French national surveillance of new HIV diagnoses included the collection of dried serum spots to identify HIV serotypes. Between January 2003 and June 2006, 10 184 new diagnoses were reported. The proportions of HIV-2 and HIV-1 group O infections were 1.8 and 0.1%, respectively. Most of these cases occurred in patients infected through heterosexual contact and originated from the corresponding endemic areas. Three cases of HIV-2 infections were reported in non-African men having sex with men.