabra, M; Jain, NK
Journal of Drug Targeting, 15(1): 89-98.
10.1080/10611860600965914
CrossRef
Infection Genetics and Evolution
Pharmacogenetics of antiretroviral drugs for the treatment of HIV-infected patients: An update
Cressey, TR; Lallemant, M
Infection Genetics and Evolution, 7(2): 333-342.
10.1016/j.meegid.2006.08.004
CrossRef
Antimicrobial Agents and Chemotherapy
Influence of the Cytochrome P450 2B6 Genotype on Population Pharmacokinetics of Efavirenz in Human Immunodeficiency Virus Patients
Cabrera, SE; Santos, D; Valverde, MP; Dominguez-Gil, A; Gonzalez, F; Luna, G; Garcia, MJ
Antimicrobial Agents and Chemotherapy, 53(7): 2791-2798.
10.1128/AAC.01537-08
CrossRef
Journal of Infectious Diseases
CYP2B6 Variants and Plasma Efavirenz Concentrations during Antiretroviral Therapy in Port-au-Prince, Haiti
Leger, P; Dillingham, R; Beauharnais, CA; Kashuba, ADM; Rezk, NL; Fitzgerald, DW; Pape, JW; Haas, DW
Journal of Infectious Diseases, 200(6): 955-964.
10.1086/605126
CrossRef
International Journal of Std & AIDS
The impact of pharmacogenetics on HIV therapy
Mahungu, TW; Johnson, MA; Owen, A; Back, DJ
International Journal of Std & AIDS, 20(3): 145-151.
10.1258/ijsa.2008.008369
CrossRef
Annals of Internal Medicine
Stepped-Dose Versus Full-Dose Efavirenz for HIV Infection and Neuropsychiatric Adverse Events A Randomized Trial
Gutierrez-Valencia, A; Viciana, P; Palacios, R; Ruiz-Valderas, R; Lozano, F; Terron, A; Rivero, A; Lopez-Cortes, LF
Annals of Internal Medicine, 151(3): 149-W34.

Jaids-Journal of Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndromes
Neurocognitive aspects of medication adherence in HIV infection
Selnes, OA
Jaids-Journal of Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndromes, 31(): S132-S135.

Current Hiv Research
Improving HIV infection management using antiretroviral plasma drug levels monitoring: A clinician's point of view
Clevenbergh, P; Mouly, S; Sellier, P; Badsi, E; Cervoni, J; Vincent, V; Trout, H; Bergmann, JF
Current Hiv Research, 2(4): 309-321.

AIDS
Early virologic failure in HIV-1 infected subjects on didanosine/tenofovir/efavirenz: 12-week results from a randomized trial
Maitland, D; Moyle, G; Hand, J; Mandalia, S; Boffito, M; Nelson, M; Gazzard, B
AIDS, 19(): 1183-1188.

Clinical Infectious Diseases
Prediction of neuropsychiatric adverse events associated with long-term efavirenz therapy, using plasma drug level monitoring
Gutierrez, F; Navarro, A; Padilla, S; Anton, R; Masia, M; Borras, J; Martin-Hidalgo, A
Clinical Infectious Diseases, 41(): 1648-1653.

