HIV-1 transmission in utero accounts for 20–30% of vertical transmission events in breast-feeding populations. In a prospective study of 463 HIV-1-infected mothers and infants, illness during pregnancy was associated with 2.6-fold increased risk of in-utero HIV-1 transmission [95% confidence interval (CI) 1.2–5.8] and bacterial vaginosis with a three-fold increase (95% CI 1.0–7.0) after adjusting for maternal HIV-1 viral load. Interventions targeting these novel risk factors could lead to more effective prevention of transmission during pregnancy.
aDepartment of Epidemiology, USA
bDepartment of Medicine, University of Washington, Seattle, USA
cDepartment of Paediatrics, University of Nairobi, Nairobi, Kenya
dDivision of Public Health Sciences, Fred Hutchinson Cancer Research Cancer, Seattle, Washington, USA
eKenya Medical Research Institute, Nairobi, Kenya.
Received 4 September, 2008
Revised 2 November, 2008
Accepted 11 November, 2008
Correspondence to Carey Farquhar, MD, MPH, Departments of Medicine and Epidemiology, University of Washington, 325 Ninth Avenue, Box 359909, Seattle, WA 98104, USA. Tel: +1 206 543 4278; fax: +1 206 543 4818; e-mail: firstname.lastname@example.org