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The Middle-Range Theory of Unpleasant Symptoms: An Update

Lenz, Elizabeth R. PhD, RN, FAAN; Pugh, Linda C. PhD, RNC; Milligan, Renee A. PhD, RNC; Gift, Audrey PhD, RN, FAAN; Suppe, Frederick PhD

Advances in Nursing Science:
Middle-Range Nursing Theory

A detailed description of the newly revised and updated theory of unpleasant symptoms is provided.Revisions have resulted in a more accurate representation of the complexity and interactive nature of the symptom experience. Example are provided to demonstrate the implications of the revised theory for measurement and research, and its application in practice. A detailed exemplar describes how it guided the design of a multifaceted intervention to encourage successful breastfeeding.

Author Information

(E. R. Lenz) Associate Dean of Research and Doctoral Studies, Anna C. Maxwell Professor of Nursing Research, Columbia University School of Nursing, New York, New York.

(L. C. Pugh) Director, Center for Nursing Research, Milton S. Hershey Medical Center, Pennsylvania State University, Hershey, Pennsylvania.

(R. A. Milligan) Assistant Professor, School of Nursing, Georgetown University, Washington, DC.

(A. Gift) Associate Professor, Associate Director, Center for Nursing Research, School of Nursing, University of Pennsylvania, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania.

(F. Suppe) Professor, Department of Philosophy, University of Maryland, College Park, College Park, Maryland.

Copyright © 1997 Wolters Kluwer Health, Inc. All rights reserved.