Skip Navigation LinksHome > March 31, 2000 - Volume 14 - Issue 5 > Insights into the reasons for discontinuation of the first h...
AIDS:
Clinical

Insights into the reasons for discontinuation of the first highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART) regimen in a cohort of antiretroviral naïve patients

Monforte, Antonella d'Arminioa; Lepri, Alessandro Cozzib; Rezza, Giovannic; Pezzotti, Patrizioc; Antinori, Andread; Phillips, Andrew N.b; Angarano, Gioacchinoe; Colangeli, Vincenzof; Luca, Andrea Deg; Ippolito, Giusepped; Caggese, Lilianah; Soscia, Fabrizioi; Filice, Gaetanoj; Gritti, Francescok; Narciso, Pasqualed; Tirelli, Umbertol; Moroni, Mauro*; for the I.CO.N.A. Study Group

Free Access
Article Outline
Collapse Box

Author Information

From the aInstitute of Infectious and Tropical Diseases, University of Milan, Milan, Italy, the bRoyal Free Centre for HIV Medicine, Royal Free & Universiy College Medical School, London, UK, the cIstituto Superiore di Sanità, Rome, the dIRCCS L. Spallanzani, Rome, the eInstitute of Infectious Diseases, University of Bari, Bari, the fInstitute of Infectious Diseases, University of Bologna, Bologna, the gClinic of Infectious Diseases, Cattolica University, Rome, the hDepartment of Infectious Diseases, Niguarda Hospital, Milan, the iAIDS Center, Latina Hospital, Latina, the jInstitute of Infectious Diseases, University of Pavia, Pavia, the kDepartment of Infectious Diseases, Maggiore Hospital, Bologna and the lOncology Center of Aviano, Pordenone, Italy. *See Appendix.

Sponsorship: The I.CO.N.A. network is supported by an unrestricted educational grant provided by Glaxo-Wellcome Italy.

Correspondence to Antonella d'Arminio Monforte, Institute of Infectious and Tropical Diseases, University of Milan, L. Sacco Hospital, via GB Grassi, 74, 20157 Milan, Italy. E-mail: adarmin@tin.it

Received: 16 March 1999;

revised: 21 June 1999; accepted: 23 November 1999.

Collapse Box

Abstract

Objective: To evaluate the frequency of discontinuation of the first highly active antiretroviral regimen (HAART) and the factors predictive of discontinuing for toxicity and failure in a population-based cohort of HIV-positive individuals in Italy, naïve from antiretrovirals at enrolment.

Methods: The study population consisted of individuals who initiated HAART and had at least one follow-up visit. The primary end-points were discontinuation of any component of HAART for drug toxicity and discontinuation for failure. Survival analyses were performed to identify predictive factors for reaching the two end-points.

Results: Eight hundred and sixty-two individuals initiated HAART; in 727 of them (84.3%) this consisted of two nucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitors (NRTI) and one protease inhibitor (PI). Over a median follow-up of 45 weeks, 312 patients (36.2%) discontinued therapy: 182 (21.1%) discontinued due to toxicity, 44 (5.1%) due to failure. The probability of discontinuing HAART at 1 year was 25.5% [95% confidence interval (CI), 21.9–28.9] due to toxicity and 7.6% (95% CI, 4.9–10.3) due to failure. Independent factors associated with discontinuation for toxicity were: gender [relative hazard (RH) = 0.51; 95% CI, 0.32–0.80 for men versus women], type of treatment (indinavir-containing regimens, RH = 1.94; 95% CI, 1.10–3.41 and ritonavir-containing regimens, RH = 3.83; 95% CI, 2.09–7.03 versus hard-gell saquinavir) and time spent on treatment (RH = 0.89; 95% CI, 0.80–0.98 for each additional month). Discontinuation due to failure was independently associated with the most recent HIV-RNA (RH = 3.20; 95% CI, 1.74–5.88 for log10 copies/ml higher), and with type of treatment (indinavir-containing regimens, RH = 0.21; 95% CI, 0.06–0.78 and ritonavir-containing regimens, RH = 0.23; 95% CI, 0.04–1.26 versus hard-gell saquinavir).

Conclusions: If the current HAART regimen caused no toxicity, less than 10% of naïve patients discontinue their first HAART regimen because of failure after 1 year from starting therapy.

Back to Top | Article Outline

Introduction

Highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART) is effective both in reducing plasma viral load and in prolonging AIDS-free survival, as demonstrated by various clinical trials [1–4]. Since HAART was introduced in clinical practice, AIDS-related events, hospitalizations and deaths have decreased in various clinical settings [5–7].

However, HAART has two main drawbacks: toxicity and low compliance. Although the frequency and the effects of toxicity have been assessed in clinical trials [2–4], they have not been thoroughly evaluated in clinical settings. Low compliance, which is often a consequence of persistent side effects, may lead to sub-optimal therapy or to therapy discontinuation and ultimately to treatment failure [8].

According to population-based studies on HAART conducted among unselected pre-treated patients, virological failure occurs in almost 50% of patients after 6–12 months of therapy [9,10], and within 8 months approximately 25% of patients discontinue the initial HAART regimen due to failure, toxicity or non-compliance [11,12]. Van Roon et al. [13] studied the incidence of discontinuation of HAART and its determinants in a clinical cohort of mixed drug-naïve and -experienced patients who mainly started saquinavir-containing regimens. They found that 25% of patients discontinued HAART by 1 year from starting therapy. Main predictors of discontinuing HAART were baseline CD4 cell count and being naïve at the time of starting HAART. However, none of these studies have investigated the determinants of discontinuation of HAART according to the reason for discontinuing (collected from clinicians in real time) in an observational cohort of antiretroviral-naïve patients starting their first HAART regimen.

Although an increasing number of new drugs have been licensed in the last few years, when treatment fails, the clinical options are limited by the existence of cross-resistance among drugs of the same class; options are also limited in cases of toxicity, since various types of toxicity are generally common to several antiretroviral drugs [14].

Based on these considerations, we decided to determine the frequency of discontinuation of the first HAART regimen and to study the factors associated with discontinuation because of toxicity or failure in a population of HIV-positive antiretroviral-naïve patients starting their first HAART regimen in Italy.

Back to Top | Article Outline

Study population and methods

The study population was that of the Italian Cohort of Antiretroviral-Naïve Patients (I.CO.N.A.) study which between March 1997 and 31 May 1999 has recruited 3586 patients from 65 infectious disease wards in Italy [15]. All patients must be antiretroviral-naïve at the time of enrolment, regardless of the reason for which they had never been treated. The present study only analysed those patients who, once enrolled in the I.CO.N.A. study, began an antiretroviral regimen with at least three antiretroviral drugs (i.e., HAART) and who underwent at least one follow-up visit after starting therapy. Data from all patients of the I.CO.N.A. study are registered in a data-base running via internet [16] which includes demographic, immunological, virological, clinical and therapeutic parameters. All patients are assumed to receive the recommended doses of antiretroviral drugs. All events are registered in the data-base over the follow-up (i.e., all CD4 cell count and HIV RNA measurements, clinical events, changes in therapy or prophylactic treatment, hospitalizations, and death); in their absence, a follow-up visit is scheduled at least every 6 months. When a patient discontinues therapy, regardless of whether or not he/she switches to another regimen, clinicians are asked to report the reason for discontinuing. A coded computer form is provided in which reasons for discontinuing are categorized as follows: immunological failure, virological failure, clinical failure, toxicity based on laboratory data, gastrointestinal intolerance, hypersensitivity, other side effects/symptoms, lack of compliance, patient's decision, changes in international guidelines, clinical contraindications, and `other reasons'. The clinician is asked to choose only one of these reasons.

Back to Top | Article Outline
Statistical analysis

Standard survival analysis by means of Kaplan–Meier estimates and Cox proportional hazards model was performed. Kaplan–Meier plots have been used to describe the probability of discontinuing HAART by a certain time from starting therapy and the Cox model to determine the predictors of discontinuing HAART. We considered two primary end-points for this analysis: (i) discontinuing HAART for reasons associated with drug-intolerance (i.e., toxicity based on laboratory data, gastrointestinal intolerance, hypersensitivity, other side effects/symptoms) and (ii) discontinuing HAART for clinical decisions associated with poor virological/immunological response or clinical outcome. The date of discontinuation was defined as the first time one of the drugs in the specific combination was terminated; the reason for discontinuing this drug was defined as the reason associated with discontinuing the prescribed treatment combination. `Time zero' of the analysis was the date of starting HAART. When we investigated the association between `time spent on treatment' and the defined end-points, time zero was the date of first clinical follow-up.

Thus survival time was the time since the first clinical follow-up and patients were not considered to be at risk of discontinuing until this time was greater or equal to the time of initiating HAART. This was done so `time on treatment' did not coincide with the survival time and could be included in the model as a covariate. Follow-up times of patients who never discontinued HAART were censored at their last clinical visit; this was done because, although discontinuation should be reported between clinical visits, some delay in reporting such information generally occurs. For the same reason, patients with no clinical visits after the date of starting therapy were excluded from the analysis. Follow-up times of patients who discontinued HAART for reasons other than the end-points of interest were censored at the time of discontinuation under the assumption that the probability of discontinuing for toxicity was totally unrelated to that of discontinuing for failure. This assumption was checked by repeating the analysis with end-point toxicity only on patients whose viral load at the time of discontinuing was below 500 copies/ml. A fixed covariate was fitted for baseline CD4 cell count and HIV-RNA, whereas to investigate whether the most recent value of these markers was affecting the probability of discontinuation of HAART, a time-updated covariate was included in the model. To control for the potential confounding effect of infectious disease ward a stratified proportional hazards model has been fitted. When investigating the determinants of discontinuation of HAART only 717 patients who started two nucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitors (NRTI) and one of the following protease inhibitors: indinavir, ritonavir or hard-gell saquinavir were included in the analysis.

Back to Top | Article Outline

Results

A total of 862 patients were included in this analysis. The baseline characteristics of the patients are shown in Table 1. Of this total, 632 (73.3%) patients were males, 349 (40.5%) were intravenous drug users, 183 (21.2%) were infected by the homosexual route, 273 (31.7%) by the heterosexual route and 57 (6.6%) by other or unknown routes. Most patients (68.5%) were asymptomatic, i.e. in group A of the US Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) [17]. Median CD4+ cell count at HAART initiation was 309 × 106 cells/l (range, 1–1294), median HIV-RNA was 4.78 log10 copies/ml (range, 2.75–6.74). Clinical markers have been measured approximately every 3 months: 28 patients (3.2%) had one measurement, 102 (11.8%) had two measurements, 164 (19.0%) had three measurements and 568 (65.9%) had four or more measurements. A total of 727 (83.9%) patients initiated two NRTI plus one protease inhibitor (PI), 15 (1.7%) initiated three NRTI, 33 (3.8%) initiated two NRTI plus one non-nucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitor (NNRTI), four (0.5%) initiated three other drugs and 83 (9.6%) initiated four or more drugs. Zidovudine and lamivudine were the most used NRTI (82.1 and 66.2% of patients, respectively), stavudine was started by 23.7% of patients and didanosine by 21.3%. Among the 727 patients starting two NRTI and one PI, indinavir was used in 394 patients (54.2%), hard-gell saquinavir in 213 (29.3%), ritonavir in 110 (15.1%) and nelfinavir in 10 (1.4%). Among the 33 patients starting two NRTI and one NNRTI, nevirapine was the most commonly used (30 patients, 90.9%), efavirenz was used in two patients and delavirdine in one patient. The most frequent combination was zidovudine + lamivudine + indinavir (274 patients; 37.7%).

Table 1
Table 1
Image Tools

Over a median follow-up of 45 weeks (range, 1–102), a total of 312 (36.2%) patients discontinued their initial HAART regimen: 182 (21.1%) discontinued because of toxicity, 44 (5.1%) discontinued because of failure, 61 (7.1%) because of non-adherence and 25 (2.9%) for other reasons. Specific causes of discontinuation within this broad classification are shown on Table 2. The main types of toxicity were gastrointestinal intolerance and general side effects/symptoms which accounted for 26.3 and 18.9% of the total discontinuations.

Table 2
Table 2
Image Tools

Regarding the reasons for discontinuation for failure, viral load (4.2%), rather than CD4 cell count (0.6%), was the most common reason that clinicians decided to discontinue the prescribed treatment; discontinuation due to clinical failure was also infrequent (0.3%).

The time to discontinuation varied according to the reason of discontinuation. Discontinuations because of toxicity occurred earlier (median = 84 days) than discontinuations due to failure (median = 270 days). Discontinuations because of gastrointestinal intolerance and general side effects/symptoms occurred after a median of 66 and 87 days, respectively. Patients who discontinued HAART because of virological failure did so after a median of 273 days.

The probability of discontinuation because of toxicity and because of failure by a certain time from starting HAART were estimated using Kaplan–Meier analysis (Fig. 1). After 1 year from starting HAART, 25.5% of patients [95% confidence interval (CI), 21.9–28.9] discontinued the initial HAART treatment because of toxicity, whereas 7.6% (95% CI, 4.9–10.3) of patients discontinued because of failure.

Fig. 1
Fig. 1
Image Tools

Figure 2 shows the probability of discontinuing because of toxicity according to the protease inhibitor started within the group of patients who started two NRTI and one protease inhibitor. It is clear from this plot that discontinuations because of toxicity in patients receiving ritonavir-containing regimens occurred earlier and more frequently compared with patients on indinavir- and saquinavir-containing regimens (log-rank P  = 0.0001).

Fig. 2
Fig. 2
Image Tools

Crude and adjusted relative hazards for therapy discontinuation due to toxicity and to failure, from fitting a Cox regression model stratified for clinical centre, are shown in Table 3. Age, weight, presence of markers for hepatitis B virus co-infection and hepatitis C virus co-infection, baseline CD4 cell count, baseline HIV-RNA, CDC classification, modality of HIV transmission failed to show any significant association with the probability of discontinuing treatment, whatever the reason (data not shown). By contrast, gender, time spent on treatment, and type of regimen started were independently associated with the probability of discontinuing HAART because of toxicity. Specifically, men were 57% less likely than women to discontinue for toxicity [relative hazard (RH) = 0.43; 95% CI, 0.28–0.66;P  = 0.0002] for a given HIV transmission route, CD4 cell count and viral load (most recent value), time since treatment was started, and type of treatment. Results were similar after further adjusting for patients' weight at the time of receiving HAART (data not shown). Patients given indinavir- and ritonavir-containing regimens were more likely to discontinue HAART for toxicity than patients given saquinavir-containing regimens (RH = 1.63; 95% CI, 0.96–2.77;P  = 0.07 for indinavir and RH = 3.66; 95% CI, 2.07–6.47;P  = 0.0001 for ritonavir versus saquinavir). Time spent on treatment was also an important predictor of discontinuing for toxicity, the probability of discontinuation decreasing with longer periods of treatment (RH = 0.92 per additional month spent on treatment, 95% CI, 0.85–1.00;P  = 0.05). Results were similar when the analyses were repeated including only patients who had a viral load below 500 copies/ml at the time of discontinuation (data not shown).