Journal of Pharmacy and Pharmacology
Quantification of antiretroviral drugs for HIV-1 in the male genital tract: current data, limitations and implications for laboratory analysis
Chan, DJ; Ray, JE
Journal of Pharmacy and Pharmacology, 59(): 1451-1462.
10.1211/jpp.59.11.0001
CrossRef
Deutsche Medizinische Wochenschrift
Measurement of Plasma concentration of anti retroviral drugs in HIV-therapy
Langmann, P
Deutsche Medizinische Wochenschrift, 133(): 1205-1206.
10.1055/s-2008-1077239
CrossRef
European Journal of Pharmaceutical Sciences
Targeting of efavirenz loaded tuftsin conjugated poly(propyleneimine) dendrimers to HIV infected macrophages in vitro
Dutta, T; Garg, M; Jain, NK
European Journal of Pharmaceutical Sciences, 34(): 181-189.
10.1016/j.ejps.2008.04.002
CrossRef
Journal of Clinical Pharmacology
Pharmacokinetic interaction between efavirenz and carbamazepine after multiple-dose administration in healthy subjects
Ji, P; Damle, B; Xie, FD; Unger, SE; Grasela, DM; Kau, S
Journal of Clinical Pharmacology, 48(8): 948-956.
10.1177/0091270008319792
CrossRef
Virologie
Non-nucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitors pharmacology
Garrafo, R
Virologie, 12(): S15-S28.
10.1684/vir.2008.0179
CrossRef
Antimicrobial Agents and Chemotherapy
CYP2B6 G516T Polymorphism but Not Rifampin Coadministration Influences Steady-State Pharmacokinetics of Efavirenz in Human Immunodeficiency Virus-Infected Patients in South India
Ramachandran, G; Kumar, AKH; Rajasekaran, S; Kumar, P; Ramesh, K; Anitha, S; Narendran, G; Menon, P; Gomathi, C; Swaminathan, S
Antimicrobial Agents and Chemotherapy, 53(3): 863-868.
10.1128/AAC.00899-08
CrossRef
Journal of Virology
In vitro microbicidal activity of the nonnucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitor (NNRTI) UC781 against NNRTI-resistant human immunodeficiency virus type 1
Hossain, MM; Parniak, MA
Journal of Virology, 80(9): 4440-4446.
10.1128/JVI.80.9.4440-4446.2006
CrossRef
Journal of Chromatography B-Analytical Technologies in the Biomedical and Life Sciences
Simple and rapid liquid chromatography method for determination of efavirenz in plasma
Ramachandran, G; Kumar, AKH; Swaminathan, S; Venkatesan, P; Kumaraswami, V; Greenblatt, DJ
Journal of Chromatography B-Analytical Technologies in the Biomedical and Life Sciences, 835(): 131-135.
10.1016/j.jchromb.2006.03.014
CrossRef
Pharmacological Reviews
Pharmacogenetics, drug-metabolizing enzymes, and clinical practice
Gardiner, SJ; Begg, EJ
Pharmacological Reviews, 58(3): 521-590.
10.1124/pr.58.3.6
CrossRef
Hiv Medicine
Efavirenz and chronic neuropsychiatric symptoms: a cross-sectional case control study
Rihs, TA; Begley, K; Smith, DE; Sarangapany, J; Callaghan, A; Kelly, M; Post, JJ; Gold, J
Hiv Medicine, 7(8): 544-548.

Journal of Infectious Diseases
Complications of antiretroviral therapy in patients with tuberculosis: Drug interactions, toxicity, and immune reconstitution inflammatory syndrome
McIlleron, H; Meintjes, G; Burman, WJ; Maartens, G
Journal of Infectious Diseases, 196(): S63-S75.
10.1086/518655
CrossRef
European Journal of Medical Research
Efavirenz-therapy in HIV-patients with underlying liver disease: Importance of continuous TDM of EFV
Katsounasl, A; Frank, A; Klinker, H; Langmann, P
European Journal of Medical Research, 12(8): 331-336.

AIDS
Higher efavirenz concentrations determine the response to viruses carrying non-nucleoside reverse transcriptase resistance mutations
de Requena, DG; Gallego, O; Corral, A; Jimenez-Nacher, I; Sorino, V
AIDS, 18(): 2091-2094.

Antimicrobial Agents and Chemotherapy
Clinical pharmacokinetics of Nelfinavir and its metabolite M8 in human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-positive and HIV-hepatitis C virus-coinfected subjects
Regazzi, M; Maserati, R; Villani, P; Cusato, M; Zucchi, P; Briganti, E; Roda, R; Sacchelli, L; Gatti, F; Delle Foglie, P; Nardini, G; Fabris, P; Mori, F; Castelli, P; Testa, L
Antimicrobial Agents and Chemotherapy, 49(2): 643-649.
10.1128/AAC.49.2.643-649.2005
CrossRef
Clinical Infectious Diseases
A randomized controlled trial to evaluate antiretroviral salvage therapy guided by rules-based or phenotype-driven HIV-1 genotypic drug-resistance interpretation with or without concentration-controlled intervention: The resistance and dosage adapted regimens (RADAR) study
Torti, C; Quiros-Roldan, E; Regazzi, M; De Luca, A; Mazzotta, F; Antinori, A; Ladisa, N; Micheli, V; Orani, A; Patroni, A; Villani, P; Lo Caputo, S; Moretti, F; Di Giambenedetto, S; Castelnuovo, F; Maggi, P; Tinelli, C; Carosi, G
Clinical Infectious Diseases, 40(): 1828-1836.

