Do the epidemiology, physiological mechanisms and characteristics of hepatocellular carcinoma in HIV-infected patients justify specific screening policies?
Gelu-Simeon, Moanaa,b,l; Sobesky, Rodolphea,b,c,d; Haïm-Boukobza, Stéphanieb,c,e; Ostos, Maritaa,b; Teicher, Elinaa,b,c,f; Fontaine, Hélèneg; Salmon-Ceron, Dominiqueh; Meyer, Laurencei; Trinchet, Jean-Claudej; Paule, Bernarda,b; Samuel, Didiera,b,c,d; Lewin, Maïtéb,c,d,k; Duclos-Vallée, Jean-Charlesa,b,c,d
Reducing the incidence of hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) in HIV-infected patients has become a serious problem when managing these patients. There are many explanations for this disease evolution, which notably include their longer survival under effective antiviral therapy and also the more rapid evolution of chronic liver disease. Despite recent advances in the management of hepatitis B (HBV) and hepatitis C (HCV) viral diseases, which will probably increase the number of patients achieving a virological response, HIV-infected patients with cirrhosis are still at risk of the onset of HCC. This evolution to HCC is also correlated to other comorbidities such as excessive alcohol consumption and nonalcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH). HCC thus remains a public health issue in this population. The poor prognosis and aggressiveness of HCC have been fully demonstrated, but the mechanisms underlying this aggressiveness are not yet well defined. As well as underlying mechanisms that contribute to accelerating hepatocarcinogenesis in HIV-infected patients, there are other reasons why HIV-infected patients should be considered a higher risk population. This review discusses the principal epidemiological determinants; the mechanisms of pathogenesis; and the treatment of HCC in HIV/HBV and HIV/HCV coinfected patients. It also discusses the probable need to develop a specific screening policy for HCC in this population in order to prevent the rapid development and to make them more amenable to a curative treatment.
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