Seronegative HIV-1 infection: a review of the literatureSpivak, Adam M; Sydnor, Emily RM; Blankson, Joel N; Gallant, Joel EAIDS: June 19th, 2010 - Volume 24 - Issue 10 - p 1407–1414 doi: 10.1097/QAD.0b013e32833ac65c Basic Science Abstract Author Information HIV-1-specific antibodies can be detected in HIV-1-positive patients within weeks of primary infection. Rare cases have been reported of patients who are persistently seronegative despite evidence of HIV-1 infection. We present a retrospective review of the clinical, virologic and immunologic characteristics of 25 persistently seronegative patients whose cases have been published to date and postulate a biologic mechanism for this phenomenon. Johns Hopkins School of Medicine, Division of Infectious Diseases, Baltimore, Maryland, USA. Received 6 January, 2010 Revised 23 March, 2010 Accepted 8 April, 2010 Correspondence to Dr Joel E. Gallant, Johns Hopkins School of Medicine, Division of Infectious Diseases, 1830 East Monument Street, 4th floor, Baltimore, MD 21287, USA. Tel: +1 410 955 7473; e-mail: email@example.com © 2010 Lippincott Williams & Wilkins, Inc.