Enfermedades Infecciosas Y Microbiologia Clinica
Efavirenz and nevirapine plasma levels in HIV-infected patients with hemophilia
Martorell, M; Lopez, RM; Ribera, E; Ruiz, I; Tural, C; Puig, L; Monterde, J
Enfermedades Infecciosas Y Microbiologia Clinica, 23(6): 349-352.

Basic & Clinical Pharmacology & Toxicology
Therapeutic drug monitoring and human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) antiretroviral therapy
Justesen, US
Basic & Clinical Pharmacology & Toxicology, 98(1): 20-31.

Hiv Medicine
Increased health care utilization and increased antiretroviral use in HIV-infected individuals with mental health disorders
Mijch, A; Burgess, P; Judd, F; Grech, P; Komiti, A; Hoy, J; Lloyd, JH; Gibbie, T; Street, A
Hiv Medicine, 7(4): 205-212.

Journal of the International AIDS Society
Non-nucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitors: a review on pharmacokinetics, pharmacodynamics, safety and tolerability
Usach, I; Melis, V; Peris, JE
Journal of the International AIDS Society, 16(): -.
ARTN 18567
CrossRef
Advanced Healthcare Materials
Microencapsulation of Dye- and Drug-Loaded Particles for Imaging and Controlled Release of Multiple Drugs
Khung, YL; Lee, WL; Chui, KL; Liu, YY; Lim, MP; Huang, CL; Loo, SCJ
Advanced Healthcare Materials, 1(2): 159-163.
10.1002/adhm.201100007
CrossRef
Journal of the International AIDS Society
Moderator effect of CYP2B6 genotype in HIV-1 patients with tuberculosis treated with rifampicin and efavirenz
De la Calle, C; Sanchez, A; Cordero, M; Iglesias, A; Luna, G
Journal of the International AIDS Society, 15(): 64.
10.7448/IAS.15.6.18364
CrossRef
Antimicrobial Agents and Chemotherapy
Impact of Pharmacogenetic Markers of CYP2B6, Clinical Factors, and Drug-Drug Interaction on Efavirenz Concentrations in HIV/Tuberculosis-Coinfected Patients
Manosuthi, W; Sukasem, C; Lueangniyomkul, A; Mankatitham, W; Thongyen, S; Nilkamhang, S; Manosuthi, S; Sungkanuparph, S
Antimicrobial Agents and Chemotherapy, 57(2): 1019-1024.
10.1128/AAC.02023-12
CrossRef
Journal of Clinical Virology
Efavirenz induced acute liver failure requiring liver transplantation in a slow drug metaboliser
Elsharkawy, AM; Schwab, U; McCarron, B; Burt, AD; Daly, AK; Hudson, M; Masson, S
Journal of Clinical Virology, 58(1): 331-333.
10.1016/j.jcv.2013.05.003
CrossRef
Plos One
Valproic Acid Inhibits the Release of Soluble CD40L Induced by Non-Nucleoside Reverse Transcriptase Inhibitors in Human Immunodeficiency Virus Infected Individuals
Davidson, DC; Schifitto, G; Maggirwar, SB
Plos One, 8(3): -.
ARTN e59950
CrossRef
International Journal of Molecular Medicine
Efavirenz induces autophagy and aberrant differentiation in normal human keratinocytes
Dong, QH; Oh, JE; Yi, JK; Kim, RH; Shin, KH; Mitsuyasu, R; Park, NH; Kang, MK
International Journal of Molecular Medicine, 31(6): 1305-1312.
10.3892/ijmm.2013.1327
CrossRef
Bmc Infectious Diseases
Influence of efavirenz pharmacokinetics and pharmacogenetics on neuropsychological disorders in Ugandan HIV-positive patients with or without tuberculosis: a prospective cohort study
Mukonzo, JK; Okwera, A; Nakasujja, N; Luzze, H; Sebuwufu, D; Ogwal-Okeng, J; Waako, P; Gustafsson, LL; Aklillu, E
Bmc Infectious Diseases, 13(): -.
ARTN 261
CrossRef
Clinical Infectious Diseases
Relationship Between Weight, Efavirenz Exposure, and Virologic Suppression in HIV-Infected Patients on Rifampin-Based Tuberculosis Treatment in the AIDS Clinical Trials Group A5221 STRIDE Study
Luetkemeyer, AF; Rosenkranz, SL; Lu, D; Marzan, F; Ive, P; Hogg, E; Swindells, S; Benson, CA; Grinsztejn, B; Sanne, IM; Havlir, DV; Aweeka, F
Clinical Infectious Diseases, 57(4): 586-593.
10.1093/cid/cit246
CrossRef
Future Virology
Neurotoxicity of antiretroviral therapy
Upton, CT; Taiwo, B; Robertson, KR
Future Virology, 8(5): 469-475.
10.2217/FVL.13.30
CrossRef
AIDS
Clinical interaction between efavirenz and phenytoin
Spak, CW; Dhanireddy, S; Kosel, BW
AIDS, 22(1): 164-165.
10.1097/QAD.0b013e3282f2be31
PDF (264) | CrossRef
AIDS
Liver toxicity caused by nevirapine
González de Requena, D; Núñez, M; Jiménez-Nácher, I; Soriano, V
AIDS, 16(2): 290-291.

