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Incidence and outcomes of malignancy in the HAART era in an urban cohort of HIV-infected individuals

Long, Jessica La; Engels, Eric Aa,b; Moore, Richard Da; Gebo, Kelly Aa

doi: 10.1097/QAD.0b013e3282f47082
Clinical Science

Objective: To investigate trends, patient characteristics, and survival associated with AIDS-defining cancer (ADC) and non-AIDS defining cancer (NADC) in the HAART era.

Design: Retrospective analysis of all incident malignancies occurring in 1996–2005 among 2566 patients in an urban HIV clinic.

Methods: Clinical profiles of NADC were compared with ADC and the general cohort. Incidence was examined by Poisson analysis. Standardized incidence ratios (SIR) compared cancer risk with that in the general population. Survival was analyzed by Kaplan–Meier and Cox proportional hazards models.

Results: Between 1996 and 2005, 138 ADC and 115 NADC were diagnosed. ADC rates decreased from 12.5 to 3.5 cases/1000 person-years (P < 0.001 for trend) while NADC rates increased from 3.9 to 7.1 cases/1000 person-years (P = 0.13 for trend). Incidence of the most common NADC was higher than expected, including cancers of the lung [n = 29; SIR, 5.5; 95% confidence interval (CI), 3.7–8.0], liver (n = 13, SIR, 16.5; 95% CI, 8.8–28.2), anus (n = 10; SIR, 39.0; 95% CI, 18.7–71.7), head and neck (n = 14; SIR, 5.1; 95% CI, 2.8–8.6), and Hodgkin's lymphoma (n = 8; SIR, 9.8; 95% CI, 4.2–19.2). Survival after cancer diagnosis did not differ between ADC and NADC. Advanced age was associated with NADC (P < 0.01 for trend) and increased mortality in ADC (age ≥ 50 years adjusted hazard ratio, 2.21; 95% CI, 1.00–4.89).

Conclusions: Rates of ADC decreased while NADC increased within this cohort. Several NADC occurred at rates significantly higher than expected. Screening and suspicion for NADC should increase in care for HIV-infected patients.

From the aDepartment of Medicine, Johns Hopkins University School of Medicine, Baltimore, USA

bDivision of Cancer Epidemiology and Genetics, National Cancer Institute, National Institutes of Health, Rockville, Maryland, USA.

Received 7 August, 2007

Revised 8 November, 2007

Accepted 13 November, 2007

Correspondence to Dr K. Gebo, Johns Hopkins University School of Medicine, 1830 E. Monument St, Room 435, Baltimore, MD 21287, USA. E-mail:

© 2008 Lippincott Williams & Wilkins, Inc.