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AIDS:
Epidemiology & Social

Thai Red Cross zidovudine donation program to prevent vertical transmission of HIV: the effect of the modified ACTG 076 regimen

Thisyakorn, Usaa,b; Khongphatthanayothin, Manaa; Sirivichayakul, Suneea; Rongkavilit, Chokechaia; Poolcharoen, Wiputc; Kunanusont, Chaiyosc; Bien, Darl D.d; Phanuphak, Praphana,b

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Abstract

Objectives: To evaluate the impact of the modified ACTG 076 zidovudine regimen on the risk for vertical HIV transmission.

Design: Observational retrospective evaluation of a prospective cohort.

Setting: Thai Red Cross zidovudine donation program to reduce vertical HIV transmission.

Patients: HIV-infected Thai women and their offspring.

Intervention: The modified regimen consisted of 500 mg zidovudine daily during pregnancy and 300 mg zidovudine every 3 h during labor, taken orally, and 2 mg/kg zidovudine syrup four times daily for 6 weeks to infants.

Main outcome measures: Only infants with at least 1 HIV DNA polymerase chain reaction (PCR) result at age ≥ 4 weeks were included. HIV infection was defined by having at least one positive PCR at age ≥ 4 weeks. The transmission rate was calculated. Characteristics of women who did and did not transmit HIV to infants were compared.

Results: A total of 2891 women and their infants participated in the program and 726 infants of 719 women were included in the analysis. Forty-three infants were infected. The overall transmission rate was 6.0% (95% confidence interval, 4.4–8.0). There were no differences in maternal characteristics between transmitters and non-transmitters. The transmission rate in women who started zidovudine before 30 weeks’ gestation was not significantly different from that in women who started zidovudine at or after 30 weeks’ gestation: 5.7 versus 3.3%, respectively.

Conclusions: This modified zidovudine regimen is effective in reducing vertical transmission in a country with predominant subtype E infection. A donation program for preventing vertical HIV transmission can be implemented in developing countries, as in Thailand.

© 2000 Lippincott Williams & Wilkins, Inc.

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