AIDS
Pharmacokinetics of indinavir/ritonavir (800/100 mg twice a day) combined with efavirenz in HIV-infected patients
Aarnoutse, RE; Brinkman, K; Benetucci, J; Begovac, J; Stek, M; Burger, DM
AIDS, 18(3): 565-567.

PDF (164)
AIDS
The effects of cannabinoids on the pharmacokinetics of indinavir and nelfinavir
Kosel, BW; Aweeka, FT; Benowitz, NL; Shade, SB; Hilton, JF; Lizak, PS; Abrams, DI
AIDS, 16(4): 543-550.

PDF (295)
AIDS
Efavirenz dose reduction to 200 mg once daily in a patient treated with rifampicin
van Luin, M; Brouwer, A; van der Ven, A; de Lange, W; van Schaik, RH; Burger, DM
AIDS, 23(6): 742-744.
10.1097/QAD.0b013e32832914a3
PDF (132) | CrossRef
AIDS
Both baseline HIV-1 drug resistance and antiretroviral drug levels are associated with short-term virologic responses to salvage therapy
Baxter, JD; Merigan, TC; Wentworth, DN; Neaton, JD; Hoover, ML; Hoetelmans, RM; Piscitelli, SC; Verbiest, WH; Mayers, DL; and the CPCRA 046 Study Team for the Terry Beirn Community Programs for Clinical Research on AIDS,
AIDS, 16(8): 1131-1138.

PDF (442)
AIDS
Presence of numerous stop codons in HIV-1 reverse transcriptase proviral DNA sequences from patients with virological response to HAART
Makinson, A; Masquelier, B; Taieb, A; Peytavin, G; Waldner-Combernoux, A; Collin, G; Chêne, G; Brun-Vézinet, F; Raffi, F; Le Moing, V; Leport, C; Descamps, D; the ANRS CO8 APROCO- COPILOTE StudyGroup,
AIDS, 20(9): 1327-1329.
10.1097/01.aids.0000232242.51286.7b
PDF (232) | CrossRef
AIDS
A case of voluntary intoxication with efavirenz and lamivudine
Boscacci, RT; Buclin, T; Furrer, H; Fux, CA
AIDS, 20(9): 1352-1354.
10.1097/01.aids.0000232256.97027.c9
PDF (2353) | CrossRef
AIDS
Neurologic and psychiatric complications of antiretroviral agents
Treisman, GJ; Kaplin, AI
AIDS, 16(9): 1201-1215.

PDF (160)
AIDS
Efavirenz plasma concentrations and efficiency
López-Cortés, LF; de Alarcón, A; Viciana, P
AIDS, 15(9): 1192-1193.

