Background: Depletion of gut-associated lymphocytes by HIV infection facilitates microbial translocation, which may contribute to non-Hodgkin lymphoma (NHL) risk via chronic immune activation and B-cell hyperstimulation.
Method: We therefore examined associations of four microbial translocation markers with subsequent NHL risk in a case–control study nested within four prospective cohort studies of HIV-infected individuals. Prediagnostic blood specimens for 56 NHL cases and 190 controls matched for age, sex, race, specimen type, cohort, and CD4+ T-cell count were tested for the endotoxin lipopolysaccharide (LPS), antiendotoxin core antibody (EndoCab), LPS-binding protein (LBP), and soluble CD14 (sCD14).
Results: Elevated levels of sCD14 were associated with significantly increased NHL risk [odds ratio (OR) 2.72 (95% confidence interval [95% CI] 1.29–5.76)]. In subgroup analyses, elevated LPS levels were also associated with significantly increased NHL risk [OR 3.24 (95% CI 1.10–9.53)]. EndoCab and LBP levels were not associated with NHL risk.
Conclusion: The association of sCD14 and LPS with NHL risk supports an etiologic role for gut microbial translocation in lymphomagenesis among HIV-infected individuals. Additional studies with larger sample sizes are needed to confirm these observations.