Table 3
Table 3
Image Tools

Type of treatment and the most recent HIV-RNA showed a significant independent association with the probability of discontinuing HAART for failure. Regimens containing indinavir were associated with a reduced probability of discontinuing because of failure in comparison with saquinavir-containing regimens, for a given viral load and CD4 cell count, CDC stage classification, and HIV transmission route (RH = 0.24; 95% CI, 0.08–0.73;P  = 0.01). The comparison with ritonavir-containing regimens was marginally non-significant (RH = 0.20; 95% CI, 0.03–1.16;P  = 0.07). Interestingly, higher CD4 cell count were associated with a decreased probability of discontinuing HAART because of failure in the univariate analysis but this association was no longer significant after controlling for the other covariates considered.

Back to Top | Article Outline

Discussion

The I.CO.N.A. study [15] provides unique data for estimating the proportion of HIV-positive antiretroviral naïve patients who discontinue their first HAART treatment and for identifying characteristics associated with discontinuation in routine clinical practice. Moreover, the `real-life' allocation to different HAART regimens and the high proportion of women allow the association between type of regimen and gender and the risk of therapy discontinuation to be evaluated.

With respect to the specific treatment regimens, it must be considered that the I.CO.N.A. cohort still mainly consists of patients recruited in 1997, the year in which protease inhibitors became available in Italy and in which HAART began to be recommended as the first regimen for compliant patients [18].

To date, discontinuation has not been addressed as a primary end-point in clinical trials, which generally evaluate treatment efficacy with an intention-to-treat approach, considering drop-outs as failures, and consequently penalize more aggressive, more toxic combinations. Nevertheless, the results of different clinical trials seem to indicate that the frequency of discontinuations due to toxicity depends on the trial, on the duration of follow-up, and on the tested combination. Among patients receiving indinavir, 1-4% have been reported to discontinue for toxicity, with no differences when compared with double combinations, in studies with follow-up periods ranging from 38 to 100 weeks [1,3]. In the trial by Cameron et al.[2], over a median of 29 weeks, a higher proportion of patients receiving ritonavir discontinued for toxicity compared to those receiving less potent regimens (21 versus 8%). In another study, approximately 5% of patients receiving hard-gell saquinavir discontinued for toxicity over a median of 24 weeks, with no differences with double combination therapy [4].

A key result of this observational study is that 36% of the 862 patients studied discontinued their first antiretroviral regimen in a median follow-up of 45 weeks, a proportion for the most part higher than those reported in clinical trials. Overall, toxicity, which mainly occurred within the first 3 months, was implicated in about 58% (182 of 312) of the discontinuations, whereas failure, occurring later, was implicated only in about 14% (44 of 312). The more frequent and earlier occurrence of discontinuations for toxicity were expected, since long-term toxicity, especially that believed to be associated with protease inhibitors [19], could not be evaluated because of the relatively brief follow-up period. These results are remarkably similar to those of a clinical survey conducted in a large clinic in the UK [12]. The Kaplan–Meier estimates of time to discontinuation due to failure, since patients' follow-up were censored if they discontinued for other reasons, can be interpreted as the proportion of patients who discontinue their first regimen in an ideal world where these drugs had no toxic effects. Thus, interestingly, less than 10% of antiretroviral-naïve patients would discontinue their first HAART regimen because of failure by 1 year from starting therapy if they could perfectly tolerate their regimen (Fig. 1).

Although it is well known that patients are more strictly observed in clinical trials than in general practice, the discrepancies are greater than expected. However, large hospital-based cohorts such as ours provide a better source for estimating the rate of therapy discontinuation, in that they are more representative of patients seen in routine clinical practice. Furthermore, previous studies conducted among observational cohorts of HIV-infected patients have reported higher rates of discontinuation and failure than those observed in clinical trials [9–12]. However, none of these studies examined the determinants of discontinuation of HAART according to the reason in a population of previously antiretroviral-naïve patients.

Non-adherence was a cause of therapy discontinuation in approximately 7% of cases. This rate is lower than the rates observed in other cohorts of unselected patients and in controlled clinical trials [20,21]. Given that we only considered those cases of non-adherence that were related to drug-taking behaviour, the true prevalence of erratic adherence may have been underestimated. This estimate, in fact, could have been higher if detected by adequate tools, such as self-reporting or objective measurements. It is also conceivable that patients initiating a first HAART treatment may be more likely to adhere than patients with a history of heavy treatment, and that clinicians, in a setting where medical care is free of charge, may correctly identify those patients at risk of low adherence and assign them to a non-PI regimen. Finally, since our study did not include any measures for confirming compliance, some of the discontinuations primarily due to non-compliance may have been classified as virological failure, due to co-existing rebound in viral load, or other reasons.

Another important finding of this paper is that women were twice as likely as men, in the adjusted analysis, to discontinue HAART due to toxicity. Clinical trials are generally performed on men and thus do not address this issue; an observational study similar to the present one showed that women were more likely to be excluded from the analysis of viral load because they discontinued double combination regimens or HAART more frequently than men [22]. Discontinuation due to toxicity was associated with the specific treatment combination started. Both indinavir- and ritonavir-containing regimens were associated with a higher risk of toxicity events compared with saquinavir-containing regimens. In particular toxicity events appeared to occur earlier and more frequently in patients who received ritonavir (Fig. 2). In the multivariable Cox model, the risk of discontinuation for toxicity was more than three times higher for patients given ritonavir and about 60% higher for patients given indinavir, in comparison with patients given saquinavir. However, since patients were not randomly allocated to the different regimens, these findings need to be interpreted with caution [23,24]. Nonetheless, ritonavir is known to be poorly tolerated, particularly as a result of gastrointestinal problems, and this may lead to poor compliance [11]. In mid-1998 ritonavir tablets were no longer available and patients on ritonavir-containing regimens were switched to the syrup formulation of ritonavir. The well-known bad taste of the syrup may have increased the chance of discontinuing these regimens because of non-adherence (e.g. patients' decision) but we controlled for this in the analysis by censoring follow-up times at the time of discontinuations for reasons other than the end-points of interest. Results are more difficult to interpret for indinavir, which, as already mentioned, is generally associated with a very low rate of severe adverse events; however, the association was marginally non-significant (P  = 0.07). The first months of treatment are crucial, as the risk of discontinuing because of toxicity decreases by 8% with each month on therapy. Again, it must be emphasized that this study, due to the short follow-up, currently lacks the power to evaluate chronic long-term toxicity. Surprisingly, even if patients with a high CD4 cell count are generally believed to tolerate drugs better than those with a low CD4 cell count, neither baseline nor most recent CD4 cell count showed a statistically significant association with discontinuing for toxicity.

The relatively good clinical conditions of the cohort at baseline (68% of patients in CDC stage A) and the short follow-up can explain the low rate of discontinuations due to clinical failure (less than 1%) over a median 45-week period of therapy. As expected, virological failure was the most common cause of therapy failure. In the multivariable Cox model, indinavir-containing regimens were associated with a reduced risk of discontinuation due to failure compared with saquinavir-containing regimens, which is consistent with the results of clinical trials and other similar observational studies [1,3,11,12]. Again, these results need to be taken with caution since it is not a randomized comparison. However, the low bioavailability of hard-gell saquinavir is well known as it has now been replaced by the soft-gell formulation. The result that the most recent HIV-RNA is predictive of discontinuation due to failure is not surprising and provides evidence that the classification of the reason of discontinuation given by the clinicians is reliable. The baseline HIV RNA level showed no statistical association with the outcome. This in contrast with the results of other studies showing that initial viral load at the time of starting therapy increases the chance of incomplete virological suppression upon initiation of HAART [9,10,25]. However in these studies a quantitative measure (such as, for example, viral load ≤ 500 copies/ml) was used to define the endpoint of the analysis. Furthermore, only 44 patients discontinued HAART because of failure and it is possible that the association with baseline viral load was not significant simply because of a lack of statistical power. Similarly, in the multivariate analysis, baseline CD4 cell count was not associated with the probability of discontinuing HAART because of failure, which is apparently inconsistent with the results of other studies that investigated the value of CD4 cell count in predicting virological response [10,25]. However, the univariate analysis carried strong evidence for an association, patients with higher CD4 cell count being at a lower chance of discontinuing due to failure.

Some aspects of the statistical analysis performed need to be discussed before interpreting the results and drawing final conclusions. First, survival analyses were conducted under the assumption that the probability of discontinuation for toxicity is completely unrelated to the probability of discontinuing for failure. Obviously, this assumption may not be entirely valid, and the results could be affected by a bias due to informative censoring [26]. However, the analysis for studying the factors associated with discontinuing for toxicity was repeated, including only patients who had a viral load below 500 copies/ml at the time of discontinuation; this analysis provided very similar results (data not shown), suggesting that, if this bias exists, it is probably small. A possible limitation of the study is that I.CO.N.A. includes patients from 65 different infectious diseases wards, and the way in which the individual wards determined the single reason for discontinuation in cases of concomitant reasons may have varied. However, this bias has been partially corrected by close central monitoring of all data; moreover, the potential confounding effect of the individual wards has been controlled for in the analyses.

In conclusion, patients receiving indinavir- and ritonavir-containing HAART regimens, were at lower chance of discontinuing HAART because of failure but also at higher risk of discontinuing because of toxicity compared with those receiving hard-gell saquinavir. Continuation of initial HAART regimen in antiretroviral-naïve patients is crucial for maintaining long-term viral suppression. Recent international guidelines because of the problems of intolerance and toxicity associated with PI-containing regimens indicate HAART regimens including two NRTI and one NNRTI as a viable alternative [27]. However, the lack of long-term data on NNRTI and clinical end-points makes PI-containing regimes the safer choice at present and continued monitoring of toxicity in patients (especially women) receiving indinavir- and ritonavir-containing HAART regimes recommended. If the current HAART regimen caused no toxicity, less than 10% of naïve patients discontinue their initial treatment because of failure after 1 year from starting therapy.

Back to Top | Article Outline

References

1. Gulick RM, Mellors JW, Havlir D. et al. Treatment with indinavir, zidovudine and lamivudine in adults with human immunodeficiency virus infection and prior antiretroviral therapy. N Engl J Med 1997, 337: 734 –739.

2. Cameron DW, Hearth-Chiozzi, Danner S. et al. Randomized placebo-controlled trial of ritonavir in advanced HIV-1 disease. Lancet 1998, 351: 543 –549.

3. Hammer SM, Kathleen ES, Hughes MD. et al. A controlled trial of two nucleoside analogues plus indinavir in persons with human immunodeficiency virus infection and CD4+ cell counts of 200 per cubic millimeter or less. N Engl J Med 1997, 337: 725 –733.

4. Collier AC, Coombs RW, Schoenfeld DA. et al. Treatment of human immunodeficiency virus infection with saquinavir, zidovudine and zalcitabine. N Engl J Med 1996, 334: 1011 –1017.

5. Palella FJ, Delaney KM, Moorman AC. et al. Declining morbidity and mortality among patients with advanced human immunodeficiency virus syndrome. N Engl J Med 1998, 338: 853 –860.

6. Mouton Y, Alfandari S, Valette M. et al. Impact of protease inhibitors on AIDS-defining events and hospitalizations in 10 French AIDS reference centres. :Federation National des Centres de Lutte contre le SIDA. AIDS 1997, 11: F101 –F105.

7. Mocroft A, Vella S, Benfield TL. et al. Changing patterns of mortality across Europe in patients infected with HIV-1. Lancet 1998, 352: 1725 –1730.

8. Vanhove GF, Schapiro JM, Winters MA, Merigan TC, Blaschke TF. Patient compliance and drug failure in protease inhibitor monotherapy. JAMA 1996, 276: 1955 –1956.

9. Fatkenheuer G, Theisen A, Roskstroh J. et al. Virological treatment failure of protease inhibitor therapy in an unselected cohort of HIV-infected patients. AIDS 1997, 11: F113 –F116.

10. Mocroft A, Gill MJ, Davidson W. et al. Predictors of a viral response and subsequent virological treatment failiure in patients with HIV starting a protease inhibitor. AIDS 1998, 12: 2161 –2167.

11. d'Arminio Monforte A, Testa L, Adorni F. et al. Clinical outcome and predictive factors of failure of highly active antiretroviral therapy in antiretroviral-experienced patients in advanced stages of HIV-1 infection. AIDS 1998, 12: 1631 –1637.

12. Youle M, Sawyer W, for the HIV Health Economics Collaboration. Reasons for discontinuation of antiretroviral treatment: a clinical survey. AIDS 1998, 12: P186. P186.

13. Van Roon EN, Verzijl JM, Juttmann JR. et al. Incidence of discontinuation of highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART) and its determinants. J Acquir Immune Defic Syndr 1999, 20: 290 –294.

14. Anon . Guidelines for the use of antiretroviral agents in HIV infected adults and adolescents. Ann Intern Med 1998, 128: 1079 –1100.

15. d'Arminio Monforte A, Pezzotti P, Arici C. et al. Determinants of initiation of antiretroviral therapy (ART) in an italian cohort of HIV-positive patients naïve from antiretrovirals (I.CO.N.A. Study). AIDS 1998, 12: P99. P99.

16. Database can be found at HYPERLINK http://www.icona.org

17. Anon. 1993 Revised Classification System for HIV infection and Expanded Surveillance Case Definition for AIDS among adolescents and adults. MMWR 1992, 41 :19–23.

18. Carpenter CJ, Fischl MA, Hammer SM. et al. Antiretroviral therapy for HIV infection in 1997. :Updated recommendations of the International AIDS Society-USA Panel. JAMA 1997, 277: 1962 –1969.

