Objective: To investigate rates and predictors of change in bone mineral density (BMD) in a cohort of aging men with or at risk for HIV infection.
Design: A prospective cohort study among 230 HIV-infected and 159 HIV-uninfected men aged at least 49 years.
Methods: Longitudinal analyses of annual change in BMD at the femoral neck, total hip, and lumbar spine.
Results: At baseline, 46% of men had normal BMD, 42% had osteopenia, and 12% had osteoporosis. Of those men with normal BMD, 14% progressed to osteopenia and 86% continued to have normal BMD. Of the men initially with osteopenia, 12% progressed to osteoporosis and 83% continued to have osteopenia. Osteopenia incidence per 100 person-years at risk was 2.6 for HIV-uninfected men and 7.2 for HIV-infected men; osteoporosis incidence was 2.2 per 100 person-years at risk among men with osteopenia, regardless of HIV status. In multivariable analysis of annual change in BMD at the femoral neck, we found a significant interaction between heroin use and AIDS diagnosis, such that the greatest bone loss occurred with both AIDS and heroin use (adjusted predicted mean annual bone loss 0.0196 g/cm2). Hepatitis C virus seropositivity was also associated with femoral neck bone loss (P = 0.04). The interaction between AIDS and heroin use also was associated with bone loss at the total hip, as was current methadone use (P < 0.01).
Conclusion: We found an association of heroin use and AIDS with BMD change, suggesting that heroin users with AIDS may be at particular risk for bone loss.