With this issue of Advances in Neonatal Care we introduce a special series to spotlight the importance of the human microbiome to neonatal care. This emerging area will significantly inform the future care of newborns; therefore, two articles in issues 5 and 6 of 2015 provide a peek into what we know about the microbiome and the infants we care for. In her guest editorial, Dr. Katherine Gregory, an expert in the microbiome, introduces the topic and provides an overview of the explosion of work in this area in the past five years. She states, “because the initial acquisition of the microbiome that occurs at birth and during infancy has been shown to influence both short- and long-term health outcomes, study of the clinical factors that influence this acquisition is important.” As we have long known, the experience of infants in our care significantly impacts their future health and well-being. We hope you will enjoy exploring this new area.