Objective: To investigate trends, patient characteristics, and survival associated with AIDS-defining cancer (ADC) and non-AIDS defining cancer (NADC) in the HAART era.
Design: Retrospective analysis of all incident malignancies occurring in 1996–2005 among 2566 patients in an urban HIV clinic.
Methods: Clinical profiles of NADC were compared with ADC and the general cohort. Incidence was examined by Poisson analysis. Standardized incidence ratios (SIR) compared cancer risk with that in the general population. Survival was analyzed by Kaplan–Meier and Cox proportional hazards models.
Results: Between 1996 and 2005, 138 ADC and 115 NADC were diagnosed. ADC rates decreased from 12.5 to 3.5 cases/1000 person-years (P < 0.001 for trend) while NADC rates increased from 3.9 to 7.1 cases/1000 person-years (P = 0.13 for trend). Incidence of the most common NADC was higher than expected, including cancers of the lung [n = 29; SIR, 5.5; 95% confidence interval (CI), 3.7–8.0], liver (n = 13, SIR, 16.5; 95% CI, 8.8–28.2), anus (n = 10; SIR, 39.0; 95% CI, 18.7–71.7), head and neck (n = 14; SIR, 5.1; 95% CI, 2.8–8.6), and Hodgkin's lymphoma (n = 8; SIR, 9.8; 95% CI, 4.2–19.2). Survival after cancer diagnosis did not differ between ADC and NADC. Advanced age was associated with NADC (P < 0.01 for trend) and increased mortality in ADC (age ≥ 50 years adjusted hazard ratio, 2.21; 95% CI, 1.00–4.89).
Conclusions: Rates of ADC decreased while NADC increased within this cohort. Several NADC occurred at rates significantly higher than expected. Screening and suspicion for NADC should increase in care for HIV-infected patients.