19. Miller KD, Jones E, Yanovski JA, Shankar R, Feuerstein I, Falloon J. Visceral fat accumulation associated with use of indinavir. Lancet 1998, 351: 871 –875.

20. Kastrissios H, Suarez J-R, Katzenstein D, Girard P, Sheiner LB, Blaschke TF. Characterizing patterns of drug-taking behaviour with a multiple drug regimen in an AIDS clinical trial. AIDS 1998, 12: 2295 –2303.

21. Eldred LJ, Wu AW, Chaisson RE, Moore RD. Adherence to antiretroviral and pneumocystis prophylaxis in AIDS disease. J Acquir Immune Defic Syndr 1998, 18: 117 –125.

22. Hogg RS, Rhone SA, Yip B. et al. Antiviral effect of double and triple drug combinations amongst HIV-infected adults: lessons from the implementation of viral load-driven antiretroviral therapy. AIDS 1998, 12: 279 –284.

23. Phillips AN. Role of cohort studies. Presented at 12th World AIDS Conference, Geneva, June 28–July 3 1998.

24. Feinstein A. The role of observational studies in the evaluation of therapy. Stat Med 1984, 3: 341 –345.

25. Staszveski S, Miller V, Sabin CA, et al. Virological response to protease inhibitor therapy in an HIV clinic cohort. AIDS 1999 (in press).

26. Hoover DR, Peng Y, Saah AJ, Detels RR, Day RS, Phair JP. Using multiple decrement models to estimate risk and morbidity from specific AIDS illnesses. :Multicentre AIDS Cohort Study (MACS). Stat Med 1996, 15: 2307 –2321.

27. Carpenter CCJ, Fischl MA, Hammer SM. et al. Antiretroviral therapy for HIV infection in 1998. :Updated recommendations of the International AIDS Society-USA Panel. JAMA 1998, 280: 78 –86.

Back to Top | Article Outline
Appendix

The members of I.CO.N.A. Group are: Italy: Ancona: M Montroni, G Scalise, A Costantini, MS Del Prete. Aviano (PN): U Tirelli, G Nasti. Bari: G Angarano (Scientific Committee), LM Perulli. Bergamo: F Suter, F Maggiolo. Bologna: F Chiodo (Scientific Committee), FM Gritti, V Colangeli, C Fiorini, L Guerra. Brescia: G Carosi (Scientific Committee), GP Cadco, F Castelli, C Minardi, D Vangi. Busto Arsizio: S Caprioli, G Migliorino. Cagliari: PE Manconi, P Piano. Catanzaro: T Ferraro, L Cosco. Chieti: E Pizzigallo, F Ricci. Como: GM Vigevani, L Pusterla. Cremona: G Carnevale, A Pan. Cuggiono: P Viganò, GC Ghiselli. Ferrara: F Ghinelli, L Sighinolfi. Firenze: F Leoncini, F Mazzotta, S Ambu, S Lo Caputo. Foggia: B Grisorio, S Ferrara. Galatina (LE): P Grima, P Tundo. Genova: G Pagano, N Piersantelli, A Alessandrini, R Piscopo. Grosseto: M Toti, Chigiotti. Latina: F Soscia, L Tacconi. Lecco: A Orani, G Castaldo. Lucca: A Scasso, A Vincenti. Mantova: A Scalzini, F Alessi. Milano: M Moroni (Study Coordinator), A Lazzarin (Scientific Committee), A Cargnel, F Milazzo, L Caggese, A d'Arminio Monforte, V Testori, F Delfanti, B Carini, B Adriani, S Garavaglia, C Moioli. Modena: R Esposito, C Mussini. Napoli: N Abrescia, A Chirianni, O Perrella, M Piazza, L Boccia, V Montesarchio, E Manzillo, S Nappa. Padova: P Cadrobbi, R Scaggiante Palermo: A Colomba, T Prestilco. Pavia: G Filice, L Minoli, FA Patruno Savino, R Maserati. Perugia: S Pauluzzi, A Tosti. Piacenza: F Alberici, M Sisti. Pisa: F Menichetti, A Smorfa. Potenza: C De Stefano, A La Gala. Ravenna: S Ranieri, G Ballardini. Reggio Emilia: L Bonazzi, MA Ursitti. Rimini: R Ciammarughi, M Arlotti. Roma: L Ortona (Scientific Committee), F Dianzani (Scientific Committee), A Antinori, C Arici, S D'Elia, G Ippolito, P Narciso, N Petrosillo, G Rezza, V Vullo, A De Luca, A Del Forno, MR Capobianchi, M Zaccarelli, P De Longis, M Ciardi, E Girardi, G D'Offizi, F Palmieri, P Pezzotti, M Lichter. Sassari: A Aceti, M Mannazzu. Torino: P Caramello, A Sinicco, ML Soranzo, D Giacobbi, M Sciandra, B Salassa. Varese: D Torre. Verbania: A Poggio, G Bottari. Venezia: E Raise, S Pasquinucci. Vicenza: F De Lalla, G Tositti. Taranto: F Resta, A Chimienti. UK London: A Cozzi Lepri. Cited Here...

Cited By:

This article has been cited 182 time(s).

Value in Health
Comparative Incidence and Health Care Costs of Medically Attended Adverse Effects among US Medicaid HIV Patients on Atazanavir- or Darunavir-Based Anthetroviral Therapy
Johnston, SS; Juday, T; Esker, S; Espindle, D; Chu, BC; Hebden, T; Uy, J
Value in Health, 16(2): 418-425.
10.1016/j.jval.2012.10.021
CrossRef
AIDS and Behavior
Comparing Adherence to Two Different HIV Antiretroviral Regimens: An Instrumental Variable Analysis
Nelson, RE; Nebeker, JR; Hayden, C; Reimer, L; Kone, K; LaFleur, J
AIDS and Behavior, 17(1): 160-167.
10.1007/s10461-012-0266-2
CrossRef
Journal of Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndromes
Efavirenz as a substitute for protease inhibitors in HIV-1-infected patients with undetectable plasma viral load on HAART: A median follow-up of 64 weeks
Rey, D; Schmitt, MP; Partisani, M; Hess-Kempf, G; Krantz, W; de Mautort, E; Bernard-Henry, C; Priester, M; Cheneau, C; Lang, JM
Journal of Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndromes, 27(5): 459-462.

Journal of Infectious Diseases
Secondary mutations in the protease region of human immunodeficiency virus and virologic failure in drug-naive patients treated with protease inhibitor-based therapy
Perno, CF; Cozzi-Lepri, A; Balotta, C; Forbici, F; Violin, M; Bertoli, A; Facchi, G; Pezzotti, P; Cadeo, G; Tositti, G; Pasquinucci, S; Pauluzzi, S; Scalzini, A; Salassa, B; Vincenti, A; Phillips, AN; Dianzani, F; Appice, A; Angarano, G; Monno, L; Ippolito, G; Moroni, M; Monforte, AD
Journal of Infectious Diseases, 184(8): 983-991.

AIDS Patient Care and Stds
Optimizing care for African-American HIV-positive patients
Smith, KY; Brutus, A; Cathcart, R; Gathe, J; Johnson, W; Jordan, W; Kwakwa, HA; Nkwanyou, J; Page, C; Scott, R; Vaughn, AC; Virgil, LA; Williamson, D
AIDS Patient Care and Stds, 17(): 527-538.

Antiviral Therapy
The management of hepatitis B virus/HIV-1 co-infected patients starting their first ELAART regimen. Treating two infections for the price of one drug?
Puoti, M; Cozzi-Lepri, A; Ancarani, F; Bruno, R; Ambu, S; Ferraro, T; Tundo, P; Sontantonio, T; Toti, M; Bonasso, M; Monforte, AD
Antiviral Therapy, 9(5): 811-817.

Current Opinion in Drug Discovery & Development
Computational models of antiviral toxicity
Samuels, DC
Current Opinion in Drug Discovery & Development, 10(1): 43-48.

Hiv Medicine
National review of first treatment change after starting highly active antiretroviral therapy in antiretroviral-naive patients
Hart, E; Curtis, H; Wilkins, E; Johnson, M
Hiv Medicine, 8(3): 186-191.

AIDS Research and Human Retroviruses
Reasons for stopping antiretrovirals used in an initial highly active antiretroviral regimen: Increased incidence of stopping due to toxicity or patient/physician choice in patients with hepatitis C coinfection
Mocroft, A; Phillips, AN; Soriano, V; Rockstroh, J; Blaxhult, A; Katlama, C; Boron-Kaczmarska, A; Viksna, L; Kirk, O; Lundgren, D
AIDS Research and Human Retroviruses, 21(9): 743-752.

Current Pharmaceutical Design
Limitations of current antiretroviral agents and opportunities for development
Jain, R; Clark, NM; Diaz-Linares, M; Grim, SA
Current Pharmaceutical Design, 12(9): 1065-1074.

International Journal of Std & AIDS
Discontinuation of non-nucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitor-based highly active antiretroviral therapy due to nucleoside analogue reverse transcriptase inhibitorrelated metabolic toxicity
Haddow, LJ; Wood, CW; Ainsworth, JG
International Journal of Std & AIDS, 18(5): 343-346.

AIDS Patient Care and Stds
Prevalence and Impact of Body Physical Changes in HIV Patients Treated with Highly Active Antiretroviral Therapy: Results from a Study on Patient and Physician Perceptions
Cabrero, E; Griffa, L; Burgos, A
AIDS Patient Care and Stds, 24(1): 5-13.
10.1089/apc.2009.0191
CrossRef
Antiviral Research
Understanding and managing the adverse effects of antiretroviral therapy
Hawkins, T
Antiviral Research, 85(1): 201-209.
10.1016/j.antiviral.2009.10.016
CrossRef
Biomedicine & Pharmacotherapy
Predictive role of the three-month CD4 cell count in the long-term clinical outcome of the first HAART regimen
Monforte, AD; Adorni, F; Meroni, L; Bini, T; Testa, L; Chiesa, E; Melzi, S; Rusconi, S; Sollima, S; Galli, M; Moroni, M
Biomedicine & Pharmacotherapy, 55(1): 16-22.

Journal of Infectious Diseases
Low risk of treatment failure after substitution of nevirapine for protease inhibitors among human immunodeficiency virus-infected patients with virus suppression
Dieleman, JP; Sturkenboom, MCJM; Wit, FW; Jambroes, M; Mulder, JW; ten Veen, JH; Juttmann, J; Stricker, BHC; Lange, JMA; van der Ende, ME
Journal of Infectious Diseases, 185(9): 1261-1268.

Jaids-Journal of Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndromes
Results of a phase 2 clinical trial at 48 weeks (AI424-007): A dose-ranging, safety, and efficacy comparative trial of atazanavir at three doses in combination with didanosine and stavudine in antiretroviral-naive subjects
Sanne, I; Piliero, P; Squires, K; Thiry, A; Schnittman, S
Jaids-Journal of Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndromes, 32(1): 18-29.

International Journal of Tuberculosis and Lung Disease
Highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART) in adults with tuberculosis: current status
Kwara, A; Flanigan, TP; Carter, EJ
International Journal of Tuberculosis and Lung Disease, 9(3): 248-257.

Antiviral Therapy
Virological success of lopinavir/ritonavir salvage regimen is affected by an lopinavir/ritonavir-related increasing number of mutations
Bongiovanni, M; Bini, T; Adorni, F; Meraviglia, P; Capetti, A; Tordato, F; Cicconi, P; Chiesa, E; Cordier, L; Cargnel, A; Landonio, S; Rusconi, S; Monforte, AD
Antiviral Therapy, 8(3): 209-214.

Journal of Hepatology
Multiple viral infections
Gaeta, GB; Precone, DF; Cozzi-Lepri, A; Cicconi, P; Monforte, AD
Journal of Hepatology, 44(): S108-S113.
10.1016/j.jhep.2005.11.023
CrossRef
Journal of Postgraduate Medicine
Future implications: Compliance and failure with antiretroviral treatment
Patel, AK; Patel, KK
Journal of Postgraduate Medicine, 52(3): 197-200.

AIDS
Factors associated with adherence to anti retroviral therapy among HIV/AIDS patients in rural China
Wang, XQ; Wu, ZY
AIDS, 21(): S149-S155.

Hiv Clinical Trials
Switching from a Toxicity-Causing Antiretroviral to Enfuvirtide in Patients with HIV: The SWITCH TOX Study
Streinu-Cercel, A; de Gorgolas, M; Muller, M; Portilla, J; Rugina, S; Bocher, W; Staszewski, S; Pulik, P; Rowell, L; Salgo, M; Stoll, M
Hiv Clinical Trials, 9(6): 375-386.
10.1310/hct0906-375
CrossRef
Clinical Infectious Diseases
Risk of Developing Specific AIDS-Defining Illnesses in Patients Coinfected with HIV and Hepatitis C Virus With or Without Liver Cirrhosis
Monforte, AD; Cozzi-Lepri, A; Castagna, A; Antinori, A; De Luca, A; Mussini, C; Lo Caputo, S; Arlotti, M; Magnani, G; Pellizzer, G; Maggiolo, F; Puoti, M
Clinical Infectious Diseases, 49(4): 612-622.
10.1086/603557
CrossRef
Scandinavian Journal of Infectious Diseases
Trends in the use of highly active antiretroviral therapy in western Denmark 1996-2000
Jensen-Fangel, S; Pedersen, C; Larsen, CS; Tauris, P; Moller, A; Obel, N
Scandinavian Journal of Infectious Diseases, 34(6): 460-465.
10.1080/00365540110080458
CrossRef
Medicina Clinica
Retrospective epidemiological study on the durability of the treatment of HIV infection or AIDS in Spain
Lopez, JRA; Baena, SS; Albujar, SH; Hernandez, AL; Ramirez, MLM; Munoz, RP; Solero, MM; Gonzalez, JS; Hermida, AO; Alvarez, CM; Aldeguer, JL; Lleti, MS; Higon, PT; Jauregui, JMS; Cobo, RMT; Guillen, SM; Zamora, AM; Artigas, JMG; Masferrer, JM; Cabrera, PC; de Suso, MTG; Cerda, AC; Gonzalez, GC; Ortega, EP; Moreno, EC; Aguado, CB; Senaris, JD; Coduras, A; Oliva, J; Ramirez, SB; Gonzalez-Lahoz, J; Diaz, B
Medicina Clinica, 119(): 721-724.

