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Advances in Nursing Science:
Primary Care And Knowledge Development

Patterns of knowing: Review, critique, and update

White, Jill RN, CM, MEd

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Abstract

Carper's patterns of knowing in nursing have been consistently cited in the nursing literature since they appeared in 1978.The degree to which they represent nursing knowledge in the mid-1990s is explored, and a major modification is suggested-the addition of a fifth pattern, sociopolitical knowing. The article also suggests modifications to the model for nursing knowledge put forward by Jacobs-Kramer and Chinn to enable this model to be used more effectively as a framework for exploring processes of inquiry into nursing knowledge and practice.

Copyright © 1995 by Aspen Publishers, Inc.

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