Objective: To conduct a meta-analytic review of HIV interventions for heterosexual African Americans to determine the overall efficacy in reducing HIV-risk sex behaviors and incident sexually transmitted diseases and identify intervention characteristics associated with efficacy.
Methods: Comprehensive searches included electronic databases from 1988 to 2005, handsearches of journals, reference lists of articles, and contacts with researchers. Thirty-eight randomized controlled trials met the selection criteria. Random-effects models were used to aggregate data.
Results: Interventions significantly reduced unprotected sex (odds ratio = 0.75; 95% confidence interval = 0.67, 0.84; 35 trials; N = 14 682) and marginally significantly decreased incident sexually transmitted diseases (odds ratio = 0.88; 95% confidence interval = 0.72, 1.07; 10 trials; N = 10 944). Intervention characteristics associated with efficacy include cultural tailoring, aiming to influence social norms in promoting safe sex behavior, utilizing peer education, providing skills training on correct use of condoms and communication skills needed for negotiating safer sex, and multiple sessions and opportunities to practice learned skills.
Conclusion: Interventions targeting heterosexual African Americans are efficacious in reducing HIV-risk sex behaviors. Efficacious intervention components identified in this study should be incorporated into the development of future interventions and further evaluated for effectiveness.
From the aCenter for AIDS Prevention Studies and Global Health Sciences, University of California, San Francisco, USA
bCenters for Disease Control and Prevention and HIV/AIDS Prevention Research Synthesis (PRS) Team, USA
cGlobal Health Sciences, UCSF and Cochrane Collaborative Review Group on HIV Infection and AIDS, San Francisco, California, USA.
Received 5 April, 2007
Revised 5 February, 2008
Accepted 6 February, 2008
Correspondence to Lynae Darbes, PhD, Center for AIDS Prevention Studies, UCSF, 50 Beale St, Suite 1300, San Francisco, CA 94105, USA. E-mail: email@example.com