Objective: Anal and penile high-risk human papillomavirus (HPV) infection is associated with anogenital cancer, which is especially common in HIV-infected MSM. We assessed HPV prevalence and determinants in MSM.
Design: Analysis of baseline data from a prospective cohort study.
Methods: MSM aged 18 years or older were recruited in Amsterdam, the Netherlands. Participants completed risk-factor questionnaires. HPV DNA was analyzed in anal and penile shaft self-swabs and genotyped using a sensitive PCR and reverse line blot assay (SPF10-PCR-DEIA-LiPA25-system). Multivariable logistic regression analyses were performed to assess determinants of high-risk HPV infection.
Results: MSM (n = 778) were recruited in 2010–2011, of whom 317 (41%) were HIV-infected. Prevalence of anal high-risk HPV infection was 45% in HIV-negative versus 65% in HIV-infected MSM (P <0.001). HPV-16 was the most frequently detected type and was more common in HIV-infected MSM (13% in HIV-negative and 22% in HIV-infected MSM; P = 0.001). Prevalence of penile high-risk HPV infection was 16% in HIV-negative and 32% in HIV-infected MSM (P <0.001). In multivariable analyses, HIV infection remained associated with anal [adjusted odds ratio (aOR) 2.2; 1.8–2.7] and penile (aOR 2.0; 1.4–2.9) high-risk HPV infection. Higher number of lifetime male sex partners was significantly associated with anal and penile high-risk HPV in HIV-negative, but not HIV-infected MSM. Receptive anal intercourse was associated with anal high-risk HPV in HIV-infected MSM.
Conclusion: Anal and penile high-risk HPV infections are very common in MSM. HIV infection is a strong and independent determinant for anal and penile high-risk HPV infection. Determinants for HPV infection appear to differ between HIV-negative and HIV-infected MSM.
aEpidemiology & Surveillance Department, Centre for Infectious Disease Control, National Institute for Public Health and the Environment (Rijksinstituut voor Volksgezondheid en Milieu, RIVM), Bilthoven
bCluster of Infectious Diseases, Public Health Service Amsterdam
cDepartment of Internal Medicine, Center for Infection and Immunity Amsterdam (CINIMA), Academic Medical Center, Amsterdam
dJulius Center for Health Sciences and Primary Care, University Medical Center Utrecht, Utrecht
eDepartment of Pathology, Vrije Universiteit-University Medical Center (VUmc)
fDepartment of Internal Medicine, Jan van Goyen Medical Center
gDepartment of Dermatology, Academic Medical Center, Amsterdam, the Netherlands.
*Fleur Van Aar and Sofie H. Mooij contributed equally to the writing of the article.
Correspondence to Sofie Mooij, Public Health Service Amsterdam, Nieuwe Achtergracht 100, 1018 WT, Amsterdam, the Netherlands. Tel: +31 20 555 5705; fax: +31 20 555 5533; e-mail: email@example.com
Received 15 May, 2013
Revised 27 May, 2013
Accepted 28 June, 2013