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Beyond early infant diagnosis: case finding strategies for identification of HIV-infected infants and children

Ahmed, Saeeda; Kim, Maria H.a; Sugandhi, Nanditab; Phelps, B. Ryanc; Sabelli, Rachaela; Diallo, Mamadou O.d; Young, Pauld; Duncan, Danad; Kellerman, Scott E.e; The Child Survival Working Group of the Interagency Task Team on the Prevention and Treatment of HIV infection in Pregnant Women, Mothers and Children

doi: 10.1097/QAD.0000000000000099
Supplement Articles

There are 3.4 million children infected with HIV worldwide, with up to 2.6 million eligible for treatment under current guidelines. However, roughly 70% of infected children are not receiving live-saving HIV care and treatment. Strengthening case finding through improved diagnosis strategies, and actively linking identified HIV-infected children to care and treatment is essential to ensuring that these children benefit from the care and treatment available to them. Without attention or advocacy, the majority of these children will remain undiagnosed and die from complications of HIV. In this article, we summarize the challenges of identifying HIV-infected infants and children, review currently available evidence and guidance, describe promising new strategies for case finding, and make recommendations for future research and interventions to improve identification of HIV-infected infants and children.

aBaylor College of Medicine Clinical Centre of Excellence, Lilongwe, Malawi

bClinton Health Access Initiative, New York, New York

cUnited States Agency for International Development, Washington, DC, USA

dCenters for Disease Control and Prevention, Atlanta, Georgia

eManagement Sciences for Health, Washington, DC, USA.

Correspondence to Saeed Ahmed, MD, Director, Tingathe Outreach Program, Baylor College of Medicine Children's Foundation Malawi, Private Bag B-397, 100 Mzimba Road, Kamuzu Central Hospital Complex, Lilongwe 3, Malawi. Tel: +265 998 896 091; e-mail:

Received 24 September, 2013

Accepted 24 September, 2013

© 2013 Lippincott Williams & Wilkins, Inc.