AIDS Research and Human Retroviruses
Reasons for stopping antiretrovirals used in an initial highly active antiretroviral regimen: Increased incidence of stopping due to toxicity or patient/physician choice in patients with hepatitis C coinfection
Mocroft, A; Phillips, AN; Soriano, V; Rockstroh, J; Blaxhult, A; Katlama, C; Boron-Kaczmarska, A; Viksna, L; Kirk, O; Lundgren, JD
AIDS Research and Human Retroviruses, 21(6): 527-536.

Antiviral Therapy
Impact of mutations conferring reduced susceptibility to lamivudine on the response to antiretroviral therapy
Perno, CF; Cozzi-Lepri, A; Balotta, C; Forbici, F; Violin, M; Bertoli, A; Facchi, G; Pezzotti, P; Angarano, G; Arici, C; Narciso, P; Orani, A; Raise, E; Scalzini, A; Poggio, A; Ippolito, G; Moroni, M; Monforte, AD
Antiviral Therapy, 6(3): 195-198.

Archives of Internal Medicine
Coinfection with hepatitis viruses and outcome of initial Antiretroviral regimens in previously naive HIV-Infected subjects
De Luca, A; Bugarini, R; Lepri, AC; Puoti, M; Girardi, E; Antinori, A; Poggio, A; Pagano, G; Tositti, G; Cadeo, G; Macor, A; Toti, M; Monforte, AD
Archives of Internal Medicine, 162(): 2125-2132.

Clinical Infectious Diseases
Duration of highly active antiretroviral therapy regimens
Chen, RY; Westfall, AO; Mugavero, MJ; Cloud, GA; Raper, JL; Chatham, AG; Acosta, EP; Taylor, KH; Carter, J; Saag, MS
Clinical Infectious Diseases, 37(5): 714-722.

Nervenarzt
Highly active antiretroviral therapy of neuro-AIDS. Side effects on the nervous system and interactions
Husstedt, IW; Reichelt, D; Neuen-Jakob, E; Hahn, K; Kastner, F; von Einsiedel, R; Vielhaber, B; Arendt, G; Evers, S
Nervenarzt, 80(): 1133-+.
10.1007/s00115-009-2684-6
CrossRef
Antiviral Therapy
Proteomic analysis identifies prohibitin down-regulation as a crucial event in the mitochondrial damage observed in HIV-infected patients
Ciccosanti, F; Corazzari, M; Soldani, F; Matarrese, P; Pagliarini, V; Iadevaia, V; Tinari, A; Zaccarelli, M; Perfettini, JL; Malorni, W; Kroemer, G; Antinori, A; Fimia, GM; Piacentini, M
Antiviral Therapy, 15(3): 377-390.
10.3851/IMP1530
CrossRef
AIDS
Discontinuation of potent antiretroviral therapy: predictive value of and impact on CD4 cell counts and HIV RNA levels
Grant, LA; Silverberg, MJ; Palacio, H; Minkoff, H; Anastos, K; Young, MA; Nowicki, M; Kovacs, A; Cohen, M; Munoz, A
AIDS, 15(): 2101-2108.

AIDS
Estimating duration of HIV infection with CD4 cell count and HIV-1 RNA at presentation
Girardi, E; Arici, C; Ferrara, M; Ripamonti, D; Aloisi, MS; Alessandrini, A; Scalzini, A; Monforte, AD; Serraino, D; Ippolito, G
AIDS, 15(): 2201-2203.

Journal of Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndromes
Self-reported symptoms and medication side effects influence adherence to highly active antiretroviral therapy in persons with HIV infection
Ammassari, A; Murri, R; Pezzotti, P; Trotta, MP; Ravasio, L; De Longis, P; Lo Caputo, S; Narciso, P; Pauluzzi, S; Carosi, G; Nappa, S; Piano, P; Izzo, CM; Lichtner, M; Rezza, G; Monforte, AD; Ippolito, G; Moroni, M; Wu, AW; Antinori, A
Journal of Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndromes, 28(5): 445-449.

Antiviral Therapy
Simplification of protease inhibitor-containing regimens with efavirenz, nevirapine or abacavir: safety and efficacy outcomes
Chiesa, E; Bini, T; Adorni, F; Capetti, A; Rizzardini, G; Faggion, I; Mussini, C; Sollima, S; Melzi, S; Bongiovanni, M; Tordato, F; Cicconi, P; Castelnuovo, B; Rusconi, S; Monforte, AD
Antiviral Therapy, 8(1): 27-35.

AIDS Patient Care and Stds
Current management challenges in HIV: Tolerability of antiretrovirals and metabolic complications
Hicks, C; Currier, J; Sax, P; Sherer, R; Wanke, C
AIDS Patient Care and Stds, 17(5): 221-233.

Sexually Transmitted Diseases
Changes in the transmission dynamics of the HIV epidemic after the wide-scale use of antiretroviral therapy could explain increases in sexually transmitted infections - Results from mathematical models
Boily, MC; Bastos, FI; Desai, K; Masse, B
Sexually Transmitted Diseases, 31(2): 100-112.
10.1097/01.OLQ.0000112721.21285.A2
CrossRef
Biochemical Journal
A computational model of mitochondrial AZT metabolism
Bradshaw, PC; Li, JX; Samuels, DC
Biochemical Journal, 392(): 363-373.
10.1042/BJ20050749
CrossRef
AIDS Patient Care and Stds
Durability of adherence to antiretroviral therapy on initial and subsequent regimens
Gardner, EM; Burman, WJ; Maravi, ME; Davidson, AJ
AIDS Patient Care and Stds, 20(9): 628-636.

Hiv Clinical Trials
Comparison of single and boosted protease inhibitor versus nonnucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitor-containing cART regimens in anti retroviral-naive patients starting cART after January 1, 2000
Mocroft, A; Horban, A; Clumeck, N; Stellbrink, HJ; Monforte, AD; Zilmer, K; Kirk, O; Gatell, J; Phillips, AN; Lundgren, JD
Hiv Clinical Trials, 7(6): 271-284.
10.1310/hct0706-271
CrossRef
Clinical Infectious Diseases
Outcome of 2 simplification strategies for the treatment of human immunodeficiency virus type 1 infection
Maggiolo, F; Ripamonti, D; Ravasio, L; Gregis, G; Quinzan, G; Callegaro, A; Arici, C; Suter, F
Clinical Infectious Diseases, 37(1): 41-49.

AIDS Patient Care and Stds
Failure of modified directly observed therapy combined with therapeutic drug monitoring to enhance antiretroviral adherence in a patient with major depression
Goicoechea, M; Best, B; Seefried, E; Wagner, G; Capparelli, E; Haubrich, R
AIDS Patient Care and Stds, 20(4): 233-237.

Clinical Infectious Diseases
Comparison of a rule-based algorithm with a phenotype-based algorithm for the interpretation of HIV genotypes in guiding salvage regimens in HIV-infected patients by a randomized clinical trial: The mutations and salvage study
Gianotti, N; Mondino, V; Rossi, MC; Chiesa, E; Mezzaroma, I; Ladisa, N; Guaraldi, G; Torti, C; Tarquini, P; Castelli, P; Di Carlo, A; Boeri, E; Keulen, W; Mc Kenna, P; Lazzarin, A
Clinical Infectious Diseases, 42(): 1470-1480.

New Microbiologica
Sequencing antiretroviral drugs for long-lasting suppression of HIV replication
Gianotti, N; Lazzarin, A
New Microbiologica, 28(4): 281-297.

Presse Medicale
Adherence intervention for HIV-infected patients receiving antiretroviral treatment - Implementation and initial assessment
Berki-Benhaddad, Z; Ecobichon, JL; Mentre, F; Capillon, A; Certain, A; Secondi, C; Gervais, A; Longuet, P; Vilde, JL; Leport, C
Presse Medicale, 35(9): 1241-1248.

AIDS and Behavior
Cognitive executive functioning in relation to HIV medication adherence among gay, bisexual, and other men who have sex with men
Solomon, TM; Halkitis, PN
AIDS and Behavior, 12(1): 68-77.
10.1007/s10461-007-9273-0
CrossRef
AIDS and Behavior
HIV treatment adherence and sexual functioning
Miguez-Burbano, MJ; Espinoza, L; Lewis, JE
AIDS and Behavior, 12(1): 78-85.
10.1007/s10461-006-9197-0
CrossRef
Journal of Theoretical Biology
The effect of intrinsic stochasticity on transmitted HIV drug resistance patterns
Marks, AJ; Pillay, D; McLean, AR
Journal of Theoretical Biology, 262(1): 1-13.
10.1016/j.jtbi.2009.09.017
CrossRef
Plos One
Rates and Reasons for Early Change of First HAART in HIV-1-Infected Patients in 7 Sites throughout the Caribbean and Latin America
Cesar, C; Shepherd, BE; Krolewiecki, AJ; Fink, VI; Schechter, M; Tuboi, SH; Wolff, M; Pape, JW; Leger, P; Padgett, D; Madero, JS; Gotuzzo, E; Sued, O; McGowan, CC; Masys, DR; Cahn, PE
Plos One, 5(6): -.
ARTN e10490
CrossRef
Antimicrobial Agents and Chemotherapy
Multiple-Dose Pharmacokinetic Behavior of Elvucitabine, a Nucleoside Reverse Transcriptase Inhibitor, Administered over 21 Days with Lopinavir-Ritonavir in Human Immunodeficiency Virus Type 1-Infected Subjects
Colucci, P; Pottage, JC; Robison, H; Turgeon, J; Schurmann, D; Hoepelman, IM; Ducharme, MP
Antimicrobial Agents and Chemotherapy, 53(2): 662-669.
10.1128/AAC.00907-08
CrossRef
Hiv Medicine
Insights into reasons for discontinuation according to year of starting first regimen of highly active antiretroviral therapy in a cohort of antiretroviral-naive patients
Cicconi, P; Cozzi-Lepri, A; Castagna, A; Trecarichi, EM; Antinori, A; Gatti, F; Cassola, G; Sighinolfi, L; Castelli, P; Monforte, AD
Hiv Medicine, 11(2): 104-113.
10.1111/j.1468-1293.2009.00750.x
CrossRef
Journal of Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndromes
Reasons for discontinuation of first highly active antiretroviral therapy in a cohort of proteinase inhibitor-naive HIV-infected patients
Hansel, A; Bucher, HC; Nuesch, R; Battegay, H
Journal of Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndromes, 26(2): 191-193.

AIDS
Time to discontinuation of the first highly active antiretroviral therapy regimen: a comparison between protease inhibitor- and non-nucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitor-containing regimens
Dorrucci, M; Pezzotti, P; Grisorio, B; Minardi, C; Muro, MS; Vullo, V; Monforte, AD
AIDS, 15(): 1733-1736.

AIDS
Long-term quality of life outcomes in three antiretroviral treatment strategies for HIV-1 infection
Nieuwkerk, PT; Gisolf, EH; Reijers, MHE; Lange, JMA; Danner, SA; Sprangers, MAG
AIDS, 15(): 1985-1991.

AIDS
When should antiretroviral therapy be started for HIV infection? Interpreting the evidence from observational studies
Phillips, AN; Lepri, AC; Lampe, F; Johnson, M; Sabin, CA
AIDS, 17(): 1863-1869.
10.1097/01.aids.0000088161.01779.62
CrossRef
Clinical Infectious Diseases
Prevalence, associated factors, and prognostic determinants of AIDS-related toxoplasmic encephalitis in the era of advanced highly active antiretroviral therapy
Antinori, A; Larussa, D; Cingolani, A; Lorenzini, P; Bossolasco, S; Finazzi, MG; Bongiovanni, M; Guaraldi, G; Grisetti, S; Vigo, B; Gigli, B; Mariano, A; Dalle Nogare, ER; De Marco, M; Moretti, F; Corsi, P; Abrescia, N; Rellecati, P; Castagna, A; Mussini, C; Ammassari, A; Cinque, P; Monforte, AD
Clinical Infectious Diseases, 39(): 1681-1691.

Antiviral Therapy
Relative prognostic value of self-reported adherence and plasma NNRTI/PI concentrations to predict virological rebound in patients initially responding to HAART
Antinori, A; Cozzi-Lepri, A; Ammassari, A; Trotta, MP; Nauwelaers, D; Hoetelmans, R; Murri, R; Melzi, S; Narciso, P; Nasta, P; Zaccarelli, M; Santopadre, P; Vecchiet, J; Izzo, CM; Monforte, AD
Antiviral Therapy, 9(2): 291-296.

Medicina Clinica
Antiretroviral therapy of VIH infection: duration and reasons for changing the first therapeutic regimen in 518 patients
Gratacos, L; Tuset, M; Codina, C; Miro, JM; Mallolas, J; Miserachs, N; Martin-Conde, MT; del Cacho, E; de Lazzari, E; Ribas, J; Gatell, JM
Medicina Clinica, 126(7): 241-245.

Journal of Medical Virology
Significant link between sCD30 changes and HIV Viremia in patients treated with HAART
Biswas, P; Cozzi-Lepri, A; Delfanti, F; Gaili, A; Colangeli, V; Moioli, MC; Scarchilli, A; Abrescia, N; Vigevani, G; D'Arminio-Monforte, A; Novati, R; Lazzarin, A
Journal of Medical Virology, 78(): 1513-1519.
10.1002/jmv.20733
CrossRef
Medicina Clinica
Adverse side effects of antiretroviral therapy: relationship between patients perception and adherence
Martin, MT; del Cacho, E; Lopez, E; Codina, C; Tuset, M; de Lazzari, E; Miro, JM; Gatell, JM; Ribas, J
Medicina Clinica, 129(4): 127-133.

AIDS Patient Care and Stds
Spectrum of adverse events after generic HAART in southern Indian HIV-infected patients
Kumarasamy, N; Venkatesh, KK; Cecelia, AJ; Devaleenal, B; Lai, AR; Saghayam, S; Balakrishnan, P; Yepthomi, T; Poongulali, S; Flanigan, TP; Solomon, S; Mayer, KH
AIDS Patient Care and Stds, 22(4): 337-344.
10.1089/apc.2007.0093
CrossRef
Clinical Infectious Diseases
Impact of discontinuation of initial protease inhibitor therapy on further virological response in a cohort of human immunodeficiency virus-infected patients
Le Moing, V; Chene, G; Leport, C; Lewden, C; Duran, S; Garre, M; Masquelier, B; Dupon, M; Raffi, F
Clinical Infectious Diseases, 34(2): 239-247.

