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HIV risks among two types of male migrants in Shanghai, China: money boys vs. general male migrants

He, Naa; Wong, Frank Yb; Huang, Z Jenniferb; Ding, Yingyinga; Fu, Chaoweia; Smith, Brian Db; Young, Darwinb; Jiang, Qingwua

doi: 10.1097/01.aids.0000304700.85379.f3
Original papers

Objectives: To examine HIV/AIDS-related knowledge, attitudes and behaviours among ‘money boys’ and general male migrants in Shanghai, China.

Design: A quantitative cross-sectional design with self-administered paper-and-pencil instruments was used.

Methods: A total of 239 money boys were enrolled using community popular opinion leader and respondent-driven sampling methods, and 100 general male migrants were enrolled through venue-based sampling.

Results: Compared to general male migrants, money boys were significantly younger, better educated, more likely to be single, earned a higher income, suffered greater stress, and were less satisfied with life in Shanghai. Both groups had substantial misconceptions about HIV/AIDS, although general male migrants were less well informed. Furthermore, both groups reported low rates of condom use, regardless of who their sexual partners were. Money boys were more likely to use alcohol, had more sexual partners and more casual sex partners, and were more likely to engage in other sexual risks. Moreover, they were likely to be the victims of sexual violence at the hands of their clients. More than half of the money boys had been tested for HIV and 3% self-reported to be HIV-positive, whereas only 1% of the general male migrants had ever been tested and all self-reported to be HIV-negative. Infection with other sexually transmitted diseases was also reported by money boys.

Conclusions: This study suggests an urgent need to implement HIV/AIDS prevention and intervention programs targeting male migrants, especially money boys and their clients. Some recommendations for conducting interventions among the male migrant population in China are suggested.

From the aDepartment of Epidemiology, Fudan University School of Public Health, Shanghai and the Key Laboratory for Public Health Safety, Ministry of Education, China

bDepartment of International Health, Georgetown University School of Nursing and Health Studies, Washington, DC, USA.

Correspondence to Na He, P.O. Box 289, 138 Yi Xue Yuan Road, Shanghai 200032, China. E-mail:

Frank Y. Wong, 3700 Reservoir Road N.W., Box 571107, St Mary's Hall 224, Washington DC 20057, USA. E-mail:

© 2007 Lippincott Williams & Wilkins, Inc.