Objective: To study the effect of HIV-1 infection on pregnancy outcome in women provided with antenatal services including malaria and sexually transmitted disease (STD) treatment in Kigali, Rwanda.
Subjects and methods: Pregnant women attending the antenatal clinic ward of the Centre Hospitalier de Kigali in their last 3 months of pregnancy were tested for HIV antibody after consent had been obtained. All HIV-1-infected women were included and compared with HIV-negative women of same age and parity. Until delivery, each woman enrolled had a monthly follow-up including malaria and STD aetiological diagnosis and treatment. At the time of delivery, obstetrical and neonatal characteristics were recorded. Mothers and their children were followed until 6 weeks postpartum.
Results: By mid-August 1993, 384 HIV-positive and 381 HIV-negative women had been enrolled and by the end of November 1993, 729 women (95.3%; 364 HIV-positive and 365 HIV-negative) had delivered 725 livebirths, including eight and six twins, respectively; 10 stillbirths were recorded amongst HIV-positive women and eight amongst HIV-negative women (P = 0.60). Excluding twins, premature birth (< 37 completed weeks of gestation) was observed in 22.7% of infants born to HIV-positive women versus 14.1% of those born to HIV-negative women; low birth weight (< 2500 g) was observed in 25.5% of infants born to HIV-positive women versus 14.8% of those born to HIV-negative women. Low birth weight was significantly more frequent in full-term infants born to HIV-positive mothers than to HIV-negative mothers. No significant difference in low birth weight rate was observed in preterm infants. Death occurred in 5.1% of children during the perinatal period without statistically significant difference between the two groups. HIV-positive women were more likely to have a postpartum haemorrhage.
Conclusion: In the context of high HIV prevalence, maternal HIV infection is associated with adverse obstetrical and neonatal outcomes even when treating STD and malaria.
1INSERM U330, Université Victor Segalen Bordeaux 2, Bordeaux, France
2Medical Information Unit, Centre Hospitalier de Kigali, Kigali, Rwanda
3Department of Gynaecology and Obstetrics, Centre Hospitalier de Kigali, Kigali, Rwanda
4Department of Paediatrics, Centre Hospitalier de Kigali, Kigali, Rwanda
5AIDS Reference Laboratory, National AIDS Control Programme, Kigali, Rwanda.
8Requests for reprints to: Dr Valériane Leroy, INSERM U330, Université Victor Segalen, Bordeaux 2, 146 rue Léo Saignat, 33076 Bordeaux Cedex, France.
Sponsorship: This study was funded in part by the World Health Organization Global Programme on AIDS, the Agence Nationale de Recherches sur le SIDA (France), the Belgian and French Medical Cooperations.
Note: This study was presented in part at the IX International Conference on AIDS, Berlin, Germany, June 1993 [abstract WSB06-1].
Date of receipt: 18 August 1997; revised: 12 December 1997; accepted: 19 December 1997.