AIDS Patient Care and Stds
Adherence to HAART regimens
Chesney, M
AIDS Patient Care and Stds, 17(4): 169-177.

Psychosomatics
Antiretrovirals, Part 1: Overview, history, and focus on protease inhibitors
Wynn, GH; Zapor, MJ; Smith, BH; Wortmann, G; Oesterheld, JR; Armstrong, SC; Cozza, KL
Psychosomatics, 45(3): 262-270.

European Journal of Epidemiology
Clinical, immunological and virological evolution in patients with CD4 T-cell count above 500/mm(3): Is there a benefit to treat with highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART)?
Piroth, L; Binquet, C; Buisson, M; Kohli, E; Duong, M; Grappin, M; Abrahamowicz, M; Quantin, C; Portier, H; Chavanet, P
European Journal of Epidemiology, 19(6): 597-604.

Psychosomatics
Depressive symptoms, neurocognitive impairment, and adherence to highly active antiretroviral therapy among HIV-infected persons
Ammassari, A; Antinori, A; Aloisi, MS; Trotta, MP; Murri, R; Bartoli, L; Monforte, AD; Wu, AW; Starace, F
Psychosomatics, 45(5): 394-402.

Archives of Internal Medicine
The changing incidence of AIDS events in patients receiving highly active antiretroviral therapy
Monforte, AD; Sabin, CA; Phillips, A; Sterne, J; May, M; Justice, A; Dabis, F; Grabar, S; Ledergerber, B; Gill, J; Reiss, P; Egger, M
Archives of Internal Medicine, 165(4): 416-423.

AIDS Patient Care and Stds
Differential diffusion of HIV technologies by gender: The case of highly active antiretroviral therapy
Eisenman, D; Bogart, LM; Bird, CE; Collins, RL; Golinelli, D; Fremont, A; Beckman, R; Cunningham, W
AIDS Patient Care and Stds, 21(6): 390-399.
10.1089/apc.2006.0061
CrossRef
Expert Opinion on Pharmacotherapy
InforMatrix nucleoside/nucleotide reverse transcriptase inhibitor 'backbones'
Schreij, G; Janknegt, R
Expert Opinion on Pharmacotherapy, 8(): S37-S47.
10.1517/14656566.8.S1.S37
CrossRef
Indian Journal of Dermatology Venereology & Leprology
Adverse effects of antiretroviral treatment
Sharma, A; Vora, R; Modi, M; Sharma, A; Marfatia, Y
Indian Journal of Dermatology Venereology & Leprology, 74(3): 234-237.

AIDS Research and Human Retroviruses
Short-Term Discontinuation of HAART Regimens More Common in Vulnerable Patient Populations
Robison, LS; Westfall, AO; Mugavero, MJ; Kempf, MC; Cole, SR; Allison, JJ; Willig, JH; Raper, JL; Wilcox, CM; Saag, MS
AIDS Research and Human Retroviruses, 24(): 1347-1355.
10.1089/aid.2008.0083
CrossRef
AIDS Patient Care and Stds
Rate and Predictors of Self-Chosen Drug Discontinuations in Highly Active Antiretroviral Therapy-Treated HIV-Positive Individuals
Murri, R; Guaraldi, G; Lupoli, P; Crisafulli, R; Marcotullio, S; von Schloesser, F; Wu, AW
AIDS Patient Care and Stds, 23(1): 35-39.
10.1089/apc.2007.0248
CrossRef
Journal of Infectious Diseases
Virologic and immunologic response to regimens containing nevirapine or efavirenz in combination with 2 nucleoside analogues in the Italian Cohort Naive Antiretrovirals (I.Co.NA) study
Cozzi-Lepri, A; Phillips, AN; Monforte, AD; Piersantelli, N; Orani, A; Petrosillo, N; Leoncini, F; Scerbo, A; Tundo, P; Abrescia, N; Moroni, M
Journal of Infectious Diseases, 185(8): 1062-1069.

Expert Opinion on Emerging Drugs
Clinical progress of HIV-1 integrase inhibitors
Al-Mawsawi, LQ; Al-Safi, RI; Neamati, N
Expert Opinion on Emerging Drugs, 13(2): 213-225.
10.1517/14728210802002814
CrossRef
Journal of Virology
Identification of novel HLA-A2-restricted human immunodeficiency virus type 1-specific cytotoxic T-lymphocyte epitopes predicted by the HLA-A2 supertype peptide-binding motif
Altfeld, MA; Livingston, B; Reshamwala, N; Nguyen, PT; Addo, MM; Shea, A; Newman, M; Fikes, J; Sidney, J; Wentworth, P; Chesnut, R; Eldridge, RL; Rosenberg, ES; Robbins, GK; Brander, C; Sax, PE; Boswell, S; Flynn, T; Buchbinder, S; Goulder, PJR; Walker, BD; Sette, A; Kalams, SA
Journal of Virology, 75(3): 1301-1311.

AIDS
Response to: Harrison TS, Macallan DC, Rayner CFJ, Wansborough-Jones M. Treatment of tuberculosis in HIV-infected individuals AIDS 2002
Edwards, S; Pozniak, AL; Miller, R
AIDS, 16(): 1571-1572.

Archives of Internal Medicine
Incidence of adipose tissue alterations in first-line antiretroviral therapy - The LipoICoNa study
Galli, M; Cozzi-Lepri, A; Ridolfo, AL; Gervasoni, C; Ravasio, L; Corsico, L; Gianelli, E; Vaccarezza, M; Vullo, V; Cargnel, A; Minoli, L; Coronado, O; Giacometti, A; Antinori, A; Antonucci, G; Monforte, AD; Moroni, M
Archives of Internal Medicine, 162(): 2621-2628.

Clinical Infectious Diseases
Incidence of and risk factors for adverse drug reactions in a prospective cohort of HIV-infected adults initiating protease inhibitor-containing therapy
Duval, X; Journot, V; Leport, C; Chene, G; Dupon, M; Cuzin, L; May, T; Morlat, P; Waldner, A; Salamon, R; Raffi, F
Clinical Infectious Diseases, 39(2): 248-255.

Quality of Life Research
ISSQoL: A new questionnaire for evaluating the quality of life of people living with HIV in the HAART era
Bucciardini, R; Murri, R; Guarinieri, M; Starace, F; Martini, M; Vatrella, A; Cafaro, L; Fantoni, M; Grisetti, R; Monforte, AD; Fragola, V; Arcieri, R; Del Borgo, C; Tramarin, A; Massella, M; Lorenzetti, D; Vella, S
Quality of Life Research, 15(3): 377-390.
10.1007/s11136-005-3212-1
CrossRef
Jaids-Journal of Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndromes
Behavioral correlates of adherence to antirettoviral therapy
Aloisi, MS; Arici, C; Balzano, R; Noto, P; Piscopo, R; Filice, G; Menichetti, F; D'Arminio Monforte, A; Ippolito, G; Girardi, E
Jaids-Journal of Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndromes, 31(): S145-S148.

AIDS
Expanding access to HIV antiretroviral therapy among marginalized populations in the developed world
Wood, E; Montaner, JSG; Bangsberg, DR; Tyndall, MW; Strathdee, SA; O'Shaughnessy, MV; Hogg, RS
AIDS, 17(): 2419-2427.

Antiviral Therapy
Response to HAART and GB virus type C coinfection in a cohort of antiretroviral-naive HIV-infected individuals
Antonucci, G; Girardi, E; Cozzi-Lepri, A; Capobianchi, MR; Morsica, G; Pizzaferri, P; Ladisa, N; Sighinolfi, L; Chiodera, A; Solmone, M; Lalle, E; Ippolito, G; Monforte, AD
Antiviral Therapy, 10(1): 109-117.

Journal of Infectious Diseases
A comparison between abacavir and efavirenz as the third drug used in combination with a background therapy regimen of 2 nucleoside reverse-transcriptase inhibitors in patients with initially suppressed viral loads
Cozzi-Lepri, A; De Luca, A; Phillips, AN; Bongiovanni, M; Di Giambenedetto, S; Mena, M; Moioli, MC; Arlotti, M; Sighinolfi, L; Narciso, P; Lichtner, M; Cauda, R; Monforte, AD
Journal of Infectious Diseases, 194(1): 20-28.

New England Journal of Medicine
Class of antiretroviral drugs and the risk of myocardial infarction
Friis-Moller, N; Reiss, P; Sabin, CA; Weber, R; Monforte, AD; El-Sadr, W; De Wit, S; Kirk, O; Fontas, E; Law, MG; Phillips, A; Lundgren, JD
New England Journal of Medicine, 356(): 1723-1735.

American Journal of Health-System Pharmacy
Effects of pharmacists' interventions on patient outcomes in an HIV primary care clinic
March, K; Mak, M; Louie, SG
American Journal of Health-System Pharmacy, 64(): 2574-2578.
10.2146/ajhp070048
CrossRef
Hiv Clinical Trials
An immunological comparison of third companion in advanced drug-naive HIV-Infected patients
Rizzardini, G; Trabattoni, D; Capetti, A; Castelletti, E; Migliorino, M; Panebianco, R; Pacei, M; Quirino, T; Clerici, M
Hiv Clinical Trials, 7(5): 221-228.
10.1310/hct0705-221
CrossRef
Pathologie Biologie
Recent and future therapeutic advances in the management of HIV infection
Saliba, G; Yeni, P
Pathologie Biologie, 54(): 545-550.
10.1016/j.patbio.2006.07.021
CrossRef
Statistics in Medicine
Evaluating competing adverse and beneficial outcomes using a mixture model
Lau, B; Cole, SR; Moore, RD; Gange, SJ
Statistics in Medicine, 27(): 4313-4327.
10.1002/sim.3293
CrossRef
Enfermedades Infecciosas Y Microbiologia Clinica
First antiretroviral therapy regimen in HIV-infected patients. Durability and factors associated with therapy changes
de la Torre, J; Santos, J; Perea-Milla, E; Perez, I; Moreno, F; Palacios, R; Santamaria, S; del Arco, A; Nuno, E; Godoy, M; Prada, JL; Olalla, J; Aguilar, J; Martos, F
Enfermedades Infecciosas Y Microbiologia Clinica, 26(7): 416-422.

Journal of Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndromes
Outcome of a second-line protease inhibitor-containing regimen in patients failing or intolerant of a first highly active antiretroviral therapy
Bini, T; Testa, L; Chiesa, E; Adorni, F; Abeli, C; Castelnuovo, B; Melzi, S; Sollima, S; Bongiovanni, M; Monforte, AD
Journal of Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndromes, 24(2): 115-122.

European Journal of Epidemiology
Antiretroviral therapy in HIV-infected individuals in clinical practice: Are the criteria for initiating and choosing the type of drug regimen based only on immunologic and virologic values?
Pezzotti, P; Monforte, AD; Bugarini, R; Rezza, G; Arici, C; Angarano, G; Borderi, M; Alberici, F; Armignacco, O; Menichetti, F; Prestileo, T; Sighinolfi, L; Sinicco, A; Resta, F; Vigevani, M; Ippolito, G
European Journal of Epidemiology, 16(): 919-926.

Brazilian Journal of Infectious Diseases
Self-reported adverse reactions among patients initiating antiretroviral therapy in brazil
de Padua, CA; Cesar, CC; Bonolo, PF; Acurcio, FA; Guimaraes, MDC
Brazilian Journal of Infectious Diseases, 11(1): 20-26.

Sexual Health
Triple-class HIV antiretroviral therapy failure in an Australian primary care setting
Bloch, M; Farris, M; Tilden, D; Gowers, A; Cunningham, N
Sexual Health, 7(1): 17-24.
10.1071/SH09039
CrossRef
AIDS
Female sex and the use of anti-allergic agents increase the risk of developing cutaneous rash associated with nevirapine therapy
Antinori, A; Baldini, F; Girardi, E; Cingolani, A; Zaccarelli, M; Di Giambenedetto, S; Barracchini, A; De Longis, P; Murri, R; Tozzi, V; Ammassari, A; Rizzo, MG; Ippolito, G; De Luca, A
AIDS, 15(): 1579-1581.

British Medical Journal
Highly active antiretroviral therapy
Murri, R
British Medical Journal, 330(): 681-682.

Hiv Medicine
In the era of highly active antiretroviral therapy, why are HIV-infected patients still admitted to hospital for an inaugural opportunistic infection?
Perbost, I; Malafronte, B; Pradier, C; Santo, LDI; Dunais, B; Counillon, E; Vinti, H; Enel, P; Fuzibet, JG; Cassuto, JP; Dellamonica, P
Hiv Medicine, 6(4): 232-239.

Brazilian Journal of Medical and Biological Research
High incidence of adverse reactions to initial antiretroviral therapy in Brazil
de Padua, CAM; Cesar, CC; Bonolo, PF; Acurcio, FA; Guimaraes, MDC
Brazilian Journal of Medical and Biological Research, 39(4): 495-505.

