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doi: 10.1097/01.aids.0000432474.76873.5f
Basic Science

Identification of TRIM22 single nucleotide polymorphisms associated with loss of inhibition of HIV-1 transcription and advanced HIV-1 disease

Ghezzi, Silviaa; Galli, Laurab; Kajaste-Rudnitski, Annaa; Turrini, Filippoa; Marelli, Saraa; Toniolo, Danielac; Casoli, Claudiod,e; Riva, Agostinod; Poli, Guidof,g; Castagna, Antonellab; Vicenzi, Elisaa

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Objective(s): Tripartite motif-containing 22 (TRIM22) is an interferon-induced protein that inhibits HIV-1 transcription and replication in vitro. Two single nucleotide missense polymorphisms rs7935564A/G (SNP-1) and rs1063303C/G (SNP-2) characterize the coding sequence of human TRIM22 gene. We tested whether these variants affected the inhibitory effect of TRIM22 on HIV-1 replication and transcription and their potential association with HIV-1 disease.

Design: The allelic discrimination was determined in 182 HIV-1-negative and among HIV-1-positive individuals with advanced disease progression (advanced progressors; n = 57), normal progressors (n = 76), and long-term nonprogressors (LTNPs; n = 95).

Methods: Renilla luciferase activity was measured after infection of activated peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) from an additional group of 61 blood donors with a recombinant HIV-1. HIV-1-long terminal repeat (LTR)-driven luciferase activity was tested in the presence of plasmid expressing TRIM22 variants in 293T cells. The SNP genotyping was determined by TaqMan assay.

Results: HIV-1 replication was more efficient in PBMCs from donors with SNP-1G and SNP-2G than from those with SNP-1A and SNP-2C alleles. Consistently, TRIM22-GG enhanced, whereas TRIM22-AC restricted basal HIV-1 LTR-driven transcription. In vivo, SNP-1G homozygotes and A/G heterozygotes were more frequent in advanced progressors than in LTNPs [odds ratio (OR) = 2.072, P = 0.005] or in normal progressors (OR = 1.809, P = 0.022); in contrast, SNP-2 was not associated with any state of HIV-1 disease progression. Although SNP-2 distribution was similar among the groups, TRIM22-GG haplotype was found more frequently in advanced progressors than in LTNPs (P = 0.02).

Conclusion: TRIM22 genetic diversity affects HIV-1 replication in vitro and it is a potentially novel determinant of HIV-1 disease severity.

© 2013 Lippincott Williams & Wilkins, Inc.


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