AIDS
Clinical impact of patient population differences and genomic variation in efavirenz therapy
King, J; Aberg, JA
AIDS, 22(14): 1709-1717.
10.1097/QAD.0b013e32830163ad
PDF (137) | CrossRef
AIDS
Therapeutic monitoring is necessary for the association itraconazole and efavirenz in a patient with AIDS and disseminated histoplasmosis
Huet, E; Hadji, C; Hulin, A; Botterel, F; Bretagne, S; Lévy, Y
AIDS, 22(14): 1885-1886.
10.1097/QAD.0b013e3283097d0f
PDF (356) | CrossRef
AIDS
The pharmacokinetics and pharmacogenomics of efavirenz and lopinavir/ritonavir in HIV-infected persons requiring hemodialysis
Gupta, SK; Rosenkranz, SL; Cramer, YS; Koletar, SL; Szczech, LA; Amorosa, V; Hall, SD
AIDS, 22(15): 1919-1927.
10.1097/QAD.0b013e32830e011f
PDF (156) | CrossRef
AIDS
CYP2B6, CYP2A6 and UGT2B7 genetic polymorphisms are predictors of efavirenz mid-dose concentration in HIV-infected patients
Kwara, A; Lartey, M; Sagoe, KW; Kenu, E; Court, MH
AIDS, 23(16): 2101-2106.
10.1097/QAD.0b013e3283319908
PDF (355) | CrossRef
AIDS
Efavirenz plasma concentrations did not predict cessation of therapy due to neuropsychiatric symptoms in a large randomized trial
Read, TR; Carey, D; Mallon, P; Mijch, A; Goodall, R; Hudson, F; Wand, H; Emery, S
AIDS, 23(16): 2222-2223.
10.1097/QAD.0b013e32832e95f8
PDF (544) | CrossRef
AIDS
Efavirenz–rifampicin interaction: therapeutic drug monitoring to efavirenz dosage optimization in HIV/TBC patients
Cabrera, SE; Cordero, M; Iglesias, A; Valverde, MP; Domínguez-Gil, A; García, MJ
AIDS, 22(18): 2549-2551.
10.1097/QAD.0b013e3283189c07
PDF (255) | CrossRef
Current Opinion in Infectious Diseases
Pros and cons of therapeutic drug monitoring of antiretroviral agents
Burger, DM; Aarnoutse, RE; Hugen, PW
Current Opinion in Infectious Diseases, 15(1): 17-22.

PDF (118)
Current Opinion in Infectious Diseases
Pharmacogenetics and the potential for the individualization of antiretroviral therapy
Phillips, EJ; Mallal, SA
Current Opinion in Infectious Diseases, 21(1): 16-24.
10.1097/QCO.0b013e3282f42224
PDF (165) | CrossRef
Current Opinion in Psychiatry
Central nervous system symptoms related to the use of efavirenz in HIV-seropositive patients
Wichers, M; van der Ven, A; Maes, M
Current Opinion in Psychiatry, 15(6): 643-647.

PDF (71)
Therapeutic Drug Monitoring
Treatment Failure of Nelfinavir-Containing Triple Therapy Can Largely Be Explained by Low Nelfinavir Plasma Concentrations
Burger, DM; Hugen, PW; Aarnoutse, RE; Hoetelmans, RM; Jambroes, M; Nieuwkerk, PT; Schreij, G; Schneider, MM; van der Ende, ME; Lange, JM; ATHENA Study Group,
Therapeutic Drug Monitoring, 25(1): 73-80.

PDF (406)
Therapeutic Drug Monitoring
Simultaneous Determination of the Six HIV Protease Inhibitors (Amprenavir, Indinavir, Lopinavir, Nelfinavir, Ritonavir, and Saquinavir) Plus M8 Nelfinavir Metabolite and the Nonnucleoside Reverse Transcription Inhibitor Efavirenz in Human Plasma by Solid-Phase Extraction and Column Liquid Chromatography
Poirier, J; Robidou, P; Jaillon, P
Therapeutic Drug Monitoring, 24(2): 302-309.

PDF (755)
Therapeutic Drug Monitoring
Therapeutic Drug Monitoring in Children with HIV/AIDS
Fraaij, PL; Rakhmanina, N; Burger, DM; de Groot, R
Therapeutic Drug Monitoring, 26(2): 122-126.

PDF (67)
Therapeutic Drug Monitoring
Indinavir Trough Concentration as a Determinant of Early Nephrolithiasis in HIV-1-Infected Adults
Collin, F; Chêne, G; Retout, S; Peytavin, G; Salmon, D; Bouvet, E; Raffi, F; Garraffo, R; Mentré, F; Duval, X; the ANRS CO8 Aproco-Copilote Study Group,
Therapeutic Drug Monitoring, 29(2): 164-170.
10.1097/ftd.0b013e318030839e
PDF (145) | CrossRef
Therapeutic Drug Monitoring
Critical Issues in Therapeutic Drug Monitoring of Antiretroviral Drugs
van Heeswijk, RP
Therapeutic Drug Monitoring, 24(3): 323-331.