Lancet
Predictors of trend in CD4-positive T-cell count and mortality among HIV-1-infected individuals with virological failure to all three antiretroviral-drug classes
Ledergerber, B; Lundgren, JD; Walker, AS; Sabin, C; Justice, A; Reiss, P; Mussini, C; Wit, F; Monforte, AD; Weber, R; Fusco, G; Staszewski, S; Law, M; Hogg, R; Lampe, F; Gill, MJ; Castelli, F; Phillips, AN; Castelli, F; Fusco, GP; Gill, MJ; Hogg, R; Lampe, F; Law, M; Ledergerber, B; Lundgren, JD; Monforte, AD; Mussini, C; Phillips, AN; Reiss, P; Staszewski, S; Walker, AS; Rooney, P; Taylor, S; Couldwell, D; Austin, D; Block, M; Clemons, J; Finlayson, R; Law, M; Petoumenos, K; Quan, D; Smith, D; O'Connor, C; Gorton, C; Allen, D; Mulhall, B; Mutimer, K; Smith, D; Keeffe, N; Cooper, D; Carr, A; Miller, J; Pell, C; Ellis, D; Baker, D; Kidd, J; McFarlane, R; Liang, MT; Brown, K; Huffam, S; Savage, J; Morgan, S; Knibbs, P; Sowden, D; Walker, A; Orth, D; Lister, G; Chuah, J; Fankhauser, W; Dickson, B; Bradford, D; Wilson, C; Ree, H; Magon, H; Anderson, J; Moore, R; Russell, D; McGovern, G; McNair, R; Bal, J; Fairley, K; Roth, N; Eu, B; Strecker, S; Russell, D; Wood, H; Mijch, A; Hoy, J; Pierce, A; McCormack, C; Watson, K; Medland, N; Daye, J; Mallal, S; French, M; Skett, J; Maxwel, D; Cain, A; Montroni, M; Scalise, G; Costantini, A; Giacometti, A; Tirelli, U; Nasti, G; Pastore, G; Ladisa, N; Perulli, ML; Suter, F; Arici, C; Chiodo, F; Gritti, FM; Colangeli, V; Fiorini, C; Guerra, L; Carosi, G; Cadeo, GP; Castelli, F; Minardi, C; Vangi, D; Rizzardini, G; Migliorino, G; Manconi, PE; Piano, P; Ferraro, T; Scerbo, A; Pizzigallo, E; Ricci, F; Santoro, D; Pusterla, L; Carnevale, G; Galloni, D; Vigano, P; Mena, M; Ghinelli, F; Sighinolfi, L; Leoncini, F; Mazzotta, F; Pozzi, M; Lo Caputo, S; Angarano, G; Grisorio, B; Ferrara, S; Grima, P; Tundo, P; Pagano, G; Piersantelli, N; Alessandrini, A; Piscopo, R; Toti, M; Chigiotti, S; Soscia, F; Taccooni, L; Orani, A; Perini, P; Scasso, A; Vincenti, A; Scalzini, A; Fibbia, G; Moroni, M; Lazzarin, A; Cargnel, A; Vigevani, GM; Caggese, L; Monforte, AD; Tordato, F; Novati, R; Galli, A; Merli, S; Pastecchia, C; Moioli, C; Esposito, R; Mussini, C; Abrescia, N; Chirianni, A; Izzo, C; Piazza, M; De Marco, M; Montesarchio, V; Manzillo, E; Nappa, S; Colomba, A; Abbadessa, V; Prestileo, T; Mancuso, S; Ferrari, C; Pzzaferri, P; Filice, G; Minoli, L; Bruno, R; Maserati, R; Pauluzzi, S; Baldelli, F; Petrelli, E; Cioppi, A; Alberici, F; Ruggieri, A; Menichetti, F; Martinelli, C; De Stefano, C; La Gala, A; Zauli, T; Ballardini, G; Magnani, G; Ursitti, MA; Arlotti, M; Ortolani, P; Ortona, L; Dianzani, F; Ippolito, G; Antinori, A; Antonucci, G; D'Elia, S; Narciso, P; Petrosillo, N; Vullo, V; De Luca, A; Del Forno, L; Zaccarelli, M; De Longis, P; Ciardi, M; D'Offizi, G; Noto, P; Lichtner, M; Capobianchi, MR; Girardi, E; Pezzotti, P; Rezza, G; Mura, MS; Mannazzu, M; Caramello, P; Sinicco, A; Soranzo, ML; Gennero, L; Sciandra, M; Salassa, B; Grossi, PA; Basilico, C; Poggio, A; Bottari, G; Raise, E; Pasquinucci, S; De Lalla, F; Tositti, G; Resta, F; Chimienti, A; Lepri, AC; Bachmann, S; Battegay, M; Bernasconi, E; Bucher, H; Burgisser, P; Cattacin, S; Egger, M; Erb, P; Fierz, W; Fischer, M; Flepp, M; Fontana, A; Francioli, P; Furrer, HJ; Gorgievski, M; Gunthard, H; Hirschel, B; Kaiser, L; Kind, C; Klimkait, T; Ledergerber, B; Lauper, U; Opravil, M; Paccaud, F; Pantaleo, G; Perrin, L; Piffaretti, JC; Rickenbach, M; Rudin, C; Schupbach, J; Speck, R; Tarr, P; Telenti, A; Trkola, A; Vernazza, P; Weber, R; Yerly, S; de Wolf, F; van Sighem, AI; van Valkengoed, I; Gras, L; Bronsveld, W; Prins, JM; Bos, JC; Schattenkerk, JKME; Godfried, MH; Lange, JMA; Lowe, SH; van der Meer, JTM; Nellen, FJB; Pogany, K; van der Poll, T; Reiss, P; Ruys, TA; Sankatsing, S; van der Valk, M; van Vonderen, MGA; Wit, FWMN; van Eeden, A; ten Veen, JH; van Dam, PS; Hillebrand-Haverkort, ME; Brinkman, K; Frissen, PHJ; Weigel, HM; Mulder, JW; van Gorp, ECM; Meenhorst, PL; Mairuhu, ATA; Veenstra, J; Danner, SA; Van Agtmael, MA; Claessen, FAP; Geerlings, SE; Perenboom, RM; Richter, C; van der Berg, J; van Leusen, R; Vriesendorp, R; Jeurissen, FJF; Kauffmann, RH; Koger, ELW; Bravenboer, B; ten Napel, CHH; Mudrikova, T; Sprenger, HG; Miesen, WMAJ; ten Kate, RW; van Houte, DPF; Leemhuis, MP; Pole, M; Kroon, FP; Schippers, EF; Schreij, G; van de Geest, S; Verbon, A; Koopmans, PP; Telgt, M; van der Ven, AJAM; van der Ende, ME; Gyssens, IC; de Marie, S; Nouwen, JL; Juttmann, JR; Schneider, MME; Bonten, MJM; Borleffs, JCC; Hoepelman, IM; Jaspers, CAJJ; Schouten, I; Schurink, CAM; Blok, WL; Groenveld, PHP; Jurriaans, S; Back, NKT; Cuijpers, T; Rietra, PJGM; Roozendaal, KJ; Pauw, W; van Zanten, AP; Smits, PHM; von Blomberg, BME; Savelkoul, P; Zaaijer, H; Swanink, C; Franck, PFH; Lampe, AS; Jansen, CL; Hendriks, R; Schirm, J; Benne, D; Veenendaal, D; Storm, H; van Zeijl, JH; Kroes, ACM; Claas, HCJ; Bruggeman, CAMVA; Goossens, VJ; Galama, JMD; Poort, YAGM; Niesters, MG; Osterhaus, ADME; Schutten, M; Buiting, AGM; Swaans, CAM; Boucher, CAB; Schuurman, R; Boel, E; Jansz, AF; Veldkamp, A; Beijnen, JH; Crommentuyn, KML; Huitema, ADR; Kappelhoff, B; de Maat, MMR; Burger, DM; Hugen, PWH; Dabis, F; Thiebaut, R; Chene, G; Lawson-Ayayi, S; Meyer, L; Boufassa, F; Hamouda, O; Pezzotti, P; Rezza, G; Touloumi, G; Hatzakis, A; Karafoulidou, A; Katsarou, O; Brettle, R; Del Amo, J; del Romero, J; van Asten, L; van Benthem, B; Prins, M; Coutinho, R; Kirk, O; Pedersen, C; Aguado, IH; Perez-Hoyos, S; Eskild, A; Bruun, JN; Sannes, M; Sabin, C; Lee, C; Johnson, AM; Phillips, AN; Babiker, A; Darbyshire, J; Gill, N; Porter, K; Francioli, P; Vanhems, P; Egger, M; Rickenbach, M; Cooper, D; Kaldor, J; Ashton, L; Cooper, D; Kaldor, J; Ashton, L; Cooper, D; Vizzard, J; Muga, R; Vanhems, P; Gill, J; Cayla, J; de Olalla, PG; Day, NE; De Angelis, D; Porter, K; Babiker, A; Walker, S; Darbyshire, J; Tyrer, F; Beral, V; Coutinho, R; Darbyshire, J; Del Amo, J; Gill, N; Lee, C; Meyer, L; Rezza, G; Raffanti, S; Becker, S; Scarsella, A; Braun, J; Justice, A; Fusco, G; Most, B; Balu, R; Gilbert, L; Fleenor, R; Ising, T; Dieterich, D; Fusco, J; Losso, M; Duran, A; Vetter, N; Clumeck, N; De Wit, S; Kabeya, K; Poll, B; Colebunders, R; Machala, L; Rozsypal, H; Nielsen, J; Lundgren, J; Kirk, O; Olsen, CH; Gerstoft, J; Katzenstein, T; Hansen, ABE; Skinhoj, P; Pedersen, C; Zilmer, K; Rauka, M; Katlama, C; De Sa, M; Viard, JP; Saint-Marc, T; Vanhems, P; Pradier, C; Dietrich, M; Manegold, C; van Lunzen, J; Stellbrink, HJ; Miller, V; Staszewski, S; Goebel, FD; Salzberger, B; Rockstroh, J; Kosmidis, J; Gargalianos, P; Sambatakou, H; Perdios, J; Panos, G; Filandras, A; Banhegyi, D; Mulcahy, F; Yust, I; Burke, M; Pollack, S; Hassoun, J; Sthoeger, Z; Maayan, S; Vella, S; Chiesi, A; Arici, C; Pristera, R; Mazzotta, F; Gabbuti, A; Esposito, R; Bedini, A; Chirianni, A; Montesarchio, E; Vullo, V; Santopadre, P; Narciso, P; Antinori, A; Franci, P; Zaccarelli, M; Lazzarin, A; Castagna, A; Monforte, AD; Viksna, L; Rozentale, B; Chaplinskas, S; Hemmer, R; Staub, T; Reiss, P; Bruun, J; Maeland, A; Ormaasen, V; Knysz, B; Gasiorowski, J; Horban, A; Prokopowicz, D; Wiercinska-Drapalo, A; Boron-Kaczmarska, A; Pynka, M; Beniowski, M; Trocha, H; Smiatacz, T; Antunes, F; Mansinho, K; Maltez, F; Duiculescu, D; Streinu-Cercel, A; Mokras, M; Stanekova, D; Gonzalez-Lahoz, J; Diaz, B; Garcia-Benayas, T; Martin-Carbonero, L; Soriano, V; Clotet, B; Jou, A; Conejero, J; Tural, C; Gatell, JM; Miro, JM; Zamora, L; Blaxhult, A; Karlsson, A; Pehrson, P; Ledergerber, B; Weber, R; Francioli, P; Hirschel, B; Schiffer, V; Furrer, H; Chentsova, N; Barton, S; Johnson, AM; Mercey, D; Phillips, A; Youle, M; Johnson, MA; Mocroft, A; Murphy, M; Weber, J; Scullard, G; Fisher, M; Brettle, R; Loveday, C; Clotet, B; Ruiz, L; Staszewski, S; Helm, EB; Carlebach, A; Mosch, M; Muller, A; Haberl, A; Korn, S; Stephan, C; Bickel, M; Gute, P; Locher, L; Lutz, T; Klauke, S; Doerr, HW; Sturmer, M; Sabin, C; Dauer, B; Jennings, B; Alexander, C; Braitstein, P; Chan, K; Cote, H; Gataric, N; Harrigan, PR; Harris, M; Bonner, S; Hogg, R; Montaner, J; O'Shaughnessy, M; Wood, E; Yip, B; Lampe, F; Chaloner, C; Gumley, H; Ransom, D; Sabin, CA; Mocroft, A; Lipman, M; Phillips, AN; Youle, M; Johnson, M; Gill, J; Read, R; Carosi, G; Castelli, F; Paraninfo, G; Casari, S; Pan, A; Patroni, A; Torti, C; Quiros-Roldan, E; Tomasoni, L; Moretti, F; Nasta, P; Uccelli, MC; Cadeo, GP; Bertelli, D; Orani, A; Perini, P; Nigro, M; Rizzardini, G; Migliorino, M; Abeli, C; Mazzotta, F; Suter, F; Maggiolo, F; Arici, C; Ghinelli, F; Sighinolfi, L; Minoli, L; Maserati, R; Novati, S; Tinelli, C; Pastore, G; Ladisa, N; Carnevale, G; Poggio, A; Riccio, G; Mussini, C; Borghi, V; Bedini, A; Esposito, R
Lancet, 364(): 51-62.

Clinical Infectious Diseases
Role of hepatitis C virus (HCV) viremia and HCV genotype in the immune recovery from highly active antiretroviral therapy in a cohort of antiretroviral-Naive HIV-Infected individuals
Antonucci, G; Girardi, E; Cozzi-Lepri, A; Capobianchi, MR; De Luca, A; Puoti, M; Petrelli, E; Carnevale, G; Rizzardini, G; Grossi, PA; Vigano, P; Moioli, MC; Carletti, F; Solmone, M; Ippolito, G; Monforte, AD
Clinical Infectious Diseases, 40(): E101-E109.

Circulation
What a cardiologist needs to know about patients with human immunodeficiency virus infection
Hsue, PY; Waters, DD
Circulation, 112(): 3947-3957.
10.1161/CIRCULATIONAHA.105.546465
CrossRef
Hiv Medicine
Determinants of discontinuation of initial highly active antiretroviral therapy regimens in a USHIV-infected patient cohort
Yuan, Y; L'Italien, G; Mukherjee, J; Iloeje, UH
Hiv Medicine, 7(3): 156-162.

Antiviral Research
Antiviral effects of mifepristone on human immunodeficiency virus type-1 (HIV-1): Targeting Vpr and its cellular partner, the glucocorticoid receptor (GR)
Schafer, EA; Venkatachari, NJ; Ayyavoo, V
Antiviral Research, 72(3): 224-232.
10.1016/j.antiviral.2006.06.008
CrossRef
Expert Opinion on Pharmacotherapy
Abacavir/lamividune combination in the treatment of HIV-1 infection: a review
Waters, L; Moyle, G
Expert Opinion on Pharmacotherapy, 7(): 2571-2580.
10.1517/14656566.7.18.2571
CrossRef
New England Journal of Medicine
Discontinuation of secondary prophylaxis against Pneumocystis carinii pneumonia in patients with HIV infection who have a response to antiretroviral therapy
Ledergerber, B; Mocroft, A; Reiss, P; Furrer, H; Kirk, O; Bickel, M; Uberti-Foppa, C; Pradier, C; Monforte, AD; Schneider, MME; Lundgren, JD
New England Journal of Medicine, 344(3): 168-174.

Clinical Microbiology and Infection
Overall trends in CD4 counts and plasma viremia in an urban clinic since the introduction of highly active antiretroviral therapies
Martin, JC; Soriano, V; Jimenez-Nacher, I; Martinez, P; Gonzalez-Lahoz, J
Clinical Microbiology and Infection, 7(): 678-681.

