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Advances in Nursing Science:
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Collaborative development of middle-range nursing theories: Toward a theory of unpleasant symptoms.

Lenz, Elizabeth R. PhD, RN, FAAN; Suppe, Frederick PhD; Gift, Audrey G. PhD, RN, FAAN; Pugh, Linda C. PhD, RNC; Miligan, Renee A. PhD, RNC

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One promising approach to strengthening theory-research and theory-practice linkages is to place greater emphasis on developing and using theories of the middle range to underpin nursing research and practice. In this article, a postpositivistic definition of middle-range theory is advanced, an argument is made for shifting nursing's theory development activities from discipline-defining grand theories to middle-range theories, and a collaborative and incremental approach to middle-range theory development is described and illustrated, A sustained substantive example is provided by the beginning development of a theory of unpleasant symptoms.

(C) 1995 Aspen Publishers, Inc.


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