PDF (444)
Therapeutic Drug Monitoring
High-Performance Liquid Chromatographic Method for the Simultaneous Determination of the Six HIV-Protease Inhibitors and Two Non-Nucleoside Reverse Transcriptase Inhibitors in Human Plasma
Titier, K; Lagrange, F; Péhourcq, F; Edno-Mcheik, L; Moore, N; Molimard, M
Therapeutic Drug Monitoring, 24(3): 417-424.

PDF (524)
Therapeutic Drug Monitoring
Reverse Phase High-Performance Liquid Chromatography Method for the Analysis of Amprenavir, Efavirenz, Indinavir, Lopinavir, Nelfinavir and Its Active Metabolite (M8), Ritonavir, and Saquinavir in Heparinized Human Plasma
Keil, K; Frerichs, VA; DiFrancesco, R; Morse, G
Therapeutic Drug Monitoring, 25(3): 340-346.

PDF (325)
Therapeutic Drug Monitoring
Subtherapeutic Antiretroviral Plasma Concentrations in Routine Clinical Outpatient HIV Care
de Maat, MM; Huitema, AD; Mulder, JW; Meenhorst, PL; van Gorp, EC; Mairuhu, AT; Beijnen, JH
Therapeutic Drug Monitoring, 25(3): 367-373.

PDF (327)
Therapeutic Drug Monitoring
Efavirenz Plasma Concentrations in HIV-Infected Patients: Inter- and Intraindividual Variability and Clinical Effects
Ståhle, L; Moberg, L; Svensson, J; Sönnerborg, A
Therapeutic Drug Monitoring, 26(3): 267-270.

PDF (75)
Therapeutic Drug Monitoring
Are Plasma Levels Valid Surrogates for Cellular Concentrations of Antiretroviral Drugs in HIV-infected Patients?
Colombo, S; Telenti, A; Buclin, T; Furrer, H; Lee, BL; Biollaz, J; Decosterd, LA; the Swiss HIV Cohort Study,
Therapeutic Drug Monitoring, 28(3): 332-338.
10.1097/01.ftd.0000211807.74192.62
PDF (142) | CrossRef
Therapeutic Drug Monitoring
An Update on Therapeutic Drug Monitoring for Antiretroviral Drugs
Back, D; Gibbons, S; Khoo, S
Therapeutic Drug Monitoring, 28(3): 468-473.
10.1097/01.ftd.0000211825.57984.41
PDF (117) | CrossRef
Therapeutic Drug Monitoring
Lopinavir/Ritonavir Pharmacokinetics in HIV/HCV-Coinfected Patients With or Without Cirrhosis
Micheli, V; Regazzi, M; Dickinson, L; Meraviglia, P; Villani, P; Khoo, SH; Viganò, P; Cordier, L; Cusato, M; Duca, P; Orlando, G; Rizzardini, G; Back, DJ; Cargnel, A
Therapeutic Drug Monitoring, 30(3): 306-313.
10.1097/FTD.0b013e318177209e
PDF (121) | CrossRef
Therapeutic Drug Monitoring
Nelfinavir Plasma Levels Under Twice-Daily and Three-Times-Daily Regimens: High Interpatient and Low Intrapatient Variability
Marzolini, C; Buclin, T; Decosterd, LA; Biollaz, J; Telenti, A
Therapeutic Drug Monitoring, 23(4): 394-398.

PDF (1070)
Therapeutic Drug Monitoring
Race Is Not Associated with Nevirapine Pharmacokinetics
de Maat, MM; Nellen, JF; Huitema, AD; Wit, FW; Mulder, JW; Prins, JM; Beijnen, JH
Therapeutic Drug Monitoring, 26(4): 456-458.

PDF (56)
Therapeutic Drug Monitoring
Simultaneous Determination of Rifampicin and Efavirenz in Plasma
Boffito, M; Tija, J; Reynolds, HE; Hoggard, PG; Bonora, S; Di Perri, G; Back, DJ
Therapeutic Drug Monitoring, 24(5): 670-674.