New England Journal of Medicine
Cost-effectiveness of screening for HIV in the era of highly active antiretroviral therapy
Sanders, GD; Bayoumi, AM; Sundaram, V; Bilir, SP; Neukermans, CP; Rydzak, CE; Douglass, LR; Lazzeroni, LC; Holodniy, M; Owens, DK
New England Journal of Medicine, 352(6): 570-585.

Infection
Recent acquired STD and the use of HAART in the italian cohort of naive for antiretrovirals (I.Co.N.A): Analysis of the incidence of newly acquired hepatitis B infection and syphilis
Cicconi, P; Cozzi-Lepri, A; Orlando, G; Matteelli, A; Girardi, E; Esposti, AD; Moioli, C; Rizzardini, G; Chiodera, A; Ballardini, G; Tincati, C; Monforte, AD
Infection, 36(1): 46-53.
10.1007/s15010-007-6300-z
CrossRef
Hiv Medicine
The associations between age and the development of laboratory abnormalities and treatment discontinuation for reasons other than virological failure in the first year of highly active antiretroviral therapy
Sabin, CA; Smith, CJ; Delpech, V; Anderson, J; Bansi, L; Gilson, R; Schwenk, A; Leen, C; Gazzard, B; Porter, K; Mackie, N; Fisher, M; Orkin, C; Johnson, M; Easterbrook, P; Hill, T; Phillips, AN
Hiv Medicine, 10(1): 35-43.
10.1111/j.1468-1293.2008.00654.x
CrossRef
Journal of Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndromes
Low frequency of severe hepatotoxicity and association with HCV coinfection in HIV-positive patients treated with HAART
Monforte, AD; Bugarini, R; Pezzotti, P; De Luca, A; Antinori, A; Mussini, C; Vigevani, GM; Tirelli, U; Bruno, R; Gritti, F; Piazza, M; Chigiotti, S; Chirianni, A; De Stefano, C; Pizzigallo, E; Perrella, O; Moroni, M
Journal of Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndromes, 28(2): 114-123.

Expert Opinion on Pharmacotherapy
Enfuvirtide: the first HIV fusion inhibitor
Lazzarin, A
Expert Opinion on Pharmacotherapy, 6(3): 453-464.

Antiviral Therapy
Variability in the interpretation of transmitted genotypic HIV-1 drug resistance and prediction of virological outcomes of the initial HAART by distinct systems
De Luca, A; Cozzi-Lepri, A; Perno, CF; Balotta, C; Di Giambenedetto, S; Poggio, A; Pagano, G; Tositti, G; Piscopo, R; Del Forno, A; Chiodo, F; Magnanio, G; Monforte, AD
Antiviral Therapy, 9(5): 743-752.

Antiviral Therapy
Are specific antiretrovirals associated with an increased risk of discontinuation due to toxicities or patient/physician choice in patients with hepatitis C virus coinfection?
Mocroft, A; Rockstroh, J; Soriano, V; Ledergerber, B; Kirk, O; Vinogradova, E; Reiss, P; Katlama, C; Phillips, AN; Lundgren, JD
Antiviral Therapy, 10(7): 779-790.

Letters in Drug Design & Discovery
Antiretroviral therapy: Is it the right time for new strategies?
Abrescia, N; D'Abbraccio, M; Busto, A; Maddaloni, A; Figoni, M; De Marco, M
Letters in Drug Design & Discovery, 2(6): 470-474.

Pharmacotherapy
High frequency of highly active antiretroviral therapy modifications in patients with acute or early human immunodeficiency virus infection
Sabundayo, BP; McArthur, JH; Langan, SJ; Gallant, JE; Margolick, JB
Pharmacotherapy, 26(5): 674-681.

Enfermedades Infecciosas Y Microbiologia Clinica
Cost of nucleoside analogue reverse transcriptase inhibitor-related toxicity in HIV-1-infected patients
Llibre-Codina, JM; Casado-Gomez, MA; Sanchez-de La Rosa, R; Perez-Elias, MJ; Santos-Gonzalez, J; Miralles-Alvarez, C; Martinez-Chamorro, E; Domingo-Pedrol, P; Alvarez-Garcia, ML; Moreno-Guillen, S
Enfermedades Infecciosas Y Microbiologia Clinica, 25(2): 98-107.

Annals of Internal Medicine
Cost-effectiveness of HIV screening in patients older than 55 years of age
Sanders, GD; Bayoumi, AM; Holodnly, M; Owens, DK
Annals of Internal Medicine, 148(): 889-+.

Journal of the National Medical Association
Sociodemographic Factors Predict Early Discontinuation of HIV Non-Nucleoside Reverse Transcriptase Inhibitors and Protease Inhibitors
Asad, S; Hulgan, T; Raffanti, SP; Daugherty, J; Ray, W; Sterling, TR
Journal of the National Medical Association, 100(): 1417-1424.

Plos Computational Biology
An Analysis of Enzyme Kinetics Data for Mitochondrial DNA Strand Termination by Nucleoside Reverse Transcription Inhibitors
Wendelsdorf, KV; Song, Z; Cao, Y; Samuels, DC
Plos Computational Biology, 5(1): -.
ARTN e1000261
CrossRef
Pharmacoepidemiology and Drug Safety
Antiretroviral induced adverse drug reactions in Iranian human immunodeficiency virus positive patients
Khalili, H; Dashti-Khavidaki, S; Mohraz, M; Etghani, A; Almasi, F
Pharmacoepidemiology and Drug Safety, 18(9): 848-857.
10.1002/pds.1793
CrossRef
Journal of Infectious Diseases
Minocycline Attenuates HIV Infection and Reactivation by Suppressing Cellular Activation in Human CD4(+) T Cells
Szeto, GL; Brice, AK; Yang, HC; Barber, SA; Siliciano, RF; Clements, JE
Journal of Infectious Diseases, 201(8): 1132-1140.
10.1086/651277
CrossRef
Lancet Infectious Diseases
When to initiate antiretroviral therapy in HIV-1-infected adults: a review for clinicians and patients
Wood, E; Hogg, RS; Harrigan, PR; Montaner, JSG
Lancet Infectious Diseases, 5(7): 407-414.

International Journal of Tuberculosis and Lung Disease
Management of adults living with HIV/AIDS in low-income, high-burden settings, with special reference to persons with tuberculosis
Fujiwara, PI; Clevenbergh, P; Dlodlo, RA
International Journal of Tuberculosis and Lung Disease, 9(9): 946-958.

AIDS Patient Care and Stds
Appearance-related side effects of HIV-1 treatment
Hawkins, T
AIDS Patient Care and Stds, 20(1): 6-18.

Antiviral Therapy
Lopinavir/ritonavir or efavirenz plus two nucleoside analogues as first-line antiretroviral therapy: a non-randomized comparison
De Luca, A; Cozzi-Lepri, A; Antinori, A; Zaccarelli, M; Bongiovanni, M; Di Giambenedetto, S; Marconi, P; Cicconi, P; Resta, F; Grisorio, B; Ciardi, M; Cauda, R; Monforte, AD
Antiviral Therapy, 11(5): 609-618.

Archives of Internal Medicine
Emergence of HIV-1 drug resistance in previously untreated patients initiating combination Antiretroviral treatment - A comparison of different regimen types
Von Wyl, V; Yerly, S; Boni, J; Burgisser, P; Klimkait, T; Battegay, M; Furrer, H; Telenti, A; Hirschel, B; Vernazza, PL; Bernasconi, E; Rickenbach, M; Perrin, L; Ledergerber, B; Gunthard, HF
Archives of Internal Medicine, 167(): 1782-1790.

Journal of Gastroenterology and Hepatology
Dyspepsia in HIV-infected patients under highly active antiretroviral therapy
Werneck-Silva, AL; Prado, IB
Journal of Gastroenterology and Hepatology, 22(): 1712-1716.
10.1111/j.1440-1746.2007.04897.x
CrossRef
British Journal of Clinical Pharmacology
A novel probe drug interaction study to investigate the effect of selected antiretroviral combinations on the pharmacokinetics of a single oral dose of maraviroc in HIV-positive subjects
Pozniak, AL; Boffito, M; Russell, D; Ridgway, CE; Muirhead, GJ
British Journal of Clinical Pharmacology, 65(): 54-59.
10.1111/j.1365-2125.2008.03136.x
CrossRef
Journal of Gene Medicine
Inhibition of HIV-1 infection by a unique short hairpin RNA to chemokine receptor 5 delivered into macrophages through hematopoietic progenitor cell transduction
Liang, M; Kamata, M; Chen, KN; Pariente, N; An, DS; Chen, ISY
Journal of Gene Medicine, 12(3): 255-265.
10.1002/jgm.1440
CrossRef
Clinical Infectious Diseases
Incidence of Malignancies in HIV-Infected Patients and Prognostic Role of Current CD4 Cell Count: Evidence from a Large Italian Cohort Study
Prosperi, MCF; Cozzi-Lepri, A; Castagna, A; Mussini, C; Murri, R; Giacometti, A; Torti, C; Costantini, A; Narciso, P; Ghinelli, F; Antinori, A; Monforte, AD
Clinical Infectious Diseases, 50(9): 1316-1321.
10.1086/651688
CrossRef
Biomedicine & Pharmacotherapy
Predictors of protease inhibitor-associated adverse events
Bonfanti, P; Ricci, E; Landonio, S; Valsecchi, L; Timillero, L; Faggion, I; Quirino, T
Biomedicine & Pharmacotherapy, 55(6): 321-323.

Revista De Investigacion Clinica
Antiretroviral treatment for HIV infection. Where we are and where we are going?
Sierra-Madero, JG; Franco-San-Sebastian, D
Revista De Investigacion Clinica, 56(2): 222-231.

Journal of Medical Virology
HIV-1 subtypes and circulating recombinant forms (CRFs) from HIV-infected patients residing in two regions of central and southern Italy
Monno, L; Brindicci, G; Lo Caputo, S; Punzi, G; Scarabaggio, T; Riva, C; Di Bari, C; Pierotti, P; Saracino, A; Lagioia, A; Mazzotta, F; Balotta, C; Angarano, G
Journal of Medical Virology, 75(4): 483-490.
10.1002/jmv.20300
CrossRef
Jaids-Journal of Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndromes
Intentional nonadherence due to adverse symptoms associated with antiretroviral therapy
Heath, KV; Singer, J; O'Shaughnessy, MV; Montaner, JSG; Hogg, RS
Jaids-Journal of Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndromes, 31(2): 211-217.
10.1097/01.QAI.0000026512.98625.08
CrossRef
AIDS Patient Care and Stds
Overcoming obstacles to the success of protease inhibitors in highly active antiretroviral therapy regimens
Moyle, G
AIDS Patient Care and Stds, 16(): 585-597.

AIDS
Strategies of HIV management - when to switch
Youle, M
AIDS, 16(): S151-S155.

AIDS
Special considerations in the initiation and management of antiretroviral therapy in individuals coinfected with HIV and hepatitis C
Braitstein, P; Palepu, A; Dieterich, D; Benhamou, Y; Montaner, JSG
AIDS, 18(): 2221-2234.

International Journal of Antimicrobial Agents
Predictive factors of lopinavir/ritonavir discontinuation for drug-related toxicity: Results from a cohort of 416 multi-experienced HIV-infected individuals
Bongiovanni, M; Cicconi, P; Landonio, S; Meraviglia, P; Testa, L; Di Biagio, A; Chiesa, E; Tordato, F; Bini, T; Monforte, AD
International Journal of Antimicrobial Agents, 26(1): 88-91.
10.1016/j.ijantimicag.2005.03.003
CrossRef
British Journal of Clinical Pharmacology
Therapeutic drug monitoring of atazanavir: surveillance of pharmacotherapy in the clinic
Ray, JE; Marriott, D; Bloch, MT; McLachlan, AJ
British Journal of Clinical Pharmacology, 60(3): 291-299.
10.1111/j.1365-2125.2005.02413.x
CrossRef
AIDS
Trends in perimortal conditions and mortality rates among HIV-infected patients
Hooshyar, D; Hanson, DL; Wolfe, M; Selik, RM; Buskin, SE; McNaghten, AD
AIDS, 21(): 2093-2100.

Biological Research for Nursing
Genome-Wide Screen Identifies Drug-Induced Regulation of the Gene Giant Axonal Neuropathy (Gan) in a Mouse Model of Antiretroviral-Induced Painful Peripheral Neuropathy
Dorsey, SG; Leitch, CC; Renn, CL; Lessans, S; Smith, BA; Wang, XM; Dionne, RA
Biological Research for Nursing, 11(1): 7-16.
10.1177/1099800409332726
CrossRef
Clinical Infectious Diseases
Resuppression of virus load after interruption in treatment with nevirapine and 2 nucleoside reverse-transcriptase inhibitors
Yozviak, JL; Doerfler, RE; Woodward, WC
Clinical Infectious Diseases, 34(4): 547-550.

Journal of Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndromes
Virologic rebound on HAART in the context of low treatment adherence is associated with a low prevalence of antiretroviral drug resistance
Walsh, JC; Pozniak, AL; Nelson, MR; Mandalia, S; Gazzard, BG
Journal of Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndromes, 30(3): 278-287.
10.1097/01.QAI.0000018000.56638.43
CrossRef
Medical Decision Making
Long-term HIV/AIDS survival estimation in the highly active antiretroviral therapy era
King, JT; Justice, AC; Roberts, MS; Chang, CCH
Medical Decision Making, 23(1): 9-20.
10.1177/0272989X02239652
CrossRef
Jama-Journal of the American Medical Association
HIV viral load response to antiretroviral therapy according to the baseline CD4 cell count and viral load
Phillips, AN; Staszewski, S; Weber, R; Kirk, O; Francioli, P; Miller, V; Vernazza, P; Lundgren, JD; Ledergerber, B
Jama-Journal of the American Medical Association, 286(): 2560-2567.

