Objectives: This study sought to examine nevirapine hypersensitivity (NVP HSR) phenotypes and their relationship with differing major histocompatibility complex (MHC) Class I and Class II alleles and the associated CD4+ and CD8+ T-cell NVP-specific responses and their durability over time.
Methods: A retrospective cohort study compared HIV-positive patients with NVP HSR, defined by fever and hepatitis and/or rash, with those tolerant of NVP for more than 3 months. Covariates included class I (HLA-A, B, C) and class II (HLA-DR) alleles. Cellular studies examined NVP-specific CD4+ and CD8+ T-cell responses by interferon-gamma (IFNγ) ELISpot assay and intracellular cytokine staining (ICS).
Results: NVP HSR occurred in 19 out of 451 (4%) NVP-exposed individuals between March 1993 and December 2011. HLA associations were phenotype dependent with HLA-DRB1*01 : 01 associated with hepatitis (P = 0.02); HLA-B*35 : 01 and HLA-Cw4 associated with cutaneous NVP HSR (P = 0.001, P = 0.01), and HLA-Cw*08 was associated with NVP HSR with eosinophilia (P = 0.04) and multisystemic NVP HSR (P = 0.02). NVP-specific INFγ responses waned significantly more than 3 months from the original reaction and were diminished or completely abrogated when either CD4+ or CD8+ T cells were depleted from the peripheral blood mononuclear cells culture.
Conclusion: The association of specific class I and II allele pairings with specific phenotypes of NVP HSR, and cellular studies showing both CD4+ and CD8+ T-cell NVP-specific responses suggest that specific combinations of NVP reactive class I restricted CD8+ and class II restricted CD4+ T cells contribute to the immunopathogenesis of NVP HSR.
aInstitute for Immunology and Infectious Diseases, Murdoch University
bDepartment of Paediatrics and Adolescent Medicine, Princess Margaret Hospital for Children
cSchool of Paediatrics & Child Health
dSchool of Medicine & Pharmacology and School of Pathology & Laboratory Medicine, The University of Western Australia, Perth, Western Australia, Australia
eVanderbilt University School of Medicine, Nashville, Tennessee, USA.
*Niamh M. Keane and Rebecca K. Parlos contributed equally to this study.
Correspondence to Elizabeth Phillips, MD, Division of Infectious Diseases, Vanderbilt University School of Medicine, 1161 21st Avenue South, A-2200 Medical Centre North, Nashville, TN 37232-2582, USA. E-mail: email@example.com.
Received 13 March, 2014
Revised 6 May, 2014
Accepted 6 May, 2014
Supplemental digital content is available for this article. Direct URL citations appear in the printed text and are provided in the HTML and PDF versions of this article on the journal's Website (http://www.AIDSonline.com).