PDF (273)
Therapeutic Drug Monitoring
Simplification of Therapeutic Drug Monitoring for Twice-Daily Regimens of Lopinavir/Ritonavir for HIV infection
Alexander, CS; Montaner, JS; Asselin, JJ; Ting, L; McNabb, K; Harris, M; Guillemi, S; Harrigan, PR
Therapeutic Drug Monitoring, 26(5): 516-523.

PDF (172)
Therapeutic Drug Monitoring
Trough Concentrations of Lopinavir, Nelfinavir, and Nevirapine With Standard Dosing in Human Immunodeficiency Virus-Infected Pregnant Women Receiving 3-Drug Combination Regimens
Pinnetti, C; Sabbatini, F; Molinari, A; Tamburrini, E; Regazzi, M; Baroncelli, S; Villani, P; Floridia, M; Pirillo, MF; Galluzzo, CM; Cusato, M; Amici, R
Therapeutic Drug Monitoring, 30(5): 604-610.
10.1097/FTD.0b013e3181867a6e
PDF (254) | CrossRef
JAIDS Journal of Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndromes
Pharmacologic Optimization of Protease Inhibitors and Nonnucleoside Reverse Transcriptase Inhibitors (POPIN)-A Randomized Controlled Trial of Therapeutic Drug Monitoring and Adherence Support
Khoo, SH; Lloyd, J; Dalton, M; Bonington, A; Hart, E; Gibbons, S; Flegg, P; Sweeney, J; Wilkins, EG; Back, DJ
JAIDS Journal of Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndromes, 41(4): 461-467.
10.1097/01.qai.0000218345.65434.21
PDF (484) | CrossRef
JAIDS Journal of Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndromes
Long-Term Neuropsychiatric Disorders on Efavirenz-Based Approaches: Quality of Life, Psychologic Issues, and Adherence
Sirera, G; Pérez-Alvarez, N; Gómez, G; Burger, D; Clotet, B; Fumaz, CR; Munoz-Moreno, JA; Moltó, J; Negredo, E; Ferrer, MJ
JAIDS Journal of Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndromes, 38(5): 560-565.

PDF (84)
JAIDS Journal of Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndromes
Effect of Rifampicin on Efavirenz Pharmacokinetics in HIV-Infected Children With Tuberculosis
Ren, Y; Nuttall, JJ; Eley, BS; Meyers, TM; Smith, PJ; Maartens, G; McIlleron, HM
JAIDS Journal of Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndromes, 50(5): 439-443.
10.1097/QAI.0b013e31819c33a3
PDF (81) | CrossRef
JAIDS Journal of Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndromes
High Prevalence of Subtherapeutic Plasma Concentrations of Efavirenz in Children
Ren, Y; Nuttall, JJ; Egbers, C; Eley, BS; Meyers, TM; Smith, PJ; Maartens, G; McIlleron, HM
JAIDS Journal of Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndromes, 45(2): 133-136.
10.1097/QAI.0b013e31805c9d52
PDF (94) | CrossRef
JAIDS Journal of Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndromes
Efficacy and Tolerability of a Nucleoside Reverse Transcriptase Inhibitor-Sparing Combination of Lopinavir/Ritonavir and Efavirenz in HIV-1-Infected Patients
Allavena, C; Ferré, V; Brunet-François, C; Delfraissy, J; Lafeuillade, A; Valantin, M; Bentata, M; Michelet, C; Poizot-Martin, I; Dailly, E; Launay, O; Raffi, F; the Bitherapy Kaletra-Sustiva Study Group,
JAIDS Journal of Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndromes, 39(3): 300-306.

