Background: Surveillance for HIV likely underestimates infection among the general population: 25% of US residents are estimated to be unaware of their HIV infection.
Objective: To determine the prevalence of HIV infection and risk behaviors among New York City (NYC) adults and compare these with surveillance findings.
Methods: The NYC Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (HANES) provided the first opportunity to estimate population-based HIV prevalence among NYC adults. It was conducted in 2004 among a representative sample of adults > 20 years. Previously reported HIV infection was identified from the NYC HIV/AIDS Surveillance Registry. A blinded HIV serosurvey was conducted on archived blood samples of 1626 NYC HANES participants. Data were used to estimate prevalence for HIV infection, unreported infections, high-risk activities, and self-perceived risk.
Results: Overall, 18.1% engaged in one or more risky sexual/needle-use behaviors, of which 92.2% considered themselves at low or no risk of HIV or another sexually transmitted disease. HIV occurred in 21 individuals (prevalence 1.4%; 95% confidence interval (CI), 0.8–2.5]; one infection (5%; 95% CI, 0.7–29.9) was not reported previously and possibly undiagnosed. HIV infection was significantly elevated in those with herpes simplex virus 2 (4%), men who have sex with men (14%), and needle-users (21%) (P < 0.01).
Conclusions: Among NYC adults, HIV prevalence was consistent with surveillance findings overall. The proportion of unreported HIV was less than estimated nationally, but findings were limited by sample size. Most adults with risky behaviors perceived themselves to be at minimal risk, highlighting the need for risk reduction and routine HIV screening.
From the aNew York City Department of Health and Mental Hygiene, USA
bthe International Center for AIDS Care and Treatment Programs, Mailman School of Public Health, Columbia University, USA
cPopulation Council, New York City, USA.
*Trang Quyen Nguyen was with the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention and the NYC Department of Health and Mental Hygiene at the time of this work. R. Charon Gwynn and Scott E. Kellerman were with the NYC Department of Health and Mental Hygiene at the time of this work.
Received 29 May, 2007
Revised 27 September, 2007
Accepted 3 October, 2007
Correspondence to Dr T. Nguyen, New York City Department of Health and Mental Hygiene, Bureau of Communicable Disease, Room 223A, 125 Worth St, CN-22A New York City, NY 10013, USA. E-mail: firstname.lastname@example.org