We found a high prevalence of HIV among injecting drug users (IDU) 54% in Tallinn and 90% in Kohtla Jarve, Estonia. Risk factors for HIV in Tallinn included use of the drug ‘china white’, being registered as an IDU at a drug treatment clinic, and sharing injecting equipment with sex partners. Differences existed in risk behaviour between the cities. An urgent scale-up of HIV prevention is needed. It is also important to explore how local ‘risk environments’ mediate the risk of HIV transmission.
aCentre for Research on Drugs and Health Behaviour, London School of Hygiene and Tropical Medicine, London, UK
bUniversity College London, London, UK
cUniversity of Tartu, Tartu, Estonia
dHealth Protection Agency, London, UK
eNational Institute for Health Development, Tallinn, Estonia
fMRC Clinical Trials Unit, London, UK.
Received 24 March, 2006
Revised 26 July, 2006
Accepted 9 August, 2006