Journal of Plastic Reconstructive and Aesthetic Surgery
HIV-associated lipodystrophy in South Africa: The impact on the patient and the impact on the plastic surgeon
Zinn, RJ; Serrurier, C; Takuva, S; Sanne, I; Menezes, CN
Journal of Plastic Reconstructive and Aesthetic Surgery, 66(6): 839-844.
10.1016/j.bjps.2013.02.032
CrossRef
Plos One
Increasing Transfers-Out from an Antiretroviral Treatment Service in South Africa: Patient Characteristics and Rates of Virological Non-Suppression
Nglazi, MD; Kaplan, R; Orrell, C; Myer, L; Wood, R; Bekker, LG; Lawn, SD
Plos One, 8(3): -.
ARTN e57907
CrossRef
Current Pharmaceutical Design
Anti-HIV Drug Development: Structural Features and Limitations of Present Day Drugs and Future Challenges in the Successful HIV/AIDS Treatment
Kumari, G; Singh, RK
Current Pharmaceutical Design, 19(): 1767-1783.

Medical Science Monitor
Toxicity-related antiretroviral drug treatment modifications in individuals starting therapy: A cohort analysis of time patterns, sex, and other risk factors
Mihanovic, MP; Haque, NS; Rutherford, GW; Zekan, S; Begovac, J
Medical Science Monitor, 19(): 483-492.
10.12659/MSM.889283
CrossRef
AIDS Care-Psychological and Socio-Medical Aspects of AIDS/Hiv
The impact of specific HIV treatment-related adverse events on adherence to antiretroviral therapy: A systematic review and meta-analysis
Al-Dakkak, I; Patel, S; McCann, E; Gadkari, A; Prajapati, G; Maiese, EM
AIDS Care-Psychological and Socio-Medical Aspects of AIDS/Hiv, 25(4): 400-414.
10.1080/09540121.2012.712667
CrossRef
Bmc Infectious Diseases
Predictors of first-line antiretroviral therapy discontinuation due to drug-related adverse events in HIV-infected patients: a retrospective cohort study
Prosperi, MCF; Fabbiani, M; Fanti, I; Zaccarelli, M; Colafigli, M; Mondi, A; D'Avino, A; Borghetti, A; Cauda, R; Di Giambenedetto, S
Bmc Infectious Diseases, 12(): -.
ARTN 296
CrossRef
AIDS
Antiretroviral treatment changes in adults from Côte d'Ivoire: the roles of tuberculosis and pregnancy
Messou, E; Anglaret, X; Duvignac, J; Konan-N'Dri, E; Komena, E; Gnokoro, J; Karcher, S; Tanoh, A; N'Dri-Yoman, T; Seyler, C
AIDS, 24(1): 93-99.
10.1097/QAD.0b013e32832ec1c3
PDF (354) | CrossRef
AIDS
Reasons for modification and discontinuation of antiretrovirals: results from a single treatment centre
Chaloner, C; Wilson, D; Loveday, C; Johnson, MA; Phillips, AN; Mocroft, A; Youle, M; Moore, A; Sabin, CA; Madge, S; Lepri, AC; Tyrer, M
AIDS, 15(2): 185-194.

PDF (160)
AIDS
Hepatitis C coinfection is independently associated with decreased adherence to antiretroviral therapy in a population-based HIV cohort
Braitstein, P; Justice, A; Bangsberg, DR; Yip, B; Alfonso, V; Schechter, MT; Hogg, RS; Montaner, JS
AIDS, 20(3): 323-331.
10.1097/01.aids.0000198091.70325.f4
PDF (157) | CrossRef
AIDS
CD4 cell-monitored treatment interruption in patients with a CD4 cell count > 500 × 106 cells/l
International Study Group on CD4-monitored Treatment Interruptions,
AIDS, 19(3): 287-294.

PDF (164)
AIDS
Effect of hepatitis C coinfection on discontinuation and modification of initial HAART in primary HIV care
Hooshyar, D; Napravnik, S; Miller, WC; Eron, JJ
AIDS, 20(4): 575-583.
10.1097/01.aids.0000210612.37589.12
PDF (227) | CrossRef
AIDS
Low prevalence of primary mutations associated with drug resistance in antiviral-naive patients at therapy initiation
Perno, CF; Cozzi-Lepri, A; Balotta, C; Bertoli, A; Violin, M; Monno, L; Zauli, T; Montroni, M; Ippolito, G; d'Arminio-Monforte, A; for the I.CO.N.A Study Group,
AIDS, 16(4): 619-624.

PDF (237)
AIDS
Determinants of recurrent toxicity-driven switches of highly active antiretroviral therapy. The ATHENA Cohort
Dieleman, JP; Jambroes, M; Gyssens, IC; Sturkenboom, MC; Stricker, BH; Mulder, WM; de Wolf, F; Weverling, G; Lange, JM; Reiss, P; Brinkman, K; on behalf of the ATHENA Study Group,
AIDS, 16(5): 737-745.

PDF (320)
AIDS
Sequencing antiretroviral drugs
Soriano, V
AIDS, 15(5): 547-551.

PDF (127)
AIDS
Adherence to highly active antiretroviral therapy is better in patients receiving non-nucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitor-containing regimens than in those receiving protease inhibitor-containing regimens
Trotta, MP; Ammassari, A; Cozzi-Lepri, A; Zaccarelli, M; Castelli, F; Narciso, P; Melzi, S; Luca, AD; Monforte, A; Antinori, A; for the Adherence Italian Cohort Naive Antiretrovirals (AdICONA) and Adherence Spallanzani (AdeSpall) Study Groups,
AIDS, 17(7): 1099-1102.

AIDS
High rate of discontinuations of highly active antiretroviral therapy as a result of antiretroviral intolerance in clinical practice: missed opportunities for adherence support?
Park-Wyllie, LY; Scalera, A; Tseng, A; Rourke, S
AIDS, 16(7): 1084-1086.

AIDS
When to start highly active antiretroviral therapy in chronically HIV-infected patients: evidence from the ICONA study
Alberici, F; Cargnel, A; Grima, P; Piscopo, R; Prestileo, T; Scalise, G; Vigevani, M; Moroni, M; for the ICONA study Group, ; Lepri, AC; Phillips, AN; d'Arminio Monforte, A; Castelli, F; Antinori, A; de Luca, A; Pezzotti, P
AIDS, 15(8): 983-990.

PDF (167)
AIDS
Stability of antiretroviral regimens in patients with viral suppression
Lodwick, RK; Smith, CJ; Youle, M; Lampe, FC; Tyrer, M; Bhagani, S; Chaloner, C; Sabin, CA; Johnson, MA; Phillips, AN
AIDS, 22(9): 1039-1046.
10.1097/QAD.0b013e3282fec415
PDF (102) | CrossRef
AIDS
Genetic polymorphisms differently influencing the emergence of atrophy and fat accumulation in HIV-related lipodystrophy
Zanone Poma, B; Riva, A; Nasi, M; Cicconi, P; Broggini, V; Lepri, AC; Mologni, D; Mazzotta, F; Monforte, AD; Mussini, C; Cossarizza, A; Galli, M; for the Icona Foundation Study Group,
AIDS, 22(14): 1769-1778.
10.1097/QAD.0b013e32830b3a96
PDF (281) | CrossRef
AIDS
Increased regimen durability in the era of once-daily fixed-dose combination antiretroviral therapy
Willig, JH; Abroms, S; Westfall, AO; Routman, J; Adusumilli, S; Varshney, M; Allison, J; Chatham, A; Raper, JL; Kaslow, RA; Saag, MS; Mugavero, MJ
AIDS, 22(15): 1951-1960.
10.1097/QAD.0b013e32830efd79
PDF (159) | CrossRef
AIDS
Prognosis of patients treated with cART from 36 months after initiation, according to current and previous CD4 cell count and plasma HIV-1 RNA measurements
The antiretroviral therapy cohort collaboration (ART-CC),
AIDS, 23(16): 2199-2208.
10.1097/QAD.0b013e3283305a00
PDF (490) | CrossRef
AIDS
Does short-term virologic failure translate to clinical events in antiretroviral-naïve patients initiating antiretroviral therapy in clinical practice?
The Antiretroviral Therapy Cohort Collaboration (ART-CC),
AIDS, 22(18): 2481-2492.
10.1097/QAD.0b013e328318f130
PDF (344) | CrossRef
The American Journal of the Medical Sciences
The Antiretroviral-Experienced Patient
Clark, RA; Wilcox, R; Besch, CL
The American Journal of the Medical Sciences, 328(1): 10-16.

PDF (157)
Therapeutic Drug Monitoring
Pharmacokinetic and Other Drug Interactions in Patients With AIDS
Dasgupta, A; Okhuysen, PC
Therapeutic Drug Monitoring, 23(6): 591-605.

PDF (104)
JAIDS Journal of Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndromes
Lopinavir/Ritonavir Plus Nevirapine as a Nucleoside-Sparing Approach in Antiretroviral-Experienced Patients (NEKA Study)
Negredo, E; Moltó, J; Burger, D; Côté, H; Miró, O; Ribalta, J; Martínez, E; Puig, J; Ruiz, L; Salazar, J; López, S; Montaner, J; Rey-Joly, C; Clotet, B
JAIDS Journal of Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndromes, 38(1): 47-52.

PDF (133)
JAIDS Journal of Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndromes
Is Moderate HIV Viremia Associated With a Higher Risk of Clinical Progression in HIV-Infected People Treated With Highly Active Antiretroviral Therapy: Evidence From the Italian Cohort of Antiretroviral-Naive Patients Study
Murri, R; Lepri, A; Cicconi, P; Poggio, A; Arlotti, M; Tositti, G; Santoro, D; Soranzo, ML; Rizzardini, G; Colangeli, V; Montroni, M; Monforte, AD; for the ICoNA Study Group,
JAIDS Journal of Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndromes, 41(1): 23-30.

PDF (280)
JAIDS Journal of Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndromes
Interruption and Discontinuation of Highly Active Antiretroviral Therapy in the Multicenter AIDS Cohort Study
Li, X; Margolick, JB; Conover, CS; Badri, S; Riddler, SA; Witt, MD; Jacobson, LP
JAIDS Journal of Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndromes, 38(3): 320-328.

PDF (155)
JAIDS Journal of Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndromes
Virologic, Immunologic, and Clinical Response to Highly Active Antiretroviral Therapy: the Gender Issue Revisited
Dietrich, M; Colebunders, R; Chiesi, A; Lungren, JD; Phillips, AN; on behalf of the EuroSIDA group, ; Moore, AL; Kirk, O; Johnson, AM; Katlama, C; Blaxhult, A
JAIDS Journal of Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndromes, 32(4): 452-461.

PDF (6184)
JAIDS Journal of Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndromes
Interruption of Highly Active Antiretroviral Therapy in HIV Clinical Practice: Results From the Italian Cohort of Antiretroviral-Naive Patients
Tundo, P; Moroni, M; for the Italian Cohort of Antiretroviral-Naive Patients Study Group, ; Monforte, Ad; Cozzi-Lepri, A; Phillips, A; De Luca, A; Murri, R; Mussini, C; Grossi, P; Galli, A; Zauli, T; Montroni, M
JAIDS Journal of Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndromes, 38(4): 407-416.

PDF (120)
JAIDS Journal of Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndromes
Factors and Temporal Trends Associated With Highly Active Antiretroviral Therapy Discontinuation in the Women's Interagency HIV Study
Ahdieh-Grant, L; Tarwater, PM; Schneider, MF; Anastos, K; Cohen, M; Khalsa, A; Minkoff, H; Young, M; Greenblatt, RM
JAIDS Journal of Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndromes, 38(4): 500-503.

PDF (70)
JAIDS Journal of Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndromes
Combination Antiretroviral Therapy and Improvements in Mental Health: Results From a Nationally Representative Sample of Persons Undergoing Care for HIV in the United States
Sherbourne, CD; Chan, KS; Orlando, M; Joyce, G; Gifford, AL; Burnam, AM; Tucker, JS
JAIDS Journal of Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndromes, 33(1): 104-111.

PDF (5462)
JAIDS Journal of Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndromes
When To Initiate HIV Antiretroviral Therapy: Do Benefits Other Than Survival Deserve Greater Attention?
Wood, E; Montaner, JS
JAIDS Journal of Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndromes, 45(2): 131-132.
10.1097/QAI.0b013e31804d684b
PDF (53) | CrossRef
JAIDS Journal of Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndromes
Discontinuation and Modification of Highly Active Antiretroviral Therapy in HIV-Infected Ugandans: Prevalence and Associated Factors
Kiguba, R; Byakika-Tusiime, J; Karamagi, C; Ssali, F; Mugyenyi, P; Katabira, E
JAIDS Journal of Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndromes, 45(2): 218-223.
10.1097/QAI.0b013e31805d8ae3
PDF (91) | CrossRef
JAIDS Journal of Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndromes
Highly Active Antiretroviral Therapy Interruption: Predictors and Virological and Immunologic Consequences
Touloumi, G; Pantazis, N; Antoniou, A; Stirnadel, HA; Walker, SA; Porter, K; on behalf of the CASCADE Collaboration,
JAIDS Journal of Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndromes, 42(5): 554-561.
10.1097/01.qai.0000230321.85911.db
PDF (232) | CrossRef
JAIDS Journal of Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndromes
Tolerability and Safety of HIV Protease Inhibitors in Adults
Sax, PE; Kumar, P
JAIDS Journal of Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndromes, 37(1): 1111-1124.

PDF (477)
JAIDS Journal of Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndromes
Selective Drug Taking During Combination Antiretroviral Therapy in an Unselected Clinic Population
Gardner, EM; Burman, WJ; Maravi, ME; Davidson, AJ
JAIDS Journal of Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndromes, 40(3): 294-300.

PDF (137)
JAIDS Journal of Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndromes
Gender Differences in Discontinuation of Antiretroviral Treatment Regimens
Kempf, M; Pisu, M; Dumcheva, A; Westfall, AO; Kilby, JM; Saag, MS
JAIDS Journal of Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndromes, 52(3): 336-341.
10.1097/QAI.0b013e3181b628be
PDF (112) | CrossRef
JAIDS Journal of Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndromes
Patterns and Correlates of Discontinuation of the Initial HAART Regimen in an Urban Outpatient Cohort
O'Brien, ME; Clark, RA; Besch, CL; Myers, L; Kissinger, P
JAIDS Journal of Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndromes, 34(4): 407-414.

PDF (372)
Back to Top | Article Outline
Keywords:

highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART); first antiretroviral regimen; discontinuation; toxicity; failure

© 2000 Lippincott Williams & Wilkins, Inc.

Login

Search for Similar Articles
You may search for similar articles that contain these same keywords or you may modify the keyword list to augment your search.