PDF (161)
JAIDS Journal of Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndromes
Efavirenz Pharmacokinetics in HIV-1-Infected Children Are Associated With CYP2B6-G516T Polymorphism
Fenton, T; Hsia, K; Spector, SA; Saitoh, A; Fletcher, CV; Brundage, R; Alvero, C
JAIDS Journal of Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndromes, 45(3): 280-285.
10.1097/QAI.0b013e318040b29e
PDF (199) | CrossRef
JAIDS Journal of Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndromes
Host Genetic Influences on Highly Active Antiretroviral Therapy Efficacy and AIDS-Free Survival
Hendrickson, SL; Jacobson, LP; Nelson, GW; Phair, JP; Lautenberger, J; Johnson, RC; Kingsley, L; Margolick, JB; Detels, R; Goedert, JJ; O'Brien, SJ
JAIDS Journal of Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndromes, 48(3): 263-271.
10.1097/QAI.0b013e31816fdc5f
PDF (1386) | CrossRef
JAIDS Journal of Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndromes
Therapeutic Drug Monitoring of Efavirenz: Trough Levels Cannot Be Estimated on the Basis of Earlier Plasma Determinations
López-Cortés, LF; Ruiz-Valderas, R; Marín-Niebla, A; Pascual-Carrasco, R; Rodríguez-Díez, M; Lucero-Muñoz, MJ
JAIDS Journal of Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndromes, 39(5): 551-556.

PDF (115)
JAIDS Journal of Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndromes
Pharmacokinetics of Indinavir/Ritonavir (800/100 mg) in Combination With Efavirenz (600 mg) in HIV-1-Infected Subjects
Boyd, MA; Aarnoutse, RE; Ruxrungtham, K; Stek, M; van Heeswijk, RP; Lange, JM; Cooper, DA; Phanuphak, P; Burger, DM
JAIDS Journal of Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndromes, 34(2): 134-139.

PDF (4850)
JAIDS Journal of Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndromes
Efavirenz Dose Reduction Is Safe in Patients With High Plasma Concentrations and May Prevent Efavirenz Discontinuations
van Luin, M; Gras, L; Richter, C; van der Ende, ME; Prins, JM; Wolf, Fd; Burger, DM; Wit, FW
JAIDS Journal of Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndromes, 52(2): 240-245.
10.1097/QAI.0b013e3181b061e6
PDF (103) | CrossRef
JAIDS Journal of Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndromes
Slow Efavirenz Metabolism Genotype Is Common in Botswana
Gross, R; Aplenc, R; TenHave, T; Foulkes, AS; Thakur, R; Mosepele, M; Barrett, JS; Flexner, C; Strom, BL; Bisson, G
JAIDS Journal of Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndromes, 49(3): 336-337.
10.1097/QAI.0b013e31817c1ed0
PDF (115) | CrossRef
JAIDS Journal of Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndromes
A Randomized Controlled Trial of Therapeutic Drug Monitoring in Treatment-Naive and -Experienced HIV-1-Infected Patients
the California Collaborative Treatment Group 578 Study Team, ; Holland, DT; Sun, S; Jain, S; Wagner, G; Capparelli, EV; McCutchan, JA; Haubrich, RH; Best, BM; Goicoechea, M; Witt, MD; Miller, L; Daar, ES; Diamond, C; Tilles, JG; Kemper, CA; Larsen, R
JAIDS Journal of Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndromes, 46(4): 433-442.
10.1097/QAI.0b013e318156f029
PDF (368) | CrossRef
Pharmacogenetics and Genomics
HIV protease inhibitors are substrates for OATP1A2, OATP1B1 and OATP1B3 and lopinavir plasma concentrations are influenced by SLCO1B1 polymorphisms
Hartkoorn, RC; Kwan, WS; Shallcross, V; Chaikan, A; Liptrott, N; Egan, D; Sora, ES; James, CE; Gibbons, S; Bray, PG; Back, DJ; Khoo, SH; Owen, A
Pharmacogenetics and Genomics, 20(2): 112-120.
10.1097/FPC.0b013e328335b02d
PDF (318) | CrossRef
Pharmacogenetics and Genomics
In vivo analysis of efavirenz metabolism in individuals with impaired CYP2A6 function
Iulio, Jd; Fayet, A; Arab-Alameddine, M; Rotger, M; Lubomirov, R; Cavassini, M; Furrer, H; Günthard, HF; Colombo, S; Csajka, C; Eap, CB; Decosterd, LA; Telenti, A; the Swiss HIV Cohort Study,
Pharmacogenetics and Genomics, 19(4): 300-309.
10.1097/FPC.0b013e328328d577
PDF (318) | CrossRef
Back to Top | Article Outline
Keywords:

CNS side effects; drug monitoring; efavirenz; plasma levels; treatment failure

© 2001 Lippincott Williams & Wilkins, Inc.

Login

Search for Similar Articles
You may search for similar articles that contain these same keywords or you may modify the keyword list to augment your search.