To describe the frequency and the characteristics of hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) cases that appeared in HIV/hepatitis C virus (HCV)-coinfected patients with previous sustained virological response (SVR) and to compare these cases to those diagnosed in patients without SVR.
All HIV/HCV-coinfected patients diagnosed with HCC in 26 hospitals in Spain before 31 December 2012 were analyzed. Comparisons between cases diagnosed in patients with and without previous SVR were made.
One hundred and sixty-seven HIV/HCV-coinfected patients were diagnosed with HCC in the participant hospitals. Sixty-five (39%) of them had been previously treated against HCV. In 13 cases, HCC was diagnosed after achieving consecution of SVR, accounting for 7.8% of the overall cases. The median (Q1–Q3) elapsed time from SVR to diagnosis of HCC was 28 (20–39) months. HCC was multicentric and was complicated with portal thrombosis in nine and six patients, respectively. Comparisons with HCC cases diagnosed in patients without previous SVR only yielded a significantly higher proportion of genotype 3 infection [10 (83%) out of 13 cases versus 34 (32%) out of 107; P = 0.001)]. The median (Q1–Q3) survival of HCC was 3 (1–39) months among cases developed in patients with previous SVR, whereas it was 6 (2–20) months in the remaining individuals (P = 0.7).
HIV/HCV-coinfected patients with previous SVR may develop HCC in the mid term and long term. These cases account for a significant proportion of the total cases of HCC in this setting. Our findings reinforce the need to continue surveillance of HCC with ultrasound examinations in patients with cirrhosis who respond